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Urban, Florian (2013)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
In Berlin, self-built huts and sheds were a part of the urban fabric for much of the twentieth century. They started to proliferate after the First World War and were particularly common after the Second World War, when many Berliners had lost their homes in the bombings. These unplanned buildings were, ironically, connected to one of the icons of German orderliness: the allotment. Often depicted as gnome-adorned strongholds of petty bourgeois virtues, garden plots were also the site of mostly unauthorized architecture and gave rise to debates about public health and civic order. \ud \ud This paper argues that the evolution and subsequent eradication of informal architecture was an inherent factor in the formation of the modern, functionally separated city. Modern Berlin evolved from a struggle between formal and informal, regulation and unruliness, modernization and pre-modern lifestyles. In this context, the ambivalent figure of the allotment dweller, who was simultaneously construed as a dutiful holder of rooted-to-the-soil values and as a potential threat to the well-ordered urban environment, evidences the ambiguity of many conceptual foundations on which the modern city was built.
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    • Schäche (Berlin: Jovis, 2004), 114; see also Harri Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen,” Tagesspiegel, 24 June 1962; Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 20.
    • 10. Before 1920 Wilhelmsruh was part of the Rosenthal municipality, which was then divided. The eastern portion became a part of the Pankow district (East Berlin after 1945). The western portion around the street named Wilhelmsruher Damm became part of the Reinickendorf district (West Berlin after 1945). In the documents from the 1950s, this area is referred to as Wilhelmsruh or Wittenau-Ost; currently it forms the subdistrict of Märkisches Viertel.
    • 11. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 14.
    • 12. Memories of Alfred Zitz, longtime president of the Siedlergemeinschaft Neue Zeit in 1956, in Bernd Hildebrandt and Klaus Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube (West Berlin: Gertrud Großkopf, 1990), 46.
    • 13. For example, to resident Wilhelm Münch, who had lived in his allotment shed on Wentowsteig 29 since 1925. Ibid., 56.
    • 14. Ibid., 70.
    • 15. The numbers are from 1956; quoted in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 185.
    • 16. The estimate of 8,000 is from 1956. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 14. A contemporaneous description mentions that of the 365-hectare area, only 73 hectares were officially divided into parcels. Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen.” 17. Letter of Städtische Baupolizei-Polizeipräsident von Berlin, 1 Apr. 1919, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724, p. 28.
    • 18. Sometimes both materials were combined. Ursula Reinhold, born in 1938, describes her childhood and youth in an allotment shed with wooden walls. After years, her father gave in to her mother's complaints and reinforced the wood with an additional layer of brick for better insulation. Ursula Reinhold, Gemütlichkeit: Erinnerung an Kindheit und Jugend im zerstörten Berlin (Berlin: Trafo, 2003), 10-24.
    • 19. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 28; and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 142-43.
    • 20. Adaptability is also one of the main features of self-built homes that John Turner celebrated in his defense of Peruvian squatter settlements. See John F. C. Turner, “Village Artisans Self Built Houses,” Architectural Design 33, no. 8 (1963), 361-62.
    • 21. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 32.
    • 22. Memories of Alfred Zitz, longtime president of the Siedlergemeinschaft Neue Zeit in 1956, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 57-58. The information refers to the area around Ganghoferweg and Quickborner Straße.
    • 23. Ibid., 20.
    • 24. For rent in the 1960s, see Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen”; for rent in the 1970s-referring to a four-room apartment of approximately 90 square meters-see Eberhard Schulz, “Die Hölle ist es nicht: Plädoyer für das Märkische Viertel,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 10 Nov. 1973. The monthly salary of a Reinickendorf truck driver in 1971 was reported as 850 marks; Horst Lange et al., eds., Wohnste sozial, haste die Qual-jetzt reden wir-Bewohner des Märkischen Viertels (Reinbek: Rowohlt, 1975), 114.
    • 25. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 22.
    • 26. A municipal report stressed the “high number of tuberculosis patients” among Wilhelmsruh's allotment dwellers: between 3 and 9 percent compared with a 1.2 percent average in the city district. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 36. The report also calls for a Gesundung (cure) of the neighborhood through urban renewal; 28. Other articles remarked on safety hazards, as embodied in fires in 1954 and 1961, each of which took the lives of two children. See Nord-Berliner (West Berlin) 26 Feb. 1954, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 178; or Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen.” 27. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 5.
    • 28. Memories of resident Gerd Bartholomäus, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 174.
    • 29. For the history of the Märkisches Viertel, see Alexander Wilde, Das Märkische Viertel (Berlin: Nicolai, 1989); Dieter Voll, Von der Wohnlaube zum Hochhaus: Eine geographische Untersuchung über die Entstehung und die Struktur des Märkischen Viertels in Berlin-West bis 1976 (West Berlin: Reimer, 1983); Torsten Birne, “In weiter Ferne-Das Märkische Viertel und die Gropiusstadt: Wohnungsbau in Westberlin 1960 bis 1972,” in Stadt der Architektur, Architektur der Stadt: Berlin 1900-2000, ed. Thorsten Scheer (Berlin: Nicolai Berlin, 2000), 307-13; or Harald Bodenschatz, Platz frei für das neue Berlin! (West Berlin: Transit, 1987).
    • 30. In Germany, municipal authorities have enforced some forms of building regulations since the Middle Ages. With the growth in population and the hygiene movement in the nineteenth century, regulations became successively tighter. On the history of building regulations in Germany, see Ekke Feldmann, Bauordnungen und Baupolizei: Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte zwischen 1850 und 1950 (Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 2011).
    • 31. For the establishment of allotments in early industrial cities see Burchardt, The Allotment Movement in England, 70-97. For other early nineteenth-century reform movements see Leonardo Benevolo, The Origins of Modern Town Planning (London: Routledge, 1967). Founding texts of the garden city movement include Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow (London, 1902); and Raymond Unwin, Nothing Gained by Overcrowding! (London: Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, 1912).
    • 32. The Great Somerford Free Gardens in Wiltshire are commonly regarded as the oldest in England. Richard Savill, “England's Oldest Allotments Celebrate 200 Years,” Telegraph (London), 10 Mar. 2009.
    • 33. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 26.
    • 34. The Schreber Association was founded by the Leipzig pedagogue Ernst Hauschild and named after his father-in-law and collaborator, pediatrician Moritz Schreber. On the history of the Schreber Association and the allotment movement in Leipzig see Peter Sundermann, Die Leipziger Kleingartenbewegung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Erfurt: Sutton, 2008).
    • 35. Friedrich Coenen, Das Berliner Laubenkoloniewesen: Seine Mängel und seine Reform (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1911), 11. The author suggests that there might be a few thousand more.
    • 36. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 14; Rollka and Spiess, Berliner Laubenpieper, 27.
    • 37. Lyrics: W. Hassenstein; music: F. Paul.
    • 38. See, e.g., Rudolf Eberstadt, Handbuch des Wohnungswesens und der Wohnungsfrage (1909; repr., Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1920), 201-9.
    • 39. Memories of former inhabitant Walter Barz, whose Communist parents were thrown out of their two-room allotment shed in the Heinze colony over a political dispute with their landlord. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 61.
    • 40. Memories of Charlotte Tessen, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 68 and 103.
    • 41. Georg Kaisenberg, Die Kleingarten- und Kleinpachtlandordnung (Berlin: Vahlen, 1920). The law also forbade Generalpacht to private individuals.
    • 42. The BKG was passed on 28 Feb. 1983, Bundesgesetzblatt I, p. 21.
    • 43. For example, in 1919 the construction of Wohnlauben (residential allotment sheds) was legalized. These sheds could officially be inhabited, at least 55. See, e.g., the minutes of the general meetings of the allotment association Gemütlichkeit III in the Treptow district in southeast Berlin, property of the former president of the association Manfred Kassel (Berlin). At the meeting on 18 Jan. 1925, the members were informed that permanent dwelling was illegal. See also minutes for March 1926, Dec. 1927, and July 1930. Thanks to Manfred Kassel.
    • 56. “120,000 Berliner in Lauben und Baracken,” Lokalanzeiger (Berlin) 378 (12 Aug. 1933).
    • 57. Le Corbusier, Urbanisme (Paris: G. Cres, 1925); Ludwig Hilberseimer, Groszstadt-Architektur (Stuttgart: Hoffmann, 1927); Clarence Perry, “The Neighborhood Unit” (1929, excerpt), in The Urban Design Reader, ed. Michael Lance and Elizabeth Macdonald (London: Routledge, 2006), 58-65; Nikolai Milyutin, Sotsgorod: Problema stroityel'stva sotsialistitcheskikh gorodov (Moscow, 1930), translated as Sozgorod: Die Planung der neuen Stadt (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1992); Hans Bernhard Reichow, Organische Stadtbaukunst: Von der Großstadt zur Stadtlandschaft (Braunschweig: Westermann, 1948).
    • 58. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 18.
    • 59. Letter of the Polizeipräsident in Abteilung III to Regierungspräsident zu Potsdam, signed v. Jagow, 6 Aug. 1913, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724, p. 28.
    • 60. Memorandum of the Staatskommissar für das Wohnungswesen, 18 Nov. 1918, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724, p. 12.
    • 61. Memorandum issued at the 106th Police Station, 14 Oct. 1919, signed Retschke, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724, pp. 47-48.
    • 62. See, e.g., the letter of the Polizeipräsident in Berlin to the Regierungspräsident in Potsdam, 28 Jan. 1914, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724, p. 1.
    • 63. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 43.
    • 64. The data are from the July 1933 Berliner Wirtschaftsberichte published by the Statistisches Landesamt, quoted in “120,000 Berliner in Lauben und Baracken.” The information is also quoted in “120,000 Berliner in Wohnlauben,” Völkischer Beobachter, 12 Aug. 1934. Other sources give slightly different figures: 120,000 (1935), Sanierungsdezernent Ahmels of the Pankow district, public lecture at a local school on 4 July 1935, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 1163, pp. 1-4; also quoted in J. FischerDieskau, Einführung in die Wohnungs- und Siedlungspolitik: Grundlagen und Hauptprobleme (Leipzig, 1938), 35; or 97,000 (1936), “Noch 97,000 Berliner in Wohnlauben,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 523 (6 Nov. 1936).
    • 65. “Berlin hat 103,000 Laubensiedler,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 329 (3 Aug. 1933). This is also confirmed by a 1937 report on the Wilhelmsruh area in northern Berlin: in the Heinze colony, 235 out of 242 allotments were permanently inhabited; in the Frohsinn colony (owned by the Red Cross), 122 out of 216; and in the Kleintierfarm colony, 95 out of 96. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 86-87.
    • 66. Sanierungsdezernent Ahmels of the Pankow district, public lecture at a local school on 4 July 1935.
    • 67. A 1919 memo from the office of Berlin's police administration stresses the small need for Wohnlauben in the Schöneberg city district because the working-class population in the district is not very numerous. Memorandum of Polizeipräsident von Berlin, 18 Jan. 1919, Landesarchiv Berlin A Pr. Br. Rep 057 Nr. 724.
    • 68. In 1933, the figure was 26,700 out of 120,000; “120,000 Berliner in Lauben und Baracken.”
    • 69. In the allotment colonies in the Wittenau area, approximately 37 percent of the inhabitants were over sixty-five years old. Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen.”
    • 70. Memories of Walter Barz, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 61.
    • 71. In the 1920s most allotment holders supported the Social Democratic Party or the Communists. For politically motivated distress between neighbors see ibid., 61 and 82.
    • 72. H. Steinhaus, Grundsätzliche Kleingartenfragen (Berlin, 1938), quoted in Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 44.
    • 73. “Charlottenburger Kleingärtner ziehen um.”
    • 74. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 46-48, and Rollka and Spiess, Berliner Laubenpieper, 47-50.
    • 75. Sanierungsdezernent Ahmels of the Pankow district, public lecture at a local school on 4 July 1935.
    • 76. Stadtrat Pfeil, quoted in “Die geplante Sanierung der Berliner Pachtlaubengebiete,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 218 (11 May 1935).
    • 77. Sanierungsdezernent Ahmels of the Pankow district, public lecture at a local school on July 4, 1935.
    • 78. See, e.g., the celebration of relocation in the Köllnische Allee area, “Kleinwohnungsbau am Rande von Groß-Berlin,” Lokalanzeiger (Berlin), 4 Oct. 1936, Grundstücks-Beilage. Along these lines, the 1936 Gesetz zur Ergänzung der Kleingarten- und Kleinpachtlandordnung protected allotment dwellers against eviction, but at the same time forbade new moves into allotments. “Wer darf in den Lauben wohnen?,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 295 (27 June 1935).
    • 79. Memorandum of the Kommando der Schutzpolizei, 8 Oct. 1935, signed Dillenberger, Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep 101-02 Nr. 18424, sheet 11/14.
    • 80. Letter of the Stadtkommissar der Hauptstadt Berlin to the mayor of Berlin, 4 June 1935, Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep 101-02 Nr. 18424, sheet 7/14.
    • 81. The entertainer Hans Rosenthal, the actor Michael Degen, and the author Inge Deutschkron were among the most prominent Jews who survived hidden in Berlin allotment colonies. See the autobiographies Hans Rosenthal, Zwei Leben in Deutschland (Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei-Lübbe, 1980), Michael Degen, Nicht alle waren Mörder (Munich: Econ, 1999), and Inge Deutschkron, Ich trug den gelben Stern (Cologne: Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1979). Reinhold, in her childhood memories, mentioned that resistance gfihters found refuge in the Gemütlichkeit colony in the Treptow district. Reinhold, Gemütlichkeit.
    • 82. Memories of Alfred Zitz, longtime president of the Siedlergemeinschaft Neue Zeit in 1956, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 46. The colony is situated between Schlitzer Straße and Maarer Straße immediately west of the Märkisches Viertel.
    • 83. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 70-71; see also Voll, Von der Wohnlaube zum Hochhaus, 17.
    • 84. Voll, Von der Wohnlaube zum Hochhaus, 17.
    • 85. Decree of the Reichsarbeitsminister, quoted in “Kriegserleichterung für Wohnlauben,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 543 (13 Nov. 1943).
    • 86. Rollka and Spiess, Berliner Laubenpieper, 48.
    • 87. Questionnaire for those applying for a construction permit for a provisional home in the context of the Deutsches Wohnungshilfswerk, 7 June 1944, Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep. 042-08 Nr. 236.
    • 88. Ibid.
    • 89. Ibid.
    • 90. Erlass of the Reichswohnungskommissar on 22 Sept. 1943, quoted in “Lauben werden wohnhaft gemacht,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 72 (13 Mar. 1944).
    • 91. See, e.g., memorandum by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront, 17 Dec. 1943, or the questionnaire “Fragebogen für Betriebe.” A typical case was the development for families of SA members on state-owned land on Bergstraße in Lichterfelde. Thirty-one provisional homes were erected there in 1944. They were connected to water pipes but not to sewers. Memorandum of the Planning Commission of the Steglitz district, 18 Sept. 1944, Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep. 042-08 Nr. 236.
    • 92. Planungsamt Steglitz, report of a site visit of the Behelfsheimsiedlungen, 20 Nov. 1944, Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep. 042-08 Nr. 236.
    • 93. Ibid.
    • 94. In the summer of 1944 the Deutsche Arbeitsfront commissioned the erection of eighteen of these dwellings on Goerzallee and Ruthener Weg in Lichterfelde. “Plan for Behelfsheim System Vieth” and Planungsamt Steglitz, report of a site visit of the Behelfsheimsiedlungen, both Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep. 042-08 Nr. 236.
    • 95. The figures refer to the districts of Mitte and Tiergarten. Given that damage was concentrated in the inner city, the statistics for the city as a whole look less impressive: 11 percent of Berlin's buildings were totally destroyed, and another 8 percent damaged beyond repair. Compared to the years after the First World War, Berlin's population decreased after the Second World War. The population maximum of 4.1 million inhabitants in 1939 was never reached again after the war. Of the 4.3 million Berliners in 1939, only 2.8 remained by 1945. The gfiures come from the Statistisches Landesamt Berlin, quoted from Herbert Schwenk, Lexikon der Berliner Stadtentwicklung (Berlin: Haude und Spener, 2002), 253 and 272.
    • 96. The proliferation of allotment dwellings is, for example, mentioned in 1956 Expertise of the Planning Department of the City District of BerlinReinickendorf, reprinted in Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 7.
    • 97. Ibid., 26.
    • 98. The figure is from 1954. “Wohnrecht von 11,000 Kleingärtnern bedroht,” Berliner Morgenpost 17 Feb. 1960. The number of families who tended an allotment decreased from 250,000 in 1953 to 49,000 in 1962. Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 445 and 451-52.
    • 99. The figure refers to the number of families officially registered at their allotment homes in 1948. Isolde Dietrich, “'ne Laube, 'n Zaun und 'n Beet,” in Befremdlich anders: Leben in der DDR, ed. Evemarie Badstübner et al. (Berlin: Dietz, 2000), 374-414, here 404.
    • 100. Comment of a building inspection officer in the Reinickendorf district, quoted after Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 144.
    • 101. See drawing at Landesarchiv Berlin C Rep. 19 Nr. 186, p. 52.
    • 102. Memorandum of the Hauptamt für Hochbau, 5 Nov. 1946, Landesarchiv Berlin C Rep. 109 Nr. 186, p. 13, Report of the Bezirksamt Spandau, Abteilung für Bauwesen, 8 Oct. 1946, Landesarchiv Berlin C Rep. 109 Nr. 186, p. 55.
    • 103. “Keine Nissenhütten mehr,” Telegraf (Berlin), 9 Jan. 1958.
    • 104. Ibid.
    • 105. “Gefrieranlagen als Wohnbaracken,” Vorwärts (East Berlin) 217 (27 Dec. 1946); “In den Tropfsteinhöhlen von Berlin W,” Neues Deutschland (East Berlin) 210 (29 Dec. 1946).
    • 106. In the winter of 1946/47, about 400 froze to death in the whole of Berlin. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 142.
    • 107. There is no evidence that people were forced to move into the Nissenhütten; on the contrary. Architect Hans Scharoun, in a 1946 Magistrat (city council) meeting, mentioned that Berliners generally disliked the Nissenhütten but, for lack of better alternatives, were nevertheless fighting to get one. Minutes of the Magistrat meeting on 14 Sept. 1946, Landesarchiv Berlin C Rep. 19 Nr. 186, p. 6.
    • 108. In 1953, for example, the planning authority of the Spandau city district rejected the idea of legalization as a means to prevent illegal settlements; letter of the Senatsbauverwaltung to the Spandauer Amt für Stadtplanung, 28 Apr. 1953, quoted from Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 446.
    • 109. This was established in the 1956 contract between the West Berlin government and the local garden plot associations. Rollka and Spiess, Berliner Laubenpieper, 52. See also Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 447.
    • 110. “Wohnrecht von 11,000 Kleingärtnern bedroht,” Berliner Morgenpost, 17 Feb. 1960; Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 445 and 451-52. Of the garden plot land in 1954, 60 percent was owned by the municipality of Berlin. See also Norbert Schindler, “Zur Kleingartensituation in Berlin,” Kommunalpolitische Beiträge 6, no. 3/4 (19 Jan. 1968), 4.
    • 111. Kleinlosen and Milchert, Berliner Kleingärten, 50-52.
    • 112. Karl Krings, “Die viel zu kleine Decke: Der neue Flächennutzungsplan Berlins,” Tagesspiegel, 15 Mar. 1966, 11.
    • 113. See the famous Thorpe report on the situation of English allotments in the European context. Harry Thorpe, Report of the Departmental Committee of Inquiry into Allotments, Cmnd 4166 (London: HMSO, 1969). See also Colin Ward and David Crouch, The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture (London: Faber, 1988), 7-10.
    • 114. In East Berlin the percentage of totally destroyed apartments was 31 percent (plus an additional 21 percent “heavily destroyed”); in West Berlin, 32 percent (plus 13 percent “heavily destroyed”). Günter Peters, Gesamtberliner Stadtentwicklung von 1949-1990 (Berlin: Hochschule der Künste, 1992), 38.
    • 115. Dietrich, “'ne Laube, 'n Zaun und 'n Beet,” 404.
    • 116. Ibid.
    • 117. Isolde Dietrich, conversation with the author, 12 Sept. 2011. Dietrich published several books on allotment culture in the GDR. Manfred Kassel, conversation with the author, 16 Feb. 2012. Kassel was the longtime president of the allotment association Gemütlichkeit III in the Treptow district. See also Reinhold, Gemütlichkeit.
    • 118. Ursula Reinhold, conversation with the author, 13 Feb. 2012.
    • 119. Magistrat resolution “Verordnung über die Bewirtschaftung der Wohn- und gewerblichen Räume,” 18 June 1945, and Magistrat directive “Richtlinie über bewohnbare Lauben” (directive on inhabitable allotment sheds), 9 Nov. 1945, Verordnungsblatt 26, no. 46, p. 204; information given by Kassel, conversation with the author, 16 Feb. 2012.
    • 120. Kassel, conversation with the author, 16 Feb. 2012. See also Magistrat directive “Arbeitsrichtlinie für die Bearbeitung von Kleingartenangelegenheiten,” 5 Mar. 1956, Verordnungsblatt 11, no. 85, which specifies that inhabitable sheds should no longer be erected on allotments.
    • 121. Kassel, conversation with the author, 16 Feb. 2012.
    • 122. Ursula Reinhold remembers pointed remarks in her childhood. Reinhold, conversation with the author, 13 Feb. 2012. The estimation that there were no widespread abuses such as “asocial” was confirmed by Kassel, conversation with the author, 16 Feb. 2012, and Dietrich, conversation with the author, 12 Sept. 2011.
    • 123. Reinhold, conversation with the author, 13 Feb. 2012.
    • 124. A 1954 article in the small-gardeners journal, for example, presents allotments as a “typical product of capitalism rooted in the same oppressive urban logic as the tenement.” Der Kleingärtner 6 (1954), 14, quoted after Isolde Dietrich, Hammer, Zirkel, Gartenzaun: Die Politik der SED gegenüber den Kleingärtnern (Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2003), 113.
    • 125. See Dietrich, Hammer, Zirkel, Gartenzaun, 9-32.
    • 126. Criticism can be found, for example, in a 1959 article that celebrated the initiative of allotment holders who by the sweat of their brows built up their sheds to “little treasuries” with often “exemplary sanitary facilities” and warned against banning allotment dwellings, which would increase the need for housing. “Kein Zuzug für Wohnlauben,” Spandauer Volksblatt, 22 July 1959.
    • 127. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 186-87.
    • 128. Schindler, “Zur Kleingartensituation in Berlin,” 3. The salary of a Reinickendorf truck driver, 850 marks per month in 1971, is mentioned in Lange et al., Wohnste sozial, 114.
    • 129. Stadtrat Schäfer, quoted in Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen.”
    • 130. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 187-90.
    • 131. Eick had moved to Berlin in 1950 as a refugee. Ten years later he was evicted from his Wohnlaube in Siemensstadt because of the construction of the motorway. He sued the government and received compensation of 6,500 marks. Ibid.
    • 132. For example, already in 1936 there were approximately 2,700 Wohnlauben with 8,000 inhabitants in the western Siemensstadt area south of the Jungfernheide park; “Noch 97,000 Berliner in Wohnlauben,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 523 (6 Nov. 1936).
    • 133. On both sites, there were several settlements of “emergency dwellings”; Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, “Study of Existing Residential Areas,” approximately 1970, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep. 009-311, p. 275; Jürgen Grothe, “Leitmotiv für das Falkenhagener Feld war die ruhige Wohnlage,” Volksblatt Berlin, 31 May 1985.
    • 134. Letter of Tiergarten District Council, Department of Finances, to Verwaltung des Reichsbahnvermögens in Westberlin (owner of the garden plot land), signed Küster, 15 July 1960, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep. 010-01 Nr. 349.
    • 135. Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep. 010-01 Nr. 349.
    • 136. See plan of Gewobag, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep 207 Nr. 4049.
    • 137. For the accusation that a few hundred garden plot holders obstructed the construction of 1,600 apartments, see, e.g., “Streit um Räumungstermin,” Telegraf, 29 Dec. 1957, or “Energisches 'Nein' der Charlottenburger Kleingärtner,” Berliner Morgenpost, 15 Sept. 1957.
    • 138. Concerning the difficulty of finding alternative homes for allotment dwellers, a public servant wrote that “no landlord can be expected to put up with . . . people at the lowest income scale.” Letter from Bezirksamt Tiergarten, Rechtsamt to Senatsrat Gens with Senator für Wirtschaft und Kredit, Abteilung Ernährung, signed Wolff, 25 Jan. 1961, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep. 010-01 Nr. 349.
    • 139. Letter from Gewobag to Stadtrat Friedberg at the Bezirksamt Charlottenburg, 3 Apr. 1962, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep 207 Nr. 4049. The rfim also happily reported that allotment dwellers from Charlottenburg-Nord moved to Marienfelde. Letter from Gewobag to Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen Rolf Schwedler, dated 18 Apr. 1961, Landesarchiv Berlin B Rep 207 Nr. 4049.
    • 140. They mostly had permissions that dated from the postwar years. Horst Farny and Martin Kleinlosen, Kleingärten in Berlin (West), vol. 1 (Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, 1986), 76-77.
    • 141. Sanierungsdezernent Ahmels of the Pankow district, public lecture at a local school on 4 July 1935.
    • 142. Hans Scharoun quoted the estimations of the population about Nissenhütten. Minutes of a Magistrat (Berlin government) meeting on 14 Sept. 1946, Landesarchiv Berlin C Rep. 19 Nr. 186, p. 6.
    • 143. Gräser, “ 'Grüne Slums' sollen neuem Stadtteil weichen,” or see memories of Lieselotte Rackwitz, who moved into the Wilhelmsruh area in the 1950s, in Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 174.
    • 144. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 28.
    • 145. Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen (Housing Department), letter to Amt für Stadtplanung (Department of Urban Planning) of the Spandau district, 28 Apr. 1953, estate of the public servant Walter Nicklitz, now at Landesarchiv Berlin, quoted in Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 445.
    • 146. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 20.
    • 147. Former inhabitants of Wilhelmsruh, for example, recall that the majority of the inhabitants before the Second World War supported the Communist Party. Hildebrandt and Schlickeiser, Abschied von der Laube, 61 and 82.
    • 148. Landesarchiv Berlin Rep. 203, Acc. 2128, Nr. 8645 (Documents on Schillerhöhe). See also Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 450-51.
    • 149. Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 451.
    • 150. Bidonville dwellers in the Paris region in the 1960s not only suffered from the xenophobia of their neighbors but also were ashamed to acknowledge their place of residence. See Hervo and Charras, Bidonvilles, 74-75, 118, 211, 266, 268.
    • 151. For the cultural difference between slum dwellers and the inhabitants of formal housing in Peru see Turner, “Village Artisans Self Built Houses,” 361-62; for examples in Mexico see Lewis, “The Culture of Poverty.” 152. Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, letter to Amt für Stadtplanung of the Spandau district, 28 Apr. 1953, estate of the public servant Walter Nicklitz, now at Landesarchiv Berlin, in Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 445.
    • 153. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, “Vorlage zur Kenntnisnahme über Verfügungstellung von Kleingartenland,” 21 Sept. 1954, in Hanuske, Bauen, bauen, bauen, 446.
    • 154. Senator für Bau- und Wohnungswesen, MV Plandokumentation, 30.
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