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Hintze, Almut (2012)
Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: 1000
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    • Cf. Max Weber, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, vol. 1, ed.
    • Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 440f, and Kurt Rudolph, “Zarathuštra - Priester und Prophet. Neue Aspekte der Zarathuštra- bzw.
    • Gāthā-Forschung,” Numen 8 (1961), pp. 81-116, 81f. On the typology of priest and prophet and for further references see Richard Friedli, “Priesthood. I. Religious Studies,” and Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler, “Prophets and Prophecy. I. Religious Studies,” in Religion Past and Present. Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion, vol. 10, ed. Hans Dieter Betz et al (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2011), pp. 364-365 and 441-442; Willard G. Oxtoby, “Priesthood. An Overview,” and Gerald T. Sheppard and William E. Herbrechtsmeier, “Prophecy. An Overview,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York & London: Macmillan, 1987) vol. 11, pp. 528-534 and vol. 12, pp. 8-14.
    • See, for instance, Mary Boyce, “Zoroaster the Priest,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 37, 3 (1970), pp. 23-38.
    • For a summary of the debate and the main issues involved, see Stephanie W. Jamison, The Rig Veda between Two Worlds (Paris: Collège de France, 2007), pp. 21-24 and 28-31. For references and discussions of the identity of the “I” in the Gathas, see Antonio Panaino, Rite, Parole et Pensée dans l'Avesta Ancient et Récent. Quatre leçons aus Collège de France (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004), pp. 95-105; Almut Hintze, A Zoroastrian Liturgy. The Worship in Seven Chapters (Yasna 35-41) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007), p. 92 fn.95; Stephanie W. Jamison, “Poetic SelfReference in the Rig Veda and the Persona of Zarathustra,” in Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Iranian and Zoroastrian Studies in Honor of Prods Oktor Skjaervø, ed. Carol Altman Bromberg, Nicholas Sims-Williams, and Ursula Sims-Williams 19 (2005), pp. 67-70.
    • On the Avesta, see Almut Hintze, “Avestan Literature,” in The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran, ed. Ronald E. Emmerick and Maria Macuch, Companion Volume I to A History of Persian Literature XVII, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (London: Tauris, 2009), p.39f. On hampursagīh in the Pahlavi texts see Andres Hultgård, “Forms and Origins of Iranian Apocalypticism,” in Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala, August 12-17, 1979, ed. D. Hellholm (Tübingen: Mohr, 1983, 2nd ed. 1989), pp. 395-398. In the Avesta, another medium of communication between the human and the divine appears to be the dream, if this is what xvafənā means in Y 30.3, see Martin Schwartz, “Revelations, Theology, and Poetics in the Gathas,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 14 (2000), pp. 1-18.
    • Dream visions (xwamn), which Zarduxšt then discusses with Ohrmazd, also play a role in the Middle Persian Zand ī Wahman Yasn 1.4 and 3.12-14, see Carlo Cereti, The Zand ī Wahman Yasn: A Zoroastrian Apocalypse, Rome Oriental Series 70 (Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1995).
    • See Mary Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism, vol. 1 (Leiden: Brill, 1975, second impression with corrections 1989), pp. 184ff.
    • Cf. Jamaspji Dastur Minocheherji Jamasp-Asana, The Pahlavi Texts Contained in the Codex MK copied in 1322 A.C. by the Scribe Mehr-Āwān Kaī-khūsrū (Bombay: Fort Printing Press, 1913), p. 17. The entire colophon has been transcribed and translated by Arthur Ambartsumian, “On the Manuscripts of the Pahlavi Work “Ayādgār ī Zarērān,” Manuscripta Orientalia 15 (2009), pp. 14-15.
    • 7. For more YAv. passages which represent Zarathustra as first human to recite the Ahuna Vairya prayer, see Prods O. Skjaervø, “Zarathustra: First Poet-Sacrificer,” in Paitimāna: Essays in Iranian, Indo-European, and Indian Studies in Honor of Hanns-Peter Schmidt, ed. Siamak Adhami (Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 2003) pp. 163-165.
    • 8. Jamison, The Rig Veda between Two Worlds, p. 42.
    • 9. Weber, Economy and Society, p. 446.
    • 10. On frašō.kərəti see Almut Hintze, “Frašō.kərəti,” in Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 10, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (New York: Bibliotheca Persica, 2001), pp. 190-182.
    • 11. On the Old Avestan liturgy, see Almut Hintze, “On the Literary Structure of the Older Avesta,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 65 (2002), pp. 48-50 and p. 32 with n. 6 on divergent views. Cf. Johanna Narten, Der Yasna Haptaŋhāiti (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1986), pp. 35-37, 276; Boyce, Zoroastrianism, Its Antiquity and Constant Vigour, p. 87-89. For a different evaluation of the Yasna Haptaŋhāiti in relation to the Gathas, see Martin Schwartz, “The Gathas and Other Old Avestan Poetry,” in La Langue Poétique IndoEuropéenne. Actes du Colloque de Travail de la Société des Études Indo-Européennes, eds. G.-J. Pinault and D. Petit (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), pp. 483-488.
    • 12. Weber, Economy and Society, p. 426: “There can be no priesthood without a cult, although there may well be a cult without a specialized priesthood.”
    • 13. On the first person reference in Y. 28, see Jamison, The Rig Veda between Two Worlds, p. 33f.
    • 14. Paul Thieme, “Vorzarathustrisches bei den Zarathustriern und bei Zarathustra,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 107 (1957), pp. 67-96, reprinted in: R. Schmitt, Indogermanische Dichtersprache (Wiesbaden: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 1968), pp. 204-241, p. 77ff., Almut Hintze, “Do ut Des: Patterns of Exchange in Zoroastrianism. A Memorial Lecture for Ilya Gershevitch,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 14 (2004), p. 29f.
    • 15. Almut Hintze, “On the Ritual Significance of the Yasna Haptaŋhāiti,” in Zoroastrian Rituals in Context, Numen Book Series vol. 102, ed. M. Stausberg (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2004), p. 294f.
    • 16. Hintze, “On the Literary Structure of the Older Avesta,” pp. 38, 50. On frašō.kərəti see above n. 10. For an interpretation of the OAv. ritual within the framework of individual eschatology, see Jean Kellens, Zoroastre et l'Avesta Ancien, Quatre leçons au Collège de France (Paris: Peeters, 1991), p. 51f.
    • 17. Boyce, “Zoroaster the Priest,” p. 24.
    • 18. Firoze Kotwal and James Boyd, A Persian Offering. The Yasna: A Zoroastrian High Liturgy, Studia Iranica 8 (Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniennes, 1991), pp. 112-115; Hintze, “On the Ritual Significance of the Yasna Haptaŋhāiti,” p. 304f., with n. 17; Panaino, Rite, Parole et Pensée dans l'Avesta Ancien et Récent, p. 51f.
    • 19. Mary Boyce, “Ātaš-zōhr and āb-zōhr,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 109 (1966); “Haoma, Priest of the Sacrifice,” in W. B. Henning Memorial Volume (London: Lund Humphries, 1970), p. 68-70, where Boyce rightly draws attention to the connection between animal sacrifice and frašegird.
    • 20. Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek, The Hērbedestān and Nērangestān. vol. 3, Nerangestān, Fragard 2 (Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniennes 2003), pp. 198-219, esp. 217.
    • 21. Hintze, A Zoroastrian Liturgy p. 258f., with references.
    • 22. Hintze, “Do ut Des,” p. 28.
    • 23. Cf. James Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta, vols. 1-3 (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1892-1893, reprinted 1960), vol. 1, p. 32, who establishes a correlation between social units and classes of priests, and, especially, Philip Kreyenbroek, “On the Concept of Spiritual Authority in Zoroastrianism,” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 17 (1994), pp. 1-15. On the hierarchical structure of the priesthood in Sasanian Iran, see Michael Stausberg, Die Religion Zarathushtras. Geschichte-Gegenwart-Rituale, vols. 1-3 (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2002-2004), vol. 1, pp. 255-262.
    • 24. Cf. Kreyenbroek, “On the Concept of Spiritual Authority in Zoroastrianism,” p. 14f.
    • 25. See Narten, Der Yasna Haptaŋhāiti, pp. 181 and 293; Hintze, A Zoroastrian Liturgy p. 20; Martin Schwartz, “Women in the Old Avesta: Social Position and Textual Composition,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 17 (2003), pp. 1-8; Albert de Jong, “Jeh the Primal Whore? Observations on Zoroastrian Misogyny,” in Female Stereotypes in Religious Traditions, eds. Rai Kloppenborg and Wouter J. Hanegraaff (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 15-41, esp. pp. 23-25; Leon Goldman, “Women in the Avesta,” in Encyclopedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (New York: Bibliotheca Persica, forthcoming).
    • 26. Max Weber, “Charismatic Authority,” in The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, trans. A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons, ed. Talcott Parsons (London: Macmillan, 1947), pp. 358-363. Paul Gifford, “Religious Authority: Scripture, Tradition, Charisma,” in The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, ed. John R. Hinnells (London and New York: Routledge, 2010), pp. 397-410, esp. 406-407.
    • 27. Narten, Der Yasna Haptaŋhāiti, pp. 193 and 293.
    • 28. The passage is quoted in Hintze, “On the Ritual Significance of the Yasna Haptaŋhāiti,” p. 314f. On the Pahlavi commentary, which interprets this passage differently, cf. Albert de Jong, “Review of Kotwal/Kreyenbroek 1995,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1999), pp. 305-306.
    • 29. Cf. Jehangir Tavadia, Šāyast-nē-Šāyast: A Pahlavi Text on Religious Customs, Alt- und Neu-Indische Studien 3 (Hamburg: Friedrichsen, De Gruyter, 1930), p. 145. A translation of the full passage is given by Albert de Jong, “Women and Ritual in Medieval Zoroastrianism,” in Ātaš-e Dorun: The Fire Within, eds. Carlo Cereti, Farrokh Vajifdar, Mehrborzin Soroushian, and Jamshid Soroush Soroushian (Bloomington, Indiana: 1st Books, 2003), vol. 2, p. 150f. and 160f. n.25.
    • 30. Almut Hintze, “Disseminating the Mazdyasnian Religion: An Edition of the Avestan Hērbedestān Chapter 5,” in Exegisti Monumenta, Festschrift in Honour of Nicholas SimsWilliams, eds. Werner Sundermann, Almut Hintze, and François de Blois (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), pp. 171-190. Again, the priests of the Middle Persian period interpreted the passage differently (cf. above, note 28) and allowed only the “master of the house” (mānbed) to leave home to pursue religious service, see Maria Macuch, “Disseminating the Mazdyasnian religion: An Edition of the Pahlavi Hērbedestān Chapter 5,” in Exegisti Monumenta, Festschrift in Honour of Nicholas Sims-Williams, eds. Werner Sundermann, Almut Hintze, and François de Blois (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), pp. 251-277. On the difference between zaotar- and aθauruuan-, see Helmut Humbach, J. H. Elfenbein, and Prods O. Skjaervø, The Gāthās of Zarathushtra and the Other Old Avestan Texts, vol. 1, Indogermanische Bibliothek (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1991), p. 4, n. 5.
    • 31. On the initiation ceremony, see Stausberg, Die Religion Zarathushtras, vol. 3, pp. 402-415.
    • 32. de Jong, “Women and Ritual in Medieval Zoroastrianism,” pp. 147-161, esp. 151ff; Weber, Economy and Society vol. 1, p. 488-490.
    • 33. Jamsheed K. Choksy, Evil, Good, and Gender: Facets of the Feminine in Zoroastrian Religious History (New York: Peter Lang, 2002), p. 113; Jenny Rose, “The Traditional Role of Women in the Iranian and Indian (Parsi) Zoroastrian Communities from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century,” Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute 56 (1989), pp. 15-30. During menstruation, women have to keep away from places of worship, cf. Pahlavi Rivāyat Accompanying the Dādistān ī Dēnīg, ed. A. V. Williams (Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 1990) vol. 1, pp. 88-89, vol. 2, p. 32; Tavadia, Šāyast-nē- Šāyast, p. 152 (Appendix 5.2, n. 7).
    • 34. On the genealogy of the Parsi priesthood, see Firoze Kotwal, “A Brief History of the Parsi Priesthood,” in Irano-Judaica, vol. 2, eds. Shaul Shaked and Amnon Netzer (Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute, 1990), pp. 217-226.
    • 35. Khojeste Mistree, “The Breakdown of the Zoroastrian Tradition,” in Irano-Judaica, vol. 2, eds. Shaul Shaked and Amnon Netzer (Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute, 1990), p. 250f. On the question of leadership within the Parsi community, see John R. Hinnells, “Changing Perceptions of Authority among Parsis in British India,” in Parsis in India and the Diaspora, eds. John R. Hinnells and Alan Williams (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 100-118.
    • 36. Arnavaz Mama, “A Zoroastrian Conclave. Community Leaders from Around the World Met to Discuss the Local Implications of Common Issues,” Parsiana 25, 11 (June 2003), p. 18.
    • 37. Parinaz M. Gandhi, “Mesdames Mobedyars,” Parsiana 33, 20 (21 May 2011), pp. 14-20.
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