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Brine, Jacky
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
The European Social Fund (ESF) provides funding for vocational training projects for unemployed women aged over 25. This research traces the development of ESF policies and interpretations from within the European Commission and the British government from 1958 to 1993. The position of women within the European and British labour markets provides the basis of the evaluation of the ESF's aim to increase employability through training linked to the needs of the labour market. The study is based on a gender, class and race analysis from within a perspective of British socialist feminism. The research follows an inductive, essentially grounded-theory method of research, where each stage is determined by the emergent dominant category of the previous stage. There are three stages: firstly, interviews with the women 'workers' on an ESF funded vocational training project for unemployed women. The non-traditional manual skills training provision was typical of many such projects throughout the 1980s. Secondly, a document based study of policy documents and interpretations. The third stage concentrates on the position of women within the European and British labour markets. The finding is that working-class women are trained for occupations of continual decline, and are not trained for the growth occupations of new technology. Neither are they trained towards improving their hierarchical position. The discourse of equal opportunities emerges as a central theme throughout the thesis, from the case study onwards. The final analysis of its impact on vocational training policy is that equal opportunities policies, whilst providing access to specific non-traditional manual skills, nevertheless, through the inherent lack of class analysis, actually closes or hinders access to other training and employment opportunities, thereby meeting both the needs of capitalism and of patriarchy.
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    • 1. The EC: labour force, employment and hours worked: males and females: 1985.
    • 9. EC unemployment rates by Member State: 1983-1989.
    • 11. UK: ranking of occupations in percentage growth in employment: 1971-1981. Plus analysis to the table.
    • 12. UK: ranking of industries by percentage growth in employment: 1971-1981. Plus analysis to the table.
    • 13. EC: sectoral distribution of employment: 1989.
    • 14. EC: women's earnings (hourly) as a percentage of men's: 1972-1987.
    • 15. EC: women's earnings (gross weekly) as a percentage of men's: 1983-1989. Plus analysis to Tables 14 and 15.
    • 16. EC: persons in employment, working part-time, by Member State and sex: 1986.
    • 17. ESF Budget allocations specifically to women: 1978; 1979; 1980; 1987. Plus grants by sex and Member States 1987.
    • 18. Structural Funds allocation: Objectives 3 and 4: 1990-1992.
    • 19. General labour market trends ln the EC: key employment indicators in the Community.
    • 31. UK construction industry: changes ln numbers of employees: 1971, 1981 and 1985.
    • 32. UK new technology occupations: average rates of pay: men and women: 1992.
    • 33. EC new technologies: employment: 1981-1987.
    • RI BBI NS, Jane, (1989), 'I ntervi ewi ng women - an unnatu ra 1 situation ?', in Women's Studies International Forum. No 12 p579- 592. ' RICH, Adrienne, (1976), Of woman born: motherhood as experience and institution. New York: Norton.
    • RICH, Adrienne, (1980), 'Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence', in Signs. No 5, p631-60.
    • RIESSMAN, Catherine, (1987), 'When gender is not enough: women interviewing women', in Gender and Society. Vol. 1, No 1, June 1987, p172-207.
    • RILEY, R., (1982), 'Black girls speak for themselves', t n Multiracial Education. Vol. 10, No 3, p3-12.
    • ROBERTS, Helen, (Ed.), (1981), Doing feminist research. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • UK Education documents: FEU 1 (1989)1 Replan Report RP490 1 Curriculum design and methodology in women only courses.
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