Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hannah J. Swift; Dominic Abrams; Sibila Marques (2012)
Journal: Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
Objectives. In this research, we investigate whether social comparison with younger people can result in either a stereotype-based threat or boost in older people’s performance.\ud \ud Methods. Study 1 used nationally representative data to establish domains of performance in which older people are either stereotypically disadvantaged or advantaged relative to younger people. Study 2 was an experiment to test how a potentially threatening versus control versus enhancing comparison with younger people would affect performance in negatively and positively stereotyped task domains.\ud \ud Results. As predicted, compared with the control condition, stereotype threat caused performance decrements in both task domains. This effect was partially mediated by anxiety. Moreover, the enhancing social comparison boosted performance, but only on a crossword task, a task on which older people’s abilities are favorably stereotyped.\ud \ud Discussion. The research demonstrates that a threatening comparison can result in underperformance by older people both in negatively and positively self-stereotyped task domains. It also demonstrates that social comparison with younger people can enhance older people’s performance in a positively stereotyped task domain. The implications for creating circumstances likely to enable older people to achieve their full potential are discussed.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abrams, D., Crisp, R. J., Marques, S., Fagg, E., Bedford, L., & Provias, D. (2008). Threat inoculation: Experienced and imagined intergenerational contact prevents stereotype threat effects on older people's math performance. Psychology and Aging, 23, 934-939. doi:10.1037/ a0014293
    • Abrams, D., Eller, A., & Bryant, J. (2006). An age apart: The effects of intergenerational contact and stereotype threat on performance and intergroup bias. Psychology and Aging, 21, 691-701. doi:10.1037/ 0882-7974.21.4.691
    • Abrams, D., & Hogg, M. A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334. doi:10.1002/ejsp. 2420180403
    • Abrams, D., Vauclair, M., & Swift, H. (2011). Predictors of attitudes towards age in Europe (Department of Work and Pensions, Research Report No. 735). Crown 2011. Retrieved from http://statistics.dwp. gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2011-2012/rrep735.pdf
    • Age UK. (2005). How ageist is Britain? London: Age Concern.
    • Armenta, B. E. (2010). Stereotype boost and stereotype threat effects: The moderating role of ethnic identification. Cultural Diversity and Ethic Minority Psychology, 16, 94-98. doi:10.1037/10017564
    • Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (1993). The search for a psychology of wisdom. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 75-80. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.122
    • Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1994). Implicit stereotyping and prejudice. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (vol. 7, pp. 55-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230-244. doi:0022-3514/96/S3.00
    • Ben-Zeev, T., Fein, S., & Inzlicht, M. (2005). Arousal and stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 174-181. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2003.11.007
    • Blanchard-Fields, F. (2007). Everyday problem solving and emotion an adult development perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 26-31. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00469
    • Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering, but dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3-26). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Cuddy, A. J. C., Norton, M. I., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). The old stereotype: The pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 267-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560. 2005.00405
    • Dijkstra, P., Kuyper, H., van der Werf, G. P. C., Buunk, A. P., & van der Zee, Y. (2008). Social comparison in the classroom: A review. Review of Educational Research, 78, 828-879. doi:10.3102/ 0034654308321210
    • Erber, J. T., Szuchman, L. T., & Rothberg, S. T. (1990). Age, gender, and individual differences in memory failure appraisal. Psychology and Aging, 5, 600-603. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.5.4.600
    • Hambrick, D. Z., Salthouse, T. A., & Meinz, E. J. (1999). Predictors of crossword puzzle proficiency and moderators of age-cognition relations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 131-164. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.128.2.131
    • Hausdorff, J. M., Levy, B., & Wei, J. Y. (1999). The power of ageism on physical function of older persons: Reversibility of age-related gait changes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 1346-1349.
    • Hess, T. M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S. J., & Rahhal, T. A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 3-11. doi:10.1093/geronb/58.1.P3
    • Hess, T. M., Hinson, J. T., & Statham, J. A. (2004). Explicit and implicit stereotype activation effects on memory: Do age and awareness moderate the impact of priming? Psychology and Aging, 19, 495-505. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.19.3.495
    • Inzlicht, M., & Kang, S. K. (2010). Stereotype threat spillover: How coping with threats to social identification affects aggression, eating, decision making and attention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 467-481. doi:10.1037/a0018951
    • Kang, S. K., & Chasteen, A. L. (2009). The moderating role of age group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 69, 201-220. doi:10.2190/AG.69.3.c
    • Kite, M. E., & Johnson, B. T. (1988). Attitudes towards older and younger adults: a meta-analysis. Psychology of Aging, 3, 233-244.
    • Levy, B. (1996). Improving memory in old age through implicit selfstereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092-1107. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1092
    • Levy, B. (2000). Handwriting as a reflection of aging self-stereotypes. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33, 81-94.
    • Levy, B., Ashman, O., & Dror, I. (1999-2000). To be or not to be: the effects of stereotypes on the will to live. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 40, 409-240.
    • Levy, B., & Langer, E. (1994). Aging free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory in China and among the American deaf. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 989-997. doi:10.1037/0022- 3514.66.6.989
    • Levy, B., & Leifheit-Limson, E. (2009). The stereotype-matching effect: Greater influence on functioning when age stereotype correspond to outcomes. Psychology and Aging, 24, 230-233. doi:10.1037/ a0014563
    • Levy, B. R., & Myers, L. M. (2004). Preventative health behaviors influenced by self perceptions of aging. Preventative Medicine, 39, 625-629. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.02.029
    • Levy, B. R., Slade, M. D., Kunkel, S. R., & Kasl, S. V. (2002). Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 261-270. doi:10.1037/0022-3514. 83.2.261
    • Marx, D. M., & Stapel, D. A. (2006). Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects: On the role of the social self and threat based concerns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 243-254. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.2.243
    • Marx, D. M., Stapel, D. A., & Muller, D. (2005). We can do it: The interplay of construal orientation and social comparison under threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 432-446. doi:10.1037/0022- 3514.88.3.432
    • Meisner, B. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of positive and negative age stereotype priming effects on behaviour among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67B, 13-17. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbr062
    • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891. doi:10.3758/ BRM.40.3.879
    • Prohaska, T. R., Parham, I. A., & Teitelman, J. (1984). Age differences in attributions to causality: Implications for intellectual assessment. Experimental Aging Research, 10, 111-117.
    • Rahhal, T. A., Hasher, L., & Colcombe, S. J. (2001). Instructional manipulations and age differences in memory: Now you see them, now you don't. Psychology and Aging, 16, 697-706. doi:10.1037//0882-7974. 16.4.697
    • Ray, S., Sharp, E., & Abrams, D. (2006). Age discrimination 2006: A benchmark for public attitudes. London: Age Concern England, Policy Unit.
    • Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Beilock, S. L. (2009). Multiple social identities and stereotype threat: Imbalance, accessibility, and working memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 949-966. doi:10.1037/a0014846
    • Schmader, T., & Johns, M. (2003). Convergent evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.440
    • Shih, M., Ambady, N., Richardson, J. A., Fujita, K., & Gray, H. M. (2002). Stereotype performance boosts: The impact of self-relevance and the manner of stereotype activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 638-647. doi:10.1037/0022-3514. 83.3.638
    • Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 10, 80-83. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00111
    • Singer, M. S. (1986). Age stereotypes as a function of profession. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 691-692.
    • Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373
    • Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613
    • Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: And other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company Limited.
    • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811. doi:10.1006/ jesp.1998.1371
    • Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2003). Stereotype lift. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 456-467. doi:10.1016/S0022-1031(03) 00019-2
    • Wheeler, S. C., & Petty, R. E. (2001). The effects of stereotype activation on behavior: A review of possible mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 797-826. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.127.6.797
    • Wills, T. A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 245-271. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.245
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article