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Spurlock, R.S. (2011)
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: NE, DA
Alasdair Mann, the noted scholar of book culture in early modern Scotland, has suggested that a significant change had occurred in Scotland's relationship with the printed word by the late seventeenth century. This study sets out to explain how the interregnum served as a ‘watershed’ during which a consumer demand was created for popular print and how this in turn necessitated a significant increase in the production and distribution of printed material. Beginning with the sale of the press and patent of Evan Tyler to the London Stationers’ Company in 1647, the article charts the key factors that transformed Scotland's printing industry from the production of official declarations and works for foreign markets to the production of polemical texts for a Scottish audience. These developments also witnessed publication of the first serial news journal and the growth of a competitive market for up-to-date printed news. More than just an anomaly that flourished during a decade of occupation, these fundamental changes altered Scotland by introducing the large-scale consumption of chapbooks and printed ephemera, thereby initiating the nation's enduring print culture.
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    • 8 James Watson, James Watson's Preface to the History of Printing 1713 (Greenock, 1963), 8; George Chalmers, An Historical Account of Printing in Scotland during Two Centuries . . . 1507 to 1707, 2 vols (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland [NLS], MS Adv. 17.1.16) i. fo. 186); George Chalmers, The Life of Thomas Ruddiman, A.M. (London, 1794), 117; James Chalmers, An Historical Account of Printing in Scotland from 1507 to 1707 Containing Anecdotes of the Printers with Their Works and the Several Patents to the Kings Printers, 2 vols (NLS, MS. Adv. 16.2.21), i. fo. 287; H. G. Aldis, List of Books Printed in Scotland Before 1700 (Edinburgh, 1970), 114.
    • 9 W. J. Couper, Scottish Rebel Printers (Edinburgh, 1912), 9-15.
    • 10 Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 315-37; M. A. E. Green (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1651-1660 [CSPD], 1651, 65.
    • 11 Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 327; A. J. Mann, ' “Some property is theft'': copyright law and illegal activity in early modern Scotland', in Robin Myers, Michael Harris and Giles Mandelbrote (eds), Against the Law: Crime, Sharp Practice and the Control of Print (London, 2004), 31-60, 34; Cyprian Blagden, The Stationers' Company: A History, 1403-1959 (London, 1960), 142; Robin Myers, The Stationers' Company Archive, 1554-1984 (Winchester and Detroit, 1990), 5.
    • 12 Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 326.
    • 13 Blagden, Stationers' Company, 142.
    • 14 Arthur Williamson, 'Scotland: international politics, international press', in S. A. Baron, E. N. Lindquist and E. F. Shevlin (eds), Agent of Change (Amherst, 2007), 193-215; Joad Raymond, Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge and New York, 2007), 161-201.
    • 15 Edinburgh, National Records of Scotland [NRS], PA2/24, fo. 245.
    • 16 In March 1648 the man running Tyler's press, John Twyn, was called before parliament to answer for printing a declaration of the Commissioners of the General Assembly. Asked on whose authority this had been done, Twyne 'declared that he had warrant from Mr Andrew Kerr, clerk to the general assembly of the church'. After producing his warrant for inspection, it was returned (NRS, PA2/24, fo. 6v.). This incident demonstrates the strict control that was exerted over printing under the Covenanter's government.
    • 17 During the previous two decades authority over the print industry had been the prerogative of the Privy Council. For its exercise of this power, see Mann, 'Some property is theft', 36.
    • 18 Church of Scotland: General Assembly, Acts of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1638-1842, ed. T. Pitcairn (Edinburgh, 1843), 30, 75-6, 160.
    • 19 NRS, PA2/23, fo. 347r.
    • 20 Reference to the Committee of Estates passing an act 'discharging printing under pain of death of 16 June [1648]', is made in a decree of 10 March 1649 against Sir Archibald Primrose, clerk of secret council (NRS, PA2/24, fos 193r-94v).
    • 21 Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 333. Tyler's absence when Cromwell arrived in Edinburgh is suggested by his resumption of printing for the king at the Restoration. It is difficult to see how this could have happened unless Tyler pleaded that during his absence he had no control over what was produced under his imprint. Twyn was appointed to run the press by the Stationers' Company after the death of Thomas Pape in 1647 (Blagden, Stationers' Company, 142).
    • 22 Marguerite Wood (ed.), Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Edinburgh, 1642 to 1655 (Edinburgh, 1938), 252; Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 333.
    • 23 Ibid., 333.
    • 24 Ibid., 252.
    • 25 It has been suggested that some Edinburgh stationers formed a 'Society' for publishing works for their respective shops as early as 1649 (J. Chalmers, Historical Account of Printing, i. 320). There is, however, little evidence of this endeavour until the imprint appeared in 1660. According to Watson, the Stationers' Company made little profit after the Restoration and soon sold the press to a group of Scottish printers (Watson, Preface, 10). This remains uncertain.
    • 26 Couper, Scottish Rebel Printers, 11-12. The document is printed in its entirety in James Maclehose, The Glasgow University Press, 1638-1931 (Glasgow, 1931), 32-4, while the original is located at NRS, Registrum Secreti Sigilli, vol. 116, fo. 179.
    • 27 Maclehose, Glasgow University Press 33; Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 334.
    • 28 For analysis of the Protester-Resolutioner conflict, see K. D. Holfelder, 'Factionalism in the Kirk during the Cromwellian Invasion and Occupation of Scotland, 1650 to 1660: the Protester-Resolutioner Controversy', unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of Edinburgh, 1998) [Holfelder, 'Factionalism'].
    • 29 David Stevenson, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland, 1644-1651 (London, 1977), 145; Spurlock, Cromwell and Scotland, 28-9, 35-8.
    • 30 The Protesters also claimed to be the Commissioners of the General Assembly but styled themselves the '1650 Commissioners', referring to the General Assembly before the Public Resolutions, which they viewed as a corruption of the Kirk.
    • 31 Bulstrode Whitelocke, Memorials of the English Affairs, 4 vols (Oxford, 1853), ii. 447. Holfelder, 'Factionalism', 94-5 claims that the Resolutioners acquired Brown's services in response to Protester works printed on Tyler's press. This is chronologically incorrect since the pro-monarchy moderate party of the Kirk, which controlled the Commission of the General Assembly, printed several items on Brown's press in the closing months of 1650. Holfelder's assumption is probably based upon the Commissioners' complaint in early January 1651 that 'the wanting of a presse for printing doth exceedingly impeed the speedy dispatch of papers necessarie for information' and that Aberdeen had yet to receive some papers produced by the Commission (A. F. Mitchell and James Christie (eds), Records of the Commission of the General Assembly, 3 vols (Edinburgh, 1890-1909) [RCGA], iii. 251). The existence of Resolutioner works produced by Brown in late 1650 shows unequivocally that the printer was already active in their cause before the end of the year. Thus, the comments regarding 'want' in reference to printing probably refer to the isolation and slowness of the Aberdeen press in comparison to Tyler's, rather than an actual inability to find a printing press.
    • 32 Possibly a prototype of A Brief Refutation of the Errors Toleration, Erastianism, Independency and Separation (London, 1692). Although this work was based on a collection of sermons preached by Fergusson in 1652, it may provide at least an insight into the content of an earlier work.
    • 33 Robert Baillie, Letters and Journals, ed. David Laing, 3 vols (Edinburgh, 1841-2), iii. 168.
    • 34 RCGA, iii. 285-6.
    • 35 Andrew Kerr, A Solemn Warning to all the Members of this Kirk, from the Commission of the Generall Assemblie with an Act for the censuring such as act, or comply with the Sectarian Armies (Aberdeen, 1651), 5.
    • 36 Commission of the General Assembly, A Short Exhortation and Warning, to the Ministers and Professours of this Kirk, Perth, 20 March 1651 (Aberdeen, 1651), 1-3.
    • 37 Frances Dow, Cromwellian Scotland, 1651-1660 (Edinburgh, 1979), 25-7.
    • 38 Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 335; Jason Peacey, Politicians and Pamphleteers: Propaganda during the English Civil Wars and Interregnum (Aldershot, 2004), 255.
    • 39 Church of Scotland: Presbytery of Stirling, The Remonstrance of the Presbyterie of Sterling Against the Present Conjunction with the Malignant Party to the Commission of the Kirk at St. Johnston (Edinburgh, 1651). Submitted to the Commissioners of the General Assembly late in December 1650, the work was printed by the English in early February 1651.
    • 40 William Row, The Life of Mr Robert Blair, ed. Thomas McCrie, Wodrow Soc. (Edinburgh, 1848), 256; Holfelder, 'Factionalism', 93-4.
    • 41 Sir James Balfour, The Historical Works of James Balfour of Denmylne and Kinnaird, Knight and Baronet; Lord Lyon King at Arms to Charles the First, and Charles the Second, 4 vols (Edinburgh, 1824), iv. 80.
    • 42 Ibid., iv, 172-4; J. R. Young, The Scottish Parliament, 1639-1661: A Political and Constitutional Analysis (Edinburgh, 1996), 264.
    • 43 Thomas Carte (ed.), Original Letters and Papers, Concerning the Affairs of England, From the Year 1641 to 1660, 2 vols (London, 1739), i. 410; Stevenson, Counter-Revolution, 164-5; Balfour, Historical Works, iv. 238-40, 246. For a fuller discussion of James Hope and his career during the interregnum, see A. H. Williamson, 'Union with England Traditional, union with England Radical: Sir James Hope and the mid-seventeenthcentury British state', English Historical Review, 110 (1995) 303-22.
    • 44 Stevenson, Counter-Revolution, 163.
    • 45 Church of Scotland: General Assembly, Commission, The Answer of the Commission of the Generall Assemblie, to the quaeree, propounded to them, from the Parliament. With an answer of the Commission of the Generall Assemblie, to a letter, sent to them, from the ministers of the Presbyterie of Sterline . . . (Aberdeen, 1651).
    • 46 The protestation of diverse ministers, against the proceedings of the late commission of the Church of Scotland: as also against the lawfulnesse of the present pretended assembly (Leith, 1651); Holfelder, 'Factionalism', 121-9.
    • 47 Robert Douglas, Short Information. A Short Information and Brotherly Exhortation to Our Brethren of England: From the Commissioners of the Generall Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland Convened at Forfarr, August 12, 1651 (Aberdeen, 1651), 3.
    • 48 For an assessment of Cromwellian policies towards the Church of Scotland, see Spurlock, Cromwell and Scotland, passim.
    • 49 Mercurius Politicus (21-8 Oct. 1651), 103; Presbytery of Kilmarnock, A discovery after some search of the Sins of the Ministers . . . by the Brethren of the Presbytery of Kilmarnock (Leith, 1651).
    • 50 For a discussion of anti-Kirk propaganda, see Spurlock, Cromwell and Scotland, chapter 3.
    • 51 The King of Scotlands Negociations at Rome for Assistance Against the Common-Wealth of England, As Also Severall Letters of the Chancellour of Scotland to the King Since His Coming Into Scotland, Taken in His Cabinet at the Late Fight Neer Dunbar (Edinburgh, 1650).
    • 52 J. Chalmers, An Historical Account, i. fo. 284. An edition of the work was printed in 1650 in London with the imprint that it was reproduced from an Edinburgh copy. The first copy printed in Edinburgh has not survived.
    • 53 In 1653 a work was published in Leith defending the Commonwealth [Peter English, The Survey of Policy or A Free Vindication of the Commonwealth of England, Against Salmasius and Other Royallists (Leith, 1653)], in which arguments were made against royalist opponents. English was commissioned for this work by Robert Lilburne and John Lambert (Oxford, Worcester College, Clarke MSS 3/6, fo. 1; Peacey, Politicians and Pamphleteers, 81, 183, 267). English's work was probably in response to Glencairn's rising which gathered pace in March of that year.
    • 54 John Hall, The Grounds and Reasons of Monarchy, Considered and Exemplified Out of the Scottish History by J.H. (Edinburgh, 1651).
    • 55 The paper is included in the complete works of Harrington: John Toland (ed.), The Oceana of James Harrington and his other works (London, 1700), xxxviii; J. Chalmers, An Historical Account, i. fo. 284.
    • 56 1 Samuel 8.
    • 66 Oliver Cromwell, A Letter Sent to the Generall Assembly of the Kirke of Scotland (London, 1650), 3. Cromwell thought the Scots treated the products of English presses less freely. He accused the Kirk, in particular, of censorship and slanderous propaganda similar to that demonstrated by Thomas Edwards' Gangraena: 'And by your hard and subtle words, you have begotten prejudice in those who do too much (in matters of conscience, wherin every soul is to answer for itself to God) depend upon you'. (Cromwell, A Letter Sent, 3-4; W. C. Abbott (ed.), The Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 4 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1937-47), ii. 302; RCGA, iii. 21; Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland [NLS], Wodrow Collection, Wodrow Folio [Wod. Fol.], xxix (45).
    • 67 Cromwell famously remarked of seditious material that if his government 'could not stand against paper shot, it was not worthy of preservation' (Jason Peacey, 'Cromwellian England: a propaganda state?', History 91 (2006) 176-99, at 184-5.
    • 68 John Morrill, 'The Drogheda massacre in Cromwellian context', in David Edwards, Pádraig Lenihan and Clodagh Tait (eds), Age of Atrocity: Violent Death and Political Conflict in Ireland (Dublin, 2007), 258. This interpretation may also be applied to the subsequent massacres at Wexford and Dundee, in 1651.
    • 75 Thomas Wood, A Dead Man's Testament or A Letter Written to all the Saints of God in Scotland, Fellow-Heirs of the Blessing with those in England (Leith, 1651).
    • 76 John Nicoll, A Diary of Public Transactions and Other Occurrences, Chiefly in Scotland, 1650-1667, ed. David Laing, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1836), 111.
    • 77 Ibid., 161.
    • 78 Sir Archibald Johnston of Wariston, Diary of Sir Archibald Johnston of Wariston, ed. D. H. Fleming and J. D. Ogilvie, Scottish History Soc., 3 vols (Edinburgh, 1919-40), iii. 21.
    • 79 The following works were published by Gideon Lithgow: The Psalms of David in Meeter (Edinburgh, 1652); and by The Heirs of George Anderson: A Representation of the Sad Condition and Humble Desires of the People of Glasgow (Edinburgh, 1652); Westminster Assembly, The Confession of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms First Agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and Now Appointed by the Generall Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, to be a Part of Uniformity in Religion Between the Kirks of Christ in the Three Kingdomes (Edinburgh, 1652); C. Irvino, Bellum Grammaticale, ad exemplar Mri. Alexandri Humii, in gratiam eorum, qui Amoniores Musas venerantur (Edinburgh, 1652).
    • 80 James Guthrie, A Treatise of Ruling Elders and Deacon (Edinburgh, 1652). While censorship began to lessen, it was not excessively loose. Guthrie's work was published without an imprint by the printer, perhaps a sign that times were tense.
    • 81 For detailed discussion of early publishing policies against the Kirk, see Spurlock, Cromwell and Scotland, chapter 3.
    • 82 According to a contemporary English journal, in 1654 the regime re-printed John Goodwin's Synkretismos which constituted an appeal to accept the change in government ('Diurnal of Occurences in Scotland', in James Maidment (ed.), The Spottiswoode Micellany, Spottiswoode Soc. (Edinburgh, 1845), ii. 174). See too John Goodwin, Synkretismos: or Dis-satisfaction Satisfied. In seventeen sober and serious queries . . . (London, 1653); Marchamont Nedham, A true state of the case of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging; In reference to the late established government by a Protector and a Parliament. (London, 1653), which was reprinted in Leith.
    • 83 D. L. Smith, 'Oliver Cromwell, the first protectoral parliament and religious reform', in D. L. Smith (ed.), Cromwell and the Interregnum (Oxford, 2003), 176.
    • 84 Little, Lord Broghill, 91-123.
    • 85 John Gilpin, The Quakers Shaken, or, A Discovery of the Errours of That Sect (Edinburgh, 1655); John Stalham, Contradictions of the Quakers (so Called) to the Scriptures of God (Edinburgh, 1655); James Brown, Antichrist (in Spirit) Unmasked (Edinburgh, 1657).
    • 86 Jonas Dell, Forms the Pillars of Antichrist (London, 1656); Francis Howgill, To All You Commanders and Officers of the Army (Leith, 1657).
    • 87 Love the Precious Ointment, That Flowes Down from the Head Christ Jesus, to All His Members; and Makes Them Dwell Together in Unity (Leith, 1654). This was originally printed in London and then reprinted in Leith.
    • 88 In 1655: Nicoll, Diary, 145; in 1659: NLS, Adv. Ms. 35.5.11, fos 62-4, 79, 83.
    • 89 A. G. Reid (ed.), The Diary of Andrew Hay of Craignethan, Scottish History Soc. (Edinburgh, 1901), 67, 87. A bale comprised ten reams (4,800) of sheets, so two bales amounted to nearly 10,000 pages.
    • 90 Ibid., 153.
    • 91 Hay's diary from May 1659 to January 1660 provides a record of his regular attendance at sermons, his devotional reading and on no less than eight occasions the renewal or 'renovation' of his personal covenant with God (Ibid., 31, 37, 51, 82, 106, 119, 120).
    • 92 CSPD, vi. 200; Williamson, 'Union with England', 318.
    • 93 C. H. Firth (ed.), Scotland and the Protectorate, Scottish History Soc. (Edinburgh, 1899), 78.
    • 94 Maclehose, Glasgow Univeristy Press, 40; C. Innes and T. Thomson (eds), The Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, 11 vols (Edinburgh, 1814-44) [APS], vi. ii, 827.
    • 95 APS, vi. ii, 762; W. J. Couper, The Origins of Glasgow Printing (Edinburgh, 1911), 14; Aldis, List, 107; Nicoll, Diary, 161.
    • 96 Raymond, Pamphlets and Pamphleteers, 161-201.
    • 97 Mann, Scottish Book Trade, 111.
    • 98 Mann, Scottish Book Trade, 31, 232. Aldis, List, 105-6, 113, 183 notes that the following booksellers opened during the interregnum: in Glasgow, R. Sandersone (1654), J. Falconer (1659), J. Morisone (1659) and M. Paterson (1659); in St Andrews, G. Dradoun (1654); in Edinburgh, James Glen (1656); in Perth, George Dickson (1653); in Aberdeen, D. Stranghan [Straughan] (1659). This list is not exhaustive as many booksellers are only known because of debts left at their death. Nor did booksellers necessarily begin trade on these dates. Morisone, for instance, seems to have been active earlier in the decade, at least as an apprentice.
    • 99 High levels of taxes were introduced during the 1640s to pay for Scottish armies. According to one contemporary source these taxes were particularly high on foodstuffs (NLS, Wod. Fol., xxxi (37)). For a discussion of the knock-on financial implications of Scotland's involvement in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, see L. A. M. Stewart, Urban Politics and the British Civil Wars: Edinburgh, 1617-1653 (Leiden, 2006).
    • 100 Nicholas Lockyer, A Litle Stone Out of the Mountain. Church-Order Briefly Opened (Leith, 1652). The volume measures approx. 8cm x 5cm.
    • 101 James Wood, A Little Stone Pretended to be Out of the Mountain, Tried and Found to be Counterfeit (Edinburgh, 1654). For Wood as a polemicist for the Resolutioners, see Spurlock, Cromwell and Scotland, 93, 217n.
    • 102 Thomas Wood, A Dead Man's Testament: or, A Letter Written to all the Saints of God in Scotland, Fellow-Heirs of the Blessing with those in England (Leith, 1651).
    • 103 Wariston, Diary, ii. 232-3.
    • 104 From Wood's dedication to John Kennedy, sixth earl of Cassilis, in Wood, A Little Stone, ded. 2.
    • 105 Firth, Scotland and the Protectorate, 213, 238; NLS, Adv. Ms. 35.5.11, fos 62-4, 79, 83.
    • 106 J. Nickolls (ed.), The Original Letters and State Papers of State, Addressed to Oliver Cromwell (London, 1743), 48; Anne Laurence, Parliamentary Army Chaplains, 1642-1651 (London, 1990), 71-2.
    • 107 Reid, Andrew Hay, 189.
    • 108 Wariston, Diary, iii. 30-2.
    • 109 Ibid., iii. 24.
    • 110 J. C. Irons, Leith and its Antiquities, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1897), ii. 122. David Stevenson has noted that the first newspaper printed in Scotland appeared on 16 August 1648 but that only one issue was produced (Stevenson, 'Revolutionary regime', 332).
    • 111 C. H. Firth (ed.), Scotland and the Commonwealth, Scottish History Soc.(Edinburgh, 1895), 316; Mercurius Scoticus, 22-30 July 1651.
    • 112 Mann and others have inaccurately identified this work as a royalist journal (Mann, Scottish Book Trade, 174). In reality, 'The Royal Messenger' was a 'catchword' 'likely to sell it at once to a royalist . . . Its contents are anything but royalist in matter or manner and they consist mainly of fulsome praise' for the Commonwealth and its military triumphs (J. B. Williams, A History of English Journalism (London, 1908), 142).
    • 113 Carolyn Nelson and Matthew Seccombe, British Newspapers and Periodicals, 1641-1700 (New York, 1987), 56. The journal was re-printed in Leith from 15 March 1652 until 4 January 1653.
    • 114 Printing of Mercurius Politicus moved to Edinburgh in 1654. It appeared until 11 April 1660, when its name was changed to Mercurius Publicus. (Ibid., 242). George Chalmers and others have incorrectly dated publication from October 1653 (Chalmers, Life of Thomas Ruddiman, 117).
    • 115 For an explanation of the symbiotic relationship between the interregnum government and the news journals, see M. J. Seymour, 'Pro-government Propaganda in Interregnum England, 1649-60', unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of Cambridge, 1987), 60, 408. More recently Jason Peacey has argued that government officials were closely involved in providing the information used by these periodicals (Peacey, 'Cromwellian England', 190-8). The argument here rests less on where the information came from and more on how it was circulated.
    • 116 Baillie, Letters and Journals, iii. 256; Peacey, 'Cromwellian England', 198. Peacey has suggested similar feelings were expressed in Ireland.
    • 117 Wariston, Diary, ii. 118, 137, 155, 214, 312.
    • 118 Reid, Andrew Hay, 204.
    • 119 Baillie, Letters and Journals, ii. 171, 182, 195, 220, 231, 243, 246, 289, 324, 369; Joad Raymond, The Invention of the Newspaper: English Newsbooks, 1641-1649 (Oxford, 1996), 240, 249, 260.
    • 120 J. B. Paul (ed.), 'The diary of Sir James Hope, 1646-54', Miscellany of the Scottish History Society, vol. iii (Edinburgh, 1919), 156.
    • 121 Raymond, Invention, 184.
    • 122 Firth, Scotland and the Commonwealth, 251; similar claims are also found in Firth, Scotland and the Protectorate, 207, 231.
    • 123 John Stuart (ed.), Extracts from the Council Register of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 1625-1747, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1871-2), ii. 165-6; John Stuart (ed.), The Miscellany of the Spalding Club, 5 vols (Aberdeen, 1841-52), v. 181; Williamson, 'Scotland: international politics', 208.
    • 124 Williamson, 'Scotland: international politics', 214-15.
    • 125 For a brief account of the newspaper The Scottish Dove, see ibid., 202, 205-13; Raymond, Invention, 34-5.
    • 126 Maclehose, Glasgow University Press, 40; APS, 1648-1660, vi. ii, 763, 827, 876; Mann, Scottish Book Trade, 146.
    • 127 For the role of the Stationers' Company in enforcing censorship, see Jason McElligott, 'A couple of hundred squabbling small tradesmen'? Censorship, the Stationers' Company and the state in early modern England', in Joad Raymond (ed.), News Networks in Seventeenth-Century Britain and Europe (London, 2006), 85-102.
    • 128 Mann, Scottish Book Trade, 30.
    • 129 Williamson, 'Scotland: international politics', 202.
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