Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Banerjee, R.; Yuill, N.; Easton, K.; Larson, C.; Robinson, Elizabeth J. (2007)
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
Two experiments investigated children’s implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds’ (n ! 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others’ judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably lower than their conformity to others’ views regarding an ambiguous fact. In Experiment 2, children aged 6, 8, or 10 years (n ! 81) were asked to make judgments either about ambiguous matters of fact or about matters of opinion and then heard an opposing judgment from an\ud expert. All age groups conformed to the opposing judgments on factual matters more than they did to the experts’ views on matters of opinion. However, only the oldest children explicitly recognized that opinions are subjective and cannot be “wrong.” Implications of these results for models of children’s reasoning about epistemic states are discussed.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Bar-Tal, D., Raviv, A., Raviv, A., & Brosh, M. E. (1991). Perception of epistemic authority and attribution for its choice as a function of knowledge area and age. European Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 477- 492.
    • Beck, S. R., & Robinson, E. J. (2001). Children's ability to make tentative interpretations of ambiguous messages. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 95-114.
    • Burton, S., & Mitchell, P. (2003). Judging who knows best about yourself: Developmental change in citing the self across middle childhood. Child Development, 74, 426 - 443.
    • Carpendale, J. I., & Chandler, M. J. (1996). On the distinction between false belief understanding and subscribing to an interpretive theory of mind. Child Development, 67, 1686 -1706.
    • Chandler, M. J., Boyes, M., & Ball, L. (1990). Relativism and stations of epistemic doubt. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 370 - 395.
    • Clements, W. A., & Perner, J. (1994). Implicit understanding of belief. Cognitive Development, 9, 377-395.
    • Damon, W. (1977). The social world of the child. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
    • Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (1999). A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 735- 808.
    • Flavell, J. H., Flavell, E. R., Green, F. L., & Moses, L. J. (1990). Young children's understanding of fact beliefs versus value beliefs. Child Development, 61, 915-928.
    • Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88 -140.
    • Hoving, K. L., Hamm, N., & Galvin, P. (1969). Social influence as a function of stimulus ambiguity at three age levels. Developmental Psychology, 1, 631- 636.
    • Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., & Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive Development, 15, 309 -328.
    • Laupa, M. (1991). Children's reasoning about three authority attributes: Adult status, knowledge, and social position. Developmental Psychology, 27, 321-329.
    • Laupa, M., & Turiel, E. (1986). Children's conceptions of adult and peer authority. Child Development, 57, 405- 412.
    • Laupa, M., & Turiel, E. (1993). Children's concepts of authority and social contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 191-197.
    • Meerum Terwogt, M., & Rieffe, C. (2003). Stereotyped beliefs about desirability: Implications for characterizing the child's theory of mind. New Ideas in Psychology, 21, 69 - 84.
    • Pillow, B. H., & Henrichon, A. J. (1996). There's more to the picture than meets the eye: Young children's difficulty understanding biased interpretation. Child Development, 67, 803- 819.
    • Raviv, A., Bar-Tal, D., Raviv, A., & Houminer, D. (1990). Development in children's perceptions of epistemic authorities. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 157-169.
    • Robinson, E. J., & Apperly, I. (1998). Adolescents' and adults' views about the evidential basis for beliefs: Relativism and determinism reexamined. Developmental Science, 1, 279 -289.
    • Robinson, E. J., & Whitcombe, E. L. (2003). Children's suggestibility in relation to their understanding about sources of knowledge. Child Development, 74, 48 - 62.
    • Rothbaum, F. (1979). Comprehension of the objectivity-subjectivity distinction in childhood and early adolescence. Child Development, 50, 1184 -1191.
    • Ruffman, T., Garnham, W., Import, A., & Connolly, D. (2001). Does eye gaze indicate implicit knowledge of false belief? Charting transitions in knowledge. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 201-224.
    • Siegler, R. S., & Stern, E. (1998). Conscious and unconscious strategy discoveries: A microgenetic analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 377-397.
    • Wainryb, C., Shaw, L. A., Langley, M., Cottam, K., & Lewis, R. (2004). Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: Judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons. Child Development, 75, 687-703.
    • Walker, M. B., & Andrade, M. G. (1996). Conformity in the Asch task as a function of age. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 367-372.
    • Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child's theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theoryof-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655- 684.
    • Yuill, N., Perner, J., Pearson, A., Peerbhoy, D., & van den Ende, J. (1996). Children's changing understanding of wicked desires: From objective to subjective and moral. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 457- 475.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article