LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.; Raber, Jacob (2014)
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: episodic memory, scene construction, episodic future thinking, Psychology, theory of mind, BF, spatial navigation, Original Research Article, self-projection, BF1-990, mental simulation, autism spectrum disorder
This study explored spatial navigation alongside several other cognitive abilities that are thought to share common underlying neurocognitive mechanisms (e.g., the capacity for self-projection, scene construction, or mental simulation), and which we hypothesised may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty intellectually high-functioning children with ASD (with a mean age of ~8 years) were compared to 20 sex, age, IQ, and language ability matched typically developing children on a series of tasks to assess spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking (also known as episodic foresight or prospection), theory of mind, relational memory, and central coherence. This is the first study to explore these abilities concurrently within the same sample. Spatial navigation was assessed using the memory island task, which involves finding objects within a realistic, computer simulated, three-dimensional environment. Episodic memory and episodic future thinking were assessed using a past and future event description task. Theory of mind was assessed using the animations task, in which children were asked to describe the interactions between two animated triangles. Relational memory was assessed using a recognition task involving memory for items (line drawings), patterned backgrounds, or combinations of items and backgrounds. Central coherence was assessed by exploring differences in performance across segmented and unsegmented versions of block design. Children with ASD were found to show impairments in spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and central coherence, but not theory of mind or relational memory. Among children with ASD, spatial navigation was found to be significantly negatively related to number of repetitive behaviours. In other words, children who showed more repetitive behaviours showed poorer spatial navigation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abell, F., Happe, F., and Frith, U. (2000). Do triangles play tricks? Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Cogn. Dev. 15, 1-16. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2014(00)00014-9
    • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edn. - Text Revision. New York, NY: American Psychiatric Association. doi: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349
    • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    • Atance, C. M., and O'Neill, D. K. (2005). The emergence of episodic future thinking in humans. Learn. Motiv. 36, 126-144. doi: 10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.003
    • Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends Cogn. Sci. 4, 417-423. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2
    • Baddeley, A. D. (2002). Is working memory still working? Eur. Psychol. 7, 85-97. doi: 10.1027//1016-9040.7.2.85
    • Bishop, D. (2011). Are our 'Gold Standard' Autism Diagnostic Instruments Fit for Purpose? [Web log message]. Available online at: http://deevybee.blogspot.co.uk/2011_05_01_archive.html.
    • Bishop, D. V. (2003). Test for Reception of Grammar: Version 2. London: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Bishop, D. V., and Norbury, C. F. (2002). Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorder and specific language impairment: a study using standardised diagnostic instruments. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 43, 917-929. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00114
    • Bodfish, J. W., Symons, F. J., Parker, D. E., and Lewis, M. H. (2000). Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30, 237-243. doi: 10.1023/A:1005596502855
    • Boucher, J., Mayes, A., and Bigham, S. (2012). Memory in autistic spectrum disorder. Psychol. Bull. 138, 458-496. doi: 10.1037/a0026869
    • Bowler, D. M., Gaigg, S. B., and Gardiner, J. M. (2014). Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 44, 2355-2362. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2105-y
    • Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., and Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in adolescents and adults with Asperger's syndrome. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 34, 533-542. doi: 10.1007/s10803-004-2548-7
    • Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., and Grice, S. J. (2000). Episodic memory and remembering in adults with Asperger syndrome. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30, 295-304. doi: 10.1023/A:1005575216176
    • Bruck, M., London, K., Landa, R., and Goodman, J. (2007). Autobiographical memory and suggestibility in children with autism spectrum disorder. Dev. Psychopathol. 19, 73-95. doi: 10.1017/S0954579407070058
    • Buckner, R. L., and Carroll, D. C. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11, 49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.004
    • Caron, M.-J., Mottron, L., Rainville, C., and Chouinard, S. (2004). Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities? Neuropsychologia 42, 467-481. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.08.015
    • Chalfonte, B. L., and Johnson, M. K. (1996). Feature memory and binding in young and older adults. Mem. Cognit. 24, 403-416. doi: 10.3758/BF03200930
    • Chersi, F., Donnarumma, F., and Pezzulo, G. (2013). Mental imagery in the navigation domain: A computational model of sensory-motor simulation mechanisms, Adapt. Behav. 21, 251-262. doi: 10.1177/1059712313 488789
    • Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 112, 155-159. doi: 10.1037/0033- 2909.112.1.155
    • Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 33, 427-433.
    • Constantino, J. M., and Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Edn. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.
    • Crane, L., and Goddard, L. (2008). Episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 38, 498-506. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0420-2
    • Crane, L., Lind, S. E., and Bowler, D. M. (2013). Remembering the past and imagining the future in autism spectrum disorder. Memory 21, 157-166. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.712976
    • Edgin, J. O., and Pennington, B. F. (2005). Spatial cognition in autism spectrum disorder: superior, impaired, or just intact? J. Autism Dev. Disord. 35, 729-744. doi: 10.1007/s10803-005-0020-y
    • Foo, P., Warren, W. H., Duchon, A., and Tarr, M. J. (2005). Do humans integrate routes into a cognitive map? Map- versus landmark-based navigation of novel shortcuts. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 31, 195-215. doi: 10.1037/0278- 7393.31.2.195
    • Fornasari, L., Chittaro, L., Ieronutti, L., Cottini, L., Dassi, S., Cremaschi, S., et al. (2013). Navigation and exploration of an urban virtual environment by children with autism spectrum disorder compared to children with typical development. Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 7, 956-965. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013. 04.007
    • Hanson, L. K., Atance, C. M., and Paluck, S. W. (2014). Is thinking about the future related to theory of mind and executive function? Not in preschoolers. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 128, 120-137. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2014.07.006
    • Happé, F. (1994). An advanced test of theory of mind: Understanding of story characters' thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 24, 129-154. doi: 10.1007/BF02172093
    • Happé, F., and Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 36, 5-25. doi: 10.1007/s10803-005-0039-0
    • Hassabis, D., and Maguire, E. A. (2007). Deconstructing episodic memory with construction. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11, 299-306. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.05.001
    • Hudson, J. A., and Mayhew, E. M. (2009). “The development of memory for recurring events,” in The Development of Memory in Infancy and Childhood, eds M. L. Courage and N. Cowan (Hove: Psychology Press), 69-91.
    • Jackson, L. K., and Atance, C. M. (2008). Future thinking in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study. J. Dev. Disabl. 14, 40-45.
    • Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1997). Crucial differences between developmental cognitive neuroscience and adult neuropsychology. Dev. Neuropsychol. 13, 513-524. doi: 10.1080/87565649709540693
    • Lind, S. E. (2010). Memory and the self in autism: a review and theoretical framework. Autism 14, 430-456. doi: 10.1177/1362361309358700
    • Lind, S. E., and Bowler, D. M. (2009). Recognition memory, self-other source memory, and theory-of-mind in children with autism spectrum disorder. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39, 1231-1239. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0735-2
    • Lind, S. E., and Bowler, D. M. (2010). Episodic memory and episodic future thinking in adults with autism. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 119, 896-905. doi: 10.1037/a0020631
    • Lind, S. E., Williams, D. M., Bowler, D. M., and Peel, A. (2014). Episodic memory and episodic future thinking impairments in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: an underlying difficulty with scene construction or self-projection? Neuropsychology 28, 55-67. doi: 10.1037/neu0000005
    • Lind, S. E., Williams, D. M., Raber, J., Peel, A., and Bowler, D. M. (2013). Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122, 1189-1199. doi: 10.1037/a0034819
    • Lloyd, M. E., Doydum, A. O., and Newcombe, N. S. (2009). Memory binding in early childhood: Evidence for a retrieval deficit. Child Dev. 80, 1321-1328. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01353.x
    • Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30, 205-223. doi: 10.1023/A:100559 2401947
    • Lord, C., Rutter, M., and Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interviewrevised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 24, 659-685. doi: 10.1007/BF02172145
    • Loth, E., Gómez, J. C., and Happé, F. (2008). Event schemas in autism spectrum disorders: the role of theory of mind and weak central coherence. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 38, 449-463. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0412-2
    • Maras, K. L., Wimmer, M. C., Robinson, E. J., and Bowler, D. M. (2014). Mental imagery scanning in autism spectrum disorder. Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 8, 1416-1423. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.07.003
    • Martin-Ordas, G., Atance, C. M., and Caza, J. S. (2014). How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children? Front. Psychol. 5:332. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00732
    • Oberman, L. M., and Ramachandran, V. S. (2007). The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol. Bull. 133, 310-327. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.310
    • Pellicano, E., Smith, A. D., Cristino, F., Hood, B. M., Briscoe, J., and Gilchrist, I. D. (2011). Children with autism are neither systematic nor optimal foragers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 421-426. doi: 10.1073/pnas.10140 76108
    • Perner, J., Kloo, D., and Gornik, E. (2007). Episodic memory development: Theory of mind is part of re-experiencing experienced events. Infant Child Dev. 16, 471-490. doi: 10.1002/icd.517
    • Piper, B. J., Acevedo, S. F., Craytor, M. J., Murray, P., and Raber, J. (2010). The use and validation of the spatial navigation Memory Island test in primary school children. Behav. Brain Res. 209, 21-26.
    • Prior, M., and Hoffman, W. (1990). Neuropsychological testing of autistic children through an exploration with frontal lobe tests. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 20, 581-590. doi: 10.1007/BF02216063
    • Quon, E., and Atance, C. M. (2010). A comparison of preschoolers' memory, knowledge, and anticipation of events. J. Cogn. Dev. 11, 37-60. doi: 10.1080/15248370903453576
    • Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 45, 1094-1103. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000227880.42780.0e
    • Rizk-Jackson, A. M., Acevedo, S. F., Inman, D., Howieson, D., Benice, T. S., and Raber, J. (2006). Effects of sex on object recognition and spatial navigation in humans. Behav. Brain Res. 173, 181-190) doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2006.06.029
    • Salter, G., Seigal, A., Claxton, M., Lawrence, K., and Skuse, D. (2008). Can autistic children read the mind of an animated triangle? Autism 12, 349-371. doi: 10.1177/1362361308091654
    • Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R., and Buckner, R. L. (2008). Episodic simulation of future events. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1124, 39-60. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.001
    • Shah, A., and Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 34, 1351-1364. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb02095.x
    • Shanton, K., and Goldman, A. (2010). Simulation theory. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Cogn. Sci. 1, 527-538. doi: 10.1002/wcs.33
    • Snodgrass, J. G., and Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. J. Exp. Psychol. Huma. Learn. Mem. 6, 174-215. doi: 10.1037/0278- 7393.6.2.174
    • Spreng, R. N., Mar, R. A., and Kim, A. S. N. (2009). The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: a quantitative meta-analysis. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 21, 489-510. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.21029
    • Ten Eycke, K. D., and Müller, U. (2014). Brief report: new evidence for a socialspecific imagination deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. J. Autism Dev. Disord. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2206-7. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Terrett, G., Rendell, P. G., Raponi-Saunders, S., Henry, J. D., Bailey, P. E., and Altgassen, M. (2013). Episodic future thinking in children with autism spectrum disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 43, 2558-2568. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013- 1806-y
    • Thorndyke, P., and Hayes-Roth, B. (1982). Differences in spatial knowledge acquired from maps and navigation. Cogn. Psychol. 14, 560-589. doi: 10.1016/0010-0285(82)90019-6
    • Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychol. Rev. 55, 189-208. doi: 10.1037/h0061626
    • Ventola, P. E., Kleinman, J., Pandey, J., Barton, M., Allen, S., Green, J., et al. (2006). Agreement among four diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders in toddlers. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 36, 839-847. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0128-8
    • Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
    • Wechsler, D. (2004). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition. London: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T., and Tulving, E. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: the frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychol. Bull. 121, 331-354. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.331
    • White, S. J., Coniston, D., Rogers, R., and Frith, U. (2011). Developing the FrithHappé animations: a quick and objective test of Theory of Mind for adults with autism. Autism Res. 4, 149-154. doi: 10.1002/aur.174
    • Williams, D., Boucher, J., Lind, S., and Jarrold, C. (2013). Time-based and eventbased prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: the roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time-estimation. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 43, 1555-1567. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1703-9
    • Wolbers, T., and Hegarty, M. (2010). What determines our navigational abilities? Trends Cogn. Sci. 14, 138-146. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2010. 01.001
    • Yirmiya, N., Erel, O., Shaked, M., and Solomonica-Levi, D. (1998). Meta-analyses comparing theory of mind abilities of individuals with autism, individuals with mental retardation, and normally developing individuals. Psychol. Bull 124, 283-307. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.283
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article