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Moulton, Calum D.; Costafreda, Sergi G.; Horton, Paul; Ismail, Khalida; Fu, Cynthia H.Y. (2015)
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: nutritional and metabolic diseases, endocrine system diseases
Diabetes is associated with macrovascular and microvascular complications and is a major\ud risk factor for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as dementia and depression. Type\ud 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have distinct etiologies and\ud pathophysiological effects while sharing a common endpoint of persistent hyperglycemia.\ud Neuroimaging studies in T1DM have revealed reductions in numerous regions, including the\ud parahippocampal and occipital regions, while in T2DM there have been numerous reports of\ud hippocampal atrophy. This meta-analysis aimed to identify consistent regional abnormalities\ud in cerebral structures in T1DM and T2DM respectively, and also to examine the impact of\ud potential confounds, including age, depression and vascular risk factors. Neuroimaging\ud studies of both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) data and volumetric data were included.\ud Ten T1DM studies (n=613 patients) and 23 T2DM studies (n=1364 patients) fulfilled\ud inclusion criteria. The T1DM meta-analysis revealed reduced bilateral thalamus grey matter\ud density in adults. The T2DM meta-analysis revealed reduced global brain volume and\ud regional atrophy in the hippocampi, basal ganglia, orbitofrontal and occipital lobes.\ud Moreover, hippocampal atrophy in T2DM was not modified by hypertension, although there\ud were more marked reductions in younger patients relative to healthy controls. In conclusion,\ud T1DM and T2DM demonstrated distinct cerebral effects with generalised and specific target\ud areas of grey matter reduction. Thalamic atrophy in T1DM may be a substrate of associated\ud cognitive deficits. In T2DM, global cerebral atrophy may reflect atherosclerotic factors, while\ud hippocampal atrophy was an independent effect providing a potential common\ud neuropathological aetiology for the comorbidity of T2DM with dementia and depression.

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