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A common technique for introducing rare earth atoms into Si and related materials for photonic applications is ion implantation. It is compatible with standard Si processing, and also allows high, non-equilibrium concentrations of rare earths to be introduced. However, the high energies often employed mean that there are collision cascades and potentially severe end-of-range damage. This paper reports on studies of this damage, and the competition it may present to the optical activity of the rare earths. Er-, Si, and Yb-implanted Si samples have been investigated, before and after anneals designed to restore the sample crystallinity. The electrical activity of\ud defects in as-implanted Er, Si, and Yb doped Si has been studied by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DTLS) and the related, high resolution technique, Laplace DLTS (LDLTS), as a function of annealing. Er-implanted Si, regrown by solid phase epitaxy at 600degrees C and then subject to a rapid thermal anneal, has also been studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The LDLTS studies reveal that there are clear differences in the defect population as a function of depth from the surface, and this is attributed to different defects in the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions. Defects in the interstitial-rich region have electrical characteristics typical of small extended defects, and these may provide the precursors for larger structural defects in annealed layers. The time-resolved PL of the annealed layers, in combination with electron microscopy, shows that the Er emission at 1.54microns contains a fast component attributed to non-radiative recombination at deep states due to small dislocations. It is concluded that there can be measurable competition to the radiative efficiency in rare-earth implanted Si that is due to the implantation and is not specific to Er.
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