Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Scott, Helen
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Empathy is an important concept associated with positive outcomes for healthcare practitioners and their patients. In order to identify the best methods to develop and sustain empathy in healthcare professionals there is a need for greater understanding of the antecedents and behaviours involved in empathic responding towards patients.\ud \ud This thesis used a multidimensional model of empathy as a guide for research aimed at understanding the antecedents and behaviours involved in empathic interactions between patients and healthcare professionals. Studies one to three were cross sectional and quantitative in design. Studies one and two investigated relationships between self-reported empathy, personality and emotional intelligence. Findings suggested that (1) perspective taking and empathic concern were closely associated with agreeableness and extraversion, and also loaded on to the single factor of emotional intelligence (2) fantasy was associated with with openness to experience but not emotional intelligence, and (3) personal distress was positively related to neuroticism and negatively related to emotional intelligence. Study three went on to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence, propensity to empathise and empathic behaviour amongst doctors. Propensity to empathise was positively related to observer ratings of empathic behaviour, but not when doctors had qualified in a different country. finally, study four qualitatively examined empathy in the healthcare context, from patients' perspectives. Situational and patient characteristics were also identified as antecedents to empathy, further relating to employee engagement and work design. The specific behaviours associated with empathy as judged by patients included helping and prosocial behaviours. Implications for the development of empathy are discussed in terms of possible training , development and work design interventions. Finally areas for future research are identified.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Plank, R. E., Minton, A. P., & Reid, D. A. (1996). A short measure of perceived empathy. Psychological Reports, 79(3), 1219-1226.
    • Polit, D., & Hunglar, B. (1983). Nursing research. Principles and methods. Philadelphia: Sage.
    • Pound, P., Gompertz, P., & Ebrahim, S. (1998). A patient-centred study of the consequences of stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 12(4), 338-347.
    • Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25(01), 1-20.
    • Pulos, S., Elison, J., & Lennon, R. (2004). The hierarchical structure of the interpersonal reactivity index. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 32(4), 355-359.
    • Ramjan, L. M. (2004). Nurses and the “therapeutic relationship”: Caring for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(5), 495- 503.
    • Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1994). Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. Pearson Assessment.
    • Regan, D. T., & Totten, J. (1975). Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors. Journal of personality and social psychology, 32(5), 850-6.
    • Reynolds W. (2000). The Measurement and Development of Empathy in Nursing. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    • Reynolds, W. J., Scott, B., & Jessiman, W. C. (1999). Empathy has not been measured in clients' terms or effectively taught: a review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(5), 1177-1185.
    • Reynolds, W. J., & Scott, B. (2000). Do nurses and other professional helpers normally display much empathy? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(1), 226-234.
    • Rietveld, S., & Prins, P. J. (1998). The relationship between negative emotions and acute subjective and objective symptoms of childhood asthma. Psychological Medicine, 28(2), 407-415.
    • Rim, Y. (1994). Impulsivity, venturesomeness, empathy and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 853-854.
    • Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The Drivers of Employee Engagement. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    • Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner -researchers. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    • Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95-103.
    • Russell, D., & McAuley, E. (1986). Causal attributions, causal dimensions, and affective reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(6), 1174-1185. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.6.1174.
    • Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (1999). Modern Psychometrics: The science of psychological assessment. London: Routledge.
    • Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211
    • Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995) Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed .), Emotion, Disclosure, & Health. Washington: American Psychological Association.
    • Schmidt, G., & Weiner, B. (1988). An Attribution-Affect-Action Theory of Behavior: Replications of Judgments of Help-Giving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14(3), 610-621.
    • Schulze, R., & Roberts, R. D. (Eds). (2005). Emotional Intelligence: An International Handbook. Gottingen: Hogrefe
    • Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4), 523-536.
    • Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177.
    • Scotland, E., Mathews, K. E., & Sherman, S. (1978). Empathy, fantasy, and helping. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    • Silvester, J., Patterson, Fiona, Koczwara, A., & Ferguson, E. (2007). "Trust me...": psychological and behavioral predictors of perceived physician empathy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 519-527.
    • Simmons, J., Roberge, L., Kendrick, S. B., & Richards, B. (1995). The Interpersonal Relationship in Clinical Practice: The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory as an Assessment Instrument. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 18(1), 103- 112.
    • Smith, J.A. (2008). Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods. London: Sage.
    • Sparr, L. F., Gordon, G. H., Hickam, D. H., & Girard, D. E. (1988). The doctorpatient relationship during medical internship: the evolution of dissatisfaction. Social Science & Medicine, 26(11), 1095-1101.
    • Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R. L., & Holohan, C. K. (1979). Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1673-1682.
    • Spencer, J. (2004). Decline in empathy in medical education: how can we stop the rot? Medical Education, 38(9), 916-918.
    • Spielberger, R. L., Gorusch, R. E., & Luschene, P. (1970). State-trait anxiety inventory (self-evaluation questionnaire). Consulting Psychologists Press.
    • Squier, R. W. (1990). A model of empathic understanding and adherence to treatment regimens in practitioner-patient relationships. Social Science & Medicine, 30(3), 325-339.
    • Stepien, K. A., & Baernstein, A. (2006). Educating for Empathy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(5), 524-530.
    • Stewart, M. A. (1995). Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review. Canadian Medical Association, 152, 1423-33.
    • Stinson, L., & Ickes, W. (1992). Empathic accuracy in the interactions of male friends versus male strangers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 787-797.
    • Stotland, J. (1978). Empathy, fantasy and helping. California: Sage.
    • Stratton, T., Elam, C. L., Murphy-Spencer, A. E., & Quinlivan, S. L. (2005). Emotional intelligence and clinical skills: Preliminary results from a comprehensive clinical performance examination. Academic Medicine, 80, S34- S37.
    • Strayer, J., & Eisenberg, N. (1987). Empathy viewed in context. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 389-398). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Suchman, A. L., Markakis, K. M., Beckman, H. B., & Frankel, R. M. (1997). A model of empathic communication in the medical interview. Journal Of The American Medical Association, 277(8), 678-682.
    • Sue, D., & Sundbery, N. D. (1996). Research and research hypotheses about effectiveness in intercultural counseling. In P. B. Pedersen, J. Draguns, W. Lonner, & J. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 323-352). California: Sage.
    • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson.
    • Tarrant, C., Windridge, K., Boulton, M., Baker, R., & Freeman, G. K. (2003). Qualitative study of the meaning of personal care in general practice. British Medical Journal, 326, 1310-1316.
    • The Scottish Office. (1997). Designed to care: Renewing the National Health Service in Scotland. London: The Stationary Office.
    • Titchener, E. (1909). Experimental psychology of the thought process. New York: Macmillan.
    • Trapnell, P. D., & Wiggins, J. S. (1990). Extension of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to Include the Big Five dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 781-790.
    • Verby, J. E., Holden, P., & Davis, R. H. (1979). Peer review of consultations in primary care: The use of audio-visual recordings. British Medical Journal, 1, 1686-1688.
    • Vreeke, G., & van der Mark, I. L. (2003). Empathy, an integrative model. New Ideas in Psychology, 21(3), 177-207.
    • Walter, F. H., Cole, M. S., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Emotional Intelligence: Sine Qua Non of Leadership or Folderol? Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 45-59.
    • Wang, Y.-W., Bleier, J., Davidson, M., Savoy, H., Tan, J., & Yakushko, O. (2003). The scale of ethnocultural empathy. Development, validation, and reliability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2, 221-234.
    • Wasserman, R. C., Inui, T. S., Barriatua, R. D., Carter, W. B., & Lippincott, P. (1984). Pediatric clinicians' support for parents makes a difference: an outcome-based analysis of clinician-parent interaction. Pediatrics, 74(6), 1047- 1053.
    • Webster Nelson, D., & Baumgarte, R. (2004). Cross-Cultural Misunderstandings Reduce Empathic Responding1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(2), 391-401.
    • Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution)-emotion-action model of helping behaviour: An analysis of judgements of help giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1142-1162.
    • Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 2, 543-571.
    • Weiner, B. (1986). An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
    • Winefield, H. R., Murrell, T. G., & Clifford, J. (1995). Process and outcomes in general practice consultations: problems in defining high quality care. Social science medicine, 41(7), 969-975.
    • Woloschuk, W., Harasym, P. H., & Temple, W. (2004). Attitude change during medical school: a cohort study. Medical Education, 38(5), 522-534.
    • Yardley, L. (2008). Demonstrating validity in qualitative psychology. In J. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: a practical guide to research methods. London: Sage.
    • Yarnold, P. R., Bryant, F. B., Nightingale, S. D., & Martin, G. J. (1996). Assessing physician empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index: A measurement model and cross-sectional analysis. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 1, 207- 221.
    • Zabar, S., Hanley, K., Kachur, E., Stevens, D., Schwartz, M. D., Pearlman, E., Adams, J., Felix, K., Lipkin, M., & Kalet, A. (2006), “Oh! She Doesn't Speak English!” Assessing Resident Competence in Managing Linguistic and Cultural Barriers. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 510-513.
    • Zahn-Waxler, C., & Robinson, J. (1995). Empathy and guilt: early origins of feelings of responsibility. In K. Fischer & J. Tangney (Eds.), Self conscious emotions: Shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride (pp. 143-173). New York: Guilford Press.
    • Zderad, L. (1970). Empathy - from cliché to construct. Third Nursing Theory Conference (pp. 46-75). University of Kansas Medical Center Department of Nursing, Kansas City.
    • Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, F. W. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 432-442.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article