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Brake, Laurel (1997)
Publisher: Addison Wesley Longman
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: eh
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    • 1. The distinction between 'writerly' and 'readerly' texts made by Roland Barthes is helpful here. See R. Barthes, S/Z, trans. Richard Miller (New York, 1974)' pp. 3-5 and passim.
    • 2. Most Victorian writing at issue here appeared within periodicals as one item in a succession of pieces which made up a number, but some material - notably fiction such as some novels by Dickens and George Eliot, and long works such as the Oxford English Dictionary and the Dictionary of National Biography - appeared in part-issue, which was confined to the single work in question, the series of parts terminating when the work was completed.
    • 3. See Margaret Beetham, 'Towards a Theory of the Periodical as a Publishing Genre', in Investigating Victorian Journalism, ed. L. Brake, A. Jones and L. Madden (London,1990),p. 21. This article in totality provides an excellent introduction to some of the theoretical questions pertinent to journalism.
    • 4. M.M. Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin, 1981).
    • 5. George Eliot, 'Silly Novels by Lady Novelists,' Westminster Review, 56 (Oct. 1856), pp. 442-61.
    • 6. As the novel, fiction in prose rather than verse, was not a classical form, it remained largely disregarded by the learned; for the genteel, the religious and the puritan it was often characterized as morally dangerous, 'light' reading, or 'misleading' by its display of the possibilities of romance plots. Given our esteem for the nineteenthcentury English novel, its neglect by some contemporary critics such as Matthew Arnold, Walter Pater, Swinburne and Oscar Wilde is noteworthy, as is their marked preference for European fiction, perhaps in part because it was not in their vernacular, and not therefore accessible to the untutored reader.
    • 7. Michel Foucault, 'What is an Author?', in Textual Strategies, ed. Josue V. Harari (Ithaca and London, 1977).
    • 8. By this phrase Darnton is referring to the production circuit of communication, from author-publisher to printers and their suppliers to shippers to booksellers to readers and back to the author. See Robert Darnton, 'What is the History of Books?', in The Kiss of Lamourette (London, 1990), p. 112.
    • 9. For a detailed discussion of the origins of Dickens's use of the partissue format, see Robert L. Patten, Charles Dickens a n d His Publishers (Santa Cruz, 1991).
    • 10. Dickens undercut the system at this part of the circuit as well, by publishing a number of his novels in less than three volumes immediately after serialization.
    • 11. See John Sutherland's comments on the origins of serialization: John Sutherland, 'Dickens's Serialising Imitators', in Victorian Fiction: Writers, Publishers, Readers (London, 1995), pp. 87-106, and its persistance after 1894.
    • 12. See Sutherland, ibid., for the rare use and even rarer success of partissue for Victorian fiction. I say 'largely' because as early as 1854 Dickens had further undercut the three-volume publishing system by conducting his own periodicals which carried his and others' fiction. Household Words, a weekly, dates from 1850 (to 28 May 1859) and All the Year Round from April 1859. Dickens edited the latter until ' his death in 1870. And Blackwood's Monthly Magazine had been publishing anonymous fiction since its inception in 1817.
    • 13. The nineteenth-century periodical press did provide the forcing ground of criticism as we known it, and its 'progress' was not linear. Non-fiction could be the site of serious, methodical reviews in some of the early quarterlies, but reviews of fiction reflected its low cultural value at this period, and often consisted of little but excerpts andlor puffs, in the form of paid paragraphs from the publisher or kind words from an anonymous friend of the author or, in some cases, the author him- or herself. When in 1864 Matthew Arnold focused greater attention on criticism in his essay 'The Function of Criticism at the Present Time' and in 1865 appended it as the introduction to Essays in Criticism, a collection of his periodical articles, selfconsciousness about 'criticism' among periodical journalists was already evident.
    • 14. These taxes and others on newspaper advertisements were called 'taxes on knowledge' and were originally imposed by the government from the late eighteenth century in order to control the circulation of news; they sought to keep press ownership out of the reach of poor, radical printers, to keep the prices of newspapers high, and to confine the readership of the press to the wealthier classes. They were gradually reduced and removed between 1833 and 1861.
    • 15. James Grant, The Newspaper Press, Vol. 111, The Metropolitan Weekly and Provincial Press (London, 1872).
    • 16. See Patricia Hollis, The Pauper Press (Oxford, 1970) and Joel Wiener, The War of the Unstamped (Ithaca, 1969).
    • 17. See Laurel Brake, 'From Critic to Literary Critic: the Case of The Academy, 1869', in Subjugated Knowledges (London, 1994), pp. 36-50.
    • 18. Walter Bagehot, 'The First Edinburgh Reviewers', National Review, 1 2 (Oct. 1855), pp. 253-84.
    • 19. Margaret Beetham, A Magazine of their O W N (London, 1996), discusses the complex issue of what constitutes women's space in the nineteenth-century periodical press in relation t o magazines which were targeted at women readers, but often largely written and edited by men.
    • 20. [Innes Shand], 'Contemporary Literature: I. Journalists', Blackwood's Magazine, 124 (Dec. 1878), pp. 641-62. For more on this interesting series by Innes Shand, see Laurel Brake, '"The trepidation of the spheres": the Serial and the Book in the Nineteenth Century' in Serials and their Readers, ed. R. Myers and M. Harris (Winchester, 1993), pp. 82-101.
    • 21. The amount and quality of Dickens's journalism have recently been recognized by Dent's decision to publish a four-volume edition of his best (i.e. selected) journalism, edited and annotated by Michael Slater. That such an edition has appeared so belatedly is an index of literature's anxious devaluation of its historic rival, journalism, even when the journalism is by a great author.
    • 22. See Sutherland, 'Dickens's Serialising Imitators', p. 95.
    • 23. Over the years of the Westminster's history, Harriet Martineau, Harriet Taylor and Helen Taylor were three.
    • 24. Elisabeth Jay is very interesting on Oliphant's version of her professional and domestic roles. See Elisabeth Jay, 'The Professional Woman', in Mrs Oliphant: A Fiction to Herself (London, 1995), pp. 241-88.
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