LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Gustavson, Kristin; Ystrøm, Eivind; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Susser, Ezra; Surén, Pål; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Smith, George Davey; Langley, Kate; Rutter, Michael; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted (2017)
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D016428, BF, Journal Article, /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2735, Article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a well-documented association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The degree to which this reflects causal intrauterine effects or is due to unmeasured confounding is not clear. We sought to compare the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring ADHD with the associations with paternal smoking, grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with mother, and maternal smoking in previous pregnancies. Each of these exposures is expected to be influenced by much of the same confounding factors as maternal smoking during pregnancy, but cannot have direct intrauterine effects. A sibling control design was also used.\ud \ud \ud METHODS: The current study used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n > 100 000 children). Mothers and fathers reported on smoking during pregnancy, and mothers reported on smoking in previous pregnancies and their mother’s smoking when pregnant with them. Mothers reported on child ADHD symptoms at 5 years of age. Information about child ADHD diagnosis was obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry.\ud \ud \ud RESULTS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was not more strongly associated with offspring ADHD diagnosis than was paternal smoking, grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with mother, or maternal smoking in previous pregnancies. Sibling control analyses showed no association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and child ADHD symptoms among siblings discordant for maternal smoking.\ud \ud \ud CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring ADHD is not due to causal intrauterine effects, but reflects unmeasured confounding.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Linnet KM, Wisborg K, Obel C, et al. Smoking during pregnancy and the risk for hyperkinetic disorder in offspring. Pediatrics. 2005;116(2):462-467.
    • Langley K, Rice F, van den Bree MB, Thapar A. Maternal smoking during pregnancy as an environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviour. A review. Minerva Pediatr. 2005;57(6):359-371.
    • Rutter M, Solantaus T. Translation gone awry: differences between commonsense and science. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23(5):247-255.
    • Thapar A, Rutter M. Do prenatal risk factors cause psychiatric disorder? Be wary of causal claims. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2009;195(2):100-101.
    • Langley K, Thapar A. Commentary: maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring ADHD: a lesson in the importance of testing causal pathways. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):91-93.
    • Rutter M. Proceeding From Observed Correlation to Causal Inference: The Use of Natural Experiments. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2007;2(4):377-395.
    • Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2014;55(1):61-68.
    • Obel C, Zhu JL, Olsen J, et al. The risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy - a reexamination using a sibling design. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2015.
    • Lipsitch M, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Cohen T. Negative controls: a tool for detecting confounding and bias in observational studies. Epidemiology. 2010;21(3):383-388.
    • 2012;23(2):350-351; author reply 351-352.
    • Langley K, Heron J, Davey Smith G, Thapar A. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD symptoms in offspring: testing for intrauterine effects. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):261-268.
    • Zhu JL, Olsen J, Liew Z, Li J, Niclasen J, Obel C. Parental smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children: the Danish national birth cohort. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):e382- 388.
    • Magnus P, Birke C, Vejrup K, et al. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(2):382-388.
    • The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • NIH | Gene-Environment Interactio...

Cite this article