Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Griffiths, UK; Clark, A; Hajjeh, R (2013)
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: health care economics and organizations
OBJECTIVES To estimate the cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in low- and middle-income countries and identify the model variables, which are most important for the result. STUDY DESIGN A static decision tree model was developed to predict incremental costs and health impacts. Estimates were generated for 4 country groups: countries eligible for funding by the GAVI Alliance in Africa and Asia, lower middle-income countries, and upper middle-income countries. Values, including disease incidence, case fatality rates, and treatment costs, were based on international country estimates and the scientific literature. RESULTS From the societal perspective, it is estimated that the probability of Hib conjugate vaccine cost savingĀ is 34%-53% in Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization eligible African and Asian countries, respectively. In middle-income countries, costs per discounted disability adjusted life year averted are between US$37 and US$733. Variation in vaccine prices and risks of meningitis sequelae and mortality explain most of the difference in results. For all country groups, disease incidence cause the largest part of the uncertainty in the result. CONCLUSIONS Hib conjugate vaccine is cost saving or highly cost-effective in low- and middle-income settings. This conclusion is especially influenced by the recent decline in Hib conjugate vaccine prices and new data revealing the high costs of lost productivity associated with meningitis sequelae.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Wenger JD. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease and impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in the United States and Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17:S132-6.
    • 2. Ojo LR, O'Loughlin RE, Cohen AL, Loo JD, Edmond KM, Shetty SS, et al. Global use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:7117-22.
    • 3. International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC). VIMS Report: Global Vaccine Introduction. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; August 2012. http://wwwjhsphedu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/vims/IVAC-VIMS_Report-2012- 08pdf
    • 4. Watt JP, Wolfson LJ, O'Brien KL, Henkle E, Deloria-Knoll M, McCall N, et al. Burden of disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet. 2009;374:903-11.
    • 5. WHO. WHO guide for standardization of economic evaluations of immunization programmes, WHO/IVB/08.14, Geneva 2008.
    • 6. Briggs A, Sculpher, M., Claxton, K. Decision modelling for health economic evaluation: Oxford University Press; 2006.
    • 7. GAVI Alliance. Apply for support. Geneva: http://www.gavialliance.org/support/apply/; 2012.
    • 8. World Bank. How we Classify Countries. http://dataworldbankorg/about/countryclassifications. 2012.
    • 9. Bennett JV, Platonov AE, Slack MPE, Mala P, Burton AH, Roberson SE. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in the pre-vaccine era: a global review of incidence, age distributions, and case-fatality rates. WHO/V&B/0218. Geneva: WHO; 2002.
    • 10. Peltola H. Need for Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Asia as evidenced by epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17:S148-51.
    • 11. Shetty S, Cohen AL, Edmond K, Ojo L, Loo J, O'Loughlin R, et al. A systematic review and critical evaluation of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type B disease burden studies in Asia from the last decade: lessons learned for invasive bacterial disease surveillance. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:653-61.
    • 12. Gessner BD. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine impact in resource-poor settings in Asia and Africa. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:91-102.
    • 13. Knoll MD, O'Brien, K.L., Henkle, E., Lee, E., Watt, J.P, McCall, N., Mangtani, P. Global literature review of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease among children less than five years of age 1980-2005. In: WHO, editor.: Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals; 2009.
    • 14. Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, Lawn JE, Rudan I, Bassani DG, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:1969-87.
    • 15. Cherian T. Describing the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial pneumonia in children: an unresolved problem. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23:1-5.
    • 16. Lozano R, Mallinger, L., Murray, C.J.L. GBD 2010 Estimation Strategy Report for Lower Respiratory Infections and Upper Respiratory Infections. 2012.
    • 17. Griffiths UK, Clark A, Gessner B, Miners A, Sanderson C, Sedyaningsih ER, et al. Dose-specific efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1343-55.
    • 18. Gessner BD, Sutanto A, Linehan M, Djelantik IG, Fletcher T, Gerudug IK, et al. Incidences of vaccine-preventable Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia and meningitis in Indonesian children: hamlet-randomised vaccine-probe trial. Lancet. 2005;365:43-52.
    • 19. Mulholland K, Hilton S, Adegbola R, Usen S, Oparaugo A, Omosigho C, et al. Randomised trial of Haemophilus influenzae type-b tetanus protein conjugate vaccine [corrected] for prevention of pneumonia and meningitis in Gambian infants. Lancet. 1997;349:1191-7.
    • 40. Nakamura MM, Tasslimi A, Lieu TA, Levine O, Knoll MD, Russell LB, Sinha A. Cost effectiveness of child pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries. International Health. 2011;3:270-81.
    • 41. Tasslimi A, Nakamura, MM, Levine O, Knoll MD, Russell LB, Sinha A. Cost effectiveness of child pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries. International Health. 2011;3:259-69.
    • 42. Goldie SJ, O'Shea M, Campos NG, Diaz M, Sweet S, Kim SY. Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16,18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccine. 2008;26:4080-93.
    • 43. Clark A. TRIVAC decision-support model for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination in low-income and middleincome countries. In submission. 2012.
    • 44. United Nations Population Secretariat. World Population Prospects: The 2011 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unpp/index.asp
    • 45. WHO. Global and regional immunization profile, 2011. http://wwwwhoint/immunization_monitoring/data/data_subject/en/indexhtml
    • 46. Gupta M, Kumar R, Deb AK, Bhattacharya SK, Bose A, John J, et al. Multi-center surveillance for pneumonia & meningitis among children (<2 yr) for Hib vaccine probe trial preparation in India. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:649-58.
    • 47. Minz S, Balraj V, Lalitha MK, Murali N, Cherian T, Manoharan G, et al. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:57-64.
    • 48. Thomas K, Lalitha, M.K.,Steinhoff. Are Haemophilus influenzae infections a significant problem in India? A prospective study and review. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:949-57.
    • 49. WHO CHOICE. Country specific unit costs. Accessed September 2012. http://wwwwhoint/choice/country/country_specific/en/indexhtml.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article