Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Workplaces worldwide are a major source of carbon emissions and changing energy use behaviour in these environments has the capacity for large carbon savings. This paper reviews and synthesises empirical evidence to identify whattypes of behaviour change intervention are most successful at saving energy
in an office-type workplace. We draw on the field of health-related behaviour change interventions and adopt the Behaviour Change Wheel (Michie et al., 2014) as a framework through which to assess the success of the interventions reviewed here (n = 22 studies). We find that interventions creating social
and physical opportunities for employees to save energy are the most successful i.e. which constitute Enablement (including direct support and greater control to employees), Environmental Restructuring (particularly automated and retrofitted technologies) and Modelling (various forms of social influence).
The communal nature of most workplaces demands scrutiny to understand the effect of social influences. We provide recommendations for future research, including the need to consider forms of intervention not yet researched; Coercion, Restriction, and Training.We conclude by calling for further, well evaluated, energy saving behavioural interventions in a variety of workplaces to identify those techniques which offer the greatest success in saving energy and thus reducing carbon emissions.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] Low Carbon Innovation Coordination Group, Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA) Non-Domestic Buildings Summary Report, 2012, Available at: www.lowcarboninnovation.co.uk/document.php?o=11.
    • [2] IPCC, IPCC AR5 Climate Change: Implications for Buildings Key Findings From the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, 2014, Available at: http://bpie.eu/publication/climate-change-implicationsfor-buildings/.
    • [3] DECC, What Are the Factors Influencing Energy Behaviours and Decision-making in the Non-domestic Sector. A Rapid Evidence Assessment, Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE) and the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford (ECI), 2012 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment data/file/65601/6925-what-are-the-factorsinfluencing-energy-behaviours.pdf.
    • [4] G.N. Dixon, M.B. Deline, K. Mccomas, L. Chambliss, M. Hoffmann, Saving energy at the workplace: the salience of behavioral antecedents and sense of community, Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 6 (2015) 121-127.
    • [5] W. Abrahamse, L. Steg, C. Vlek, T. Rothengatter, A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation, J. Exp. Psychol. 25 (2005) 273-291.
    • [6] W. Abrahamse, L. Steg, How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households direct and indirect energy use and savings? J. Econ. Pschol. 30 (2009) 711-720.
    • [7] S.H. Lo, G.-J.Y. Peters, G. Kok, A review of determinants of and interventions for proenvironmental behaviours in organisations, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 42 (2012) 2933-2967.
    • [8] B. Bedwell, C. Leygue, M. Goulden, D. Mcauley, J. Colley, E. Ferguson, N. Banks, A. Spence, Apportioning energy consumption in the workplace: a review of issues in using metering data to motivate staff to save energy, Technol. Anal. Strategic Manag. 26 (2014) 1196-1211.
    • [9] M. Goulden, A. Spence, Caught in the middle: the role of the facilities manager in organisational energy use, Energy Policy 85 (2015) 280-287.
    • [10] A.R. Carrico, M. Riemer, Motivating energy conservation in the workplace: an evaluation of the use of group-level feedback and peer education, J. Environ. Psychol. 31 (2011) 1-13.
    • [11] C. Leygue, E. Ferguson, A. Skatova, A. Spence, Energy sharing and energy feedback: affective and behavioural reactions to communal energy displays, Front. Energy Res. 2 (2014) 29.
    • [12] M.B. Deline, Energizing organizational research: advancing the energy field with group concepts and theories, Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 8 (2015) 207-221.
    • [13] P.C. Stern, Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior, J. Soc. Issues 56 (2000) 407-424.
    • [14] K. Unsworth, A. Dmitrieva, E. Adriasola, Changing behavior: increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro-environmental behavior change, J. Organ. Behav. 34 (2013) 211-229.
    • [15] J. Burgess, C. Harrison, P. Filius, Environmental communication and the cultural politics of environmental citizenship, Environ. Plan. A 30 (1998) 1445-1460.
    • [16] A. Kollmus, J. Agyeman, Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environ. Educ. Res. 8 (2002) 239-260.
    • [17] D.W. Rajecki, Attitudes: Themes and Advances, Sinaver Associates, Sunderland, Mass, 1982.
    • [18] I. Ajzen, The theory of planned behaviour, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Processes 50 (1991) 179-211.
    • [19] J. Blake, Overcoming the 'value-action-gap' in environmental policy: tensions between national policy and local experience, Local Environ. 4 (1999) 257-278.
    • [20] E. Shove, M. Watson, J. Ingram, M. Hand, The Design of Everyday Life, Berg, Oxford, 2007.
    • [21] E. Shove, M. Pantzar, M. Watson, The Dynamics of Social Practice: Everyday Life and How It Changes, SAGE, London, 2012.
    • [22] Y. Strengers, Smart Energy Technologies in Everyday Life: Smart Utopia? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2013.
    • [23] T. Hargreaves, Practice-ing behaviour change: applying social practice theory to pro-environmental behaviour change J. Consum. Culture 11 (2011) 79-99.
    • [24] R. Osbaldiston, J.P. Schott, Environmental sustainability and behavioural science: meta-analysis of proenvironmental behaviour experiments, Environ. Behav. 44 (2012) 257-299.
    • [25] S. Christina, A. Dainty, K. Daniels, P. Waterson, How organisational behaviour and attitudes can impact building energy use in the UK retail environment: a theoretical framework, Archit. Eng. Des. Manag. 10 (2014) 164-179.
    • [26] A.N. Melnik, K.A. Ermolaev, N.V. Antonova, Stages in formalizing energy conservation and efficiency management in industrial enterprises, Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci. 5 (2014) 173-176.
    • [27] S. Muthulingam, C.J. Corbett, S. Benartzi, B. Oppenheim, Energy efficiency in small and medium-sized manufacturing firms: order effects and the adoption of process improvement recommendations, Manuf. Serv. Oper. Manag. 15 (2013) 596-615.
    • [28] M.J. Bissing-Olson, A. Iyer, K.S. Fielding, H. Zacher, Relationships between daily affect and pro-environmental behaviour at work: the moderating role of pro-environmental attitude, J. Organ. Behav. 34 (2013) 156-175.
    • [29] O.A. Nisiforou, S. Poullis, A.G. Charalambides, Behaviour, attitudes and opinion of large enterprise employees with regard to their energy usage habits and adoption of energy saving measures, Energy Build. 55 (2012) 299-311.
    • [30] C. Scherbaum, P.M. Popovich, S. Finlinson, Exploring individual-level factors related to employee energy-conservation behaviours at work, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 38 (2008) 818-835.
    • [31] A. Loureiro, M.L. Lima, Energy Saving Behaviour in an Organisational Context. ECEEE 2009, Panel 4 'Behaviour in and of Organisations, 2009 http://www. eceee.org/library/conference proceedings/EE and Behaviour/2009/Panel 4/4. 404/paper.
    • [32] M. Greaves, L.D. Zibarras, C. Stride, Using the theory of planned behaviour to explore environmental behavioural intentions in the workplace, J. Environ. Psychol. 34 (2013) 109-120.
    • [33] P.C. Endrejat, F.E. Klonek, S. Kauffeld, A psychology perspective of energy consumption in organisations: the value of participatory interventions, Indoor Built Environ. 24 (2015) 937-949.
    • [34] A.M. Lokhorst, H. Staats, J. Van Iterson, Energy saving in office buildings: are feedback and commitment-making useful instruments to trigger change? Hum. Ecol. 43 (5) (2015) 759-768.
    • [35] S. Sawang, R.A. Kivits, Greener workplace: understanding senior management's adoption decisions through the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Aust. J. Environ. Manag. 21 (2014) 22-36.
    • [36] L.D. Zibarras, P. Coan, HRM practices used to promote pro-environmental behavior: a UK survey, Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 26 (2015) 2121-2142.
    • [37] DECC, Research to Assess the Barriers and Drivers to Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, 2014 https://www.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment data/file/392908/Barriers to Energy Efficiency FINAL 2014-12-10.pdf.
    • [38] R. Galvin, N. Terry, Selling energy savings in the United Kingdom: a case study of top-down pro-environmental behaviour change in commercial office buildings, Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 11 (2016) 155-163.
    • [39] H.N. Rafsanjani, C.R. Ahn, M. Alahmad, A review of approaches for sensing, understanding, and improving occupancy-related energy-use behaviors in commercial buildings, Energies 8 (2015) 10996-11029.
    • [40] A.H.Y. Lam, Y. Yuan, D. Wang, An occupant-participatory approach for thermal comfort enhancement and energy conservation in buildings, e-Energy 2014-Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems (2014) 133-143.
    • [41] E. Azar, C.C. Menassa, Framework to evaluate energy-saving potential from occupancy interventions in typical commercial buildings in the United States, J. Comput. Civil Eng. 28 (2014) 63-78.
    • [42] R. Whittle, R. Ellis, I. Marshall, P. Alcock, D. Hutchison, A. Mauthe, From responsibility to accountability: working creatively with distributed agency in office energy metering and management, Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 10 (2015) 240-249.
    • [43] E. Costanza, B. Bedwell, M. Jewell, J. Colley, T. Rodden, 'A bit like British weather, I suppose' design and evaluation of the temperature calendar, Proceedings of the 34th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI'16, New York, NY, USA. ACM (2016).
    • [44] C. Katzeff, L. Broms, L. Jonsson, U. Westholm, M. Rasanen, Exploring sustainable practices in workplace settings through visualizing electricity consumption, ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 20 (2013) 31.
    • [45] R. Bull, M. Lemon, D. Everitt, G. Stuart, Moving beyond feedback: energy behaviour and local engagement in the United Kingdom, Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 8 (2015) 32-40.
    • [46] K. Kuntz, R. Shukla, I. Bensch, How many points for that? a game-based approach to environmental sustainability, 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 7 (2012) 126-137.
    • [47] G.N. Dixon, M.B. Deline, K. McComas, L. Chambliss, M. Hoffmann, Using comparative feedback to influence workplace energy conservation a case study of a university campaign, Environ. Behav. 47 (2015) 667-693.
    • [48] C. Gustafason, M. Longland, Engaging employees in conservation leadership, 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 7 (2008) 134-147.
    • [49] T. Owen, A. Pape-Salmon, B. McMurchy, Employee engagement and energy information software supporting carbon neutrality, 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 7 (2010) 233-244.
    • [50] N. Murtagh, M. Nati, W.R. Headley, B. Gatersleben, A. Gluhak, M.A. Imran, D. Uzzell, Individual energy use and feedback in an office setting: a field trial, Energy Policy 62 (2013) 717-728.
    • [51] M.J.J. Handgraaf, M.A. van Lidth de Jeude, K.C. Appelt, Public praise vs: private pay: effects of rewards on energy conservation, Ecol. Econ. 86 (2013) 86-92.
    • [52] A. Cox, T. Higgins, R. Gloster, B. Foley, A. Darnton, The Impact Of Workplace Initiatives On Low Carbon Behaviours, Scottish Government Social Research, 2012 http://www.gov.scot/resource/0039/00390309.pdf.
    • [53] S.F. Michie, L. Atkins, R. West, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions, 1st ed., Silverback Publishing, 2014.
    • [54] S. Michie, M.M. van Stralen, R. West, The behavior change wheel: a new method for characterizing and designing behavior change interventions, Implement. Sci. 6 (2011) 42.
    • [55] Institute for Government, MINDSPACE; Influencing Behaviour Through Public Policy, Institute for Government, the Cabinet Office, 2010.
    • [56] EPOC (Cochrane Effectiveffective Practice and Organisation of Care Group), EPOC Resources for Review Authors, 2010 http://epoc.cochrane.org/epocresources-review-authors.
    • [57] R. West, Theory of Addiction, Blackwells, Oxford, 2006.
    • [58] Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [Updated March 2011], in: J.P.T. Higgins, S. Green (Eds.), The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011, Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
    • [59] M. Grant, A. Booth, A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies, Health Info. Libr. J. 26 (2009) 91-108.
    • [60] C.A. Craig, M.W. Allen, The impact of curriculum-based learning on environmental literacy and energy consumption with implications for policy, Util. Policy 35 (2015) 41-49.
    • [61] A. Kamilaris, J. Neovino, S. Kondepudi, B. Kalluri, A case study on the individual energy use of personal computers in an office setting and assessment of various feedback types toward energy savings, Energy Build. 104 (2015) 73-86.
    • [62] C.M. Werner, S. Cook, J. Colby, H.J. Lim, Lights out in university classrooms: brief group discussion can change behavior, J. Environ. Psychol. 32 (2012) 418-426.
    • [63] M.M. Aga-Hossein, R.M. Tetlow, M. Hadi, S. El-Jouzi, A.A. Elmualim, J. Ellis, M. Williams, Providing persuasive feedback through interactive posters to motivate energy-saving behaviours, Intell. Build. Int. 7 (2015) 16-35.
    • [64] S. Owens, Engaging the public: information and deliberation in environmental policy, Environ. Plan. A 32 (2000) 1141-1148.
    • [65] D. Bloomfield, K. Collins, C. Fry, R. Munton, Deliberative and Inclusionary Processes: Their Contribution to Environmental Governance, Environment and Society Research Unit, Department of Geography, University College, London, 1998.
    • [66] N. Simcock, S. MacGregor, P. Catney, A. Dobson, M. Ormerod, Z. Robinson, S. Ross, S. Royston, S.M. Hall, Factors influencing perceptions of domestic energy information: content, source and process, Energy Policy 65 (2014) 455-464.
    • [67] C. Schelly, J.E. Cross, W.S. Franzan, P. Hall, S. Reeve, Reducing energy consumption and creating a conservation culture in organizations: a case study of one public school district, Environ. Behav. 43 (2011) 316-343.
    • [68] C. Schelly, J.E. Cross, W.S. Franzan, P. Hall, S. Reeve, How to go green: creating a conservation culture in a public high school through education, modeling, and communication, J. Environ. Educ. 43 (2012) 143-161.
    • [69] I. Metzger, A. Kandt, O. VanGeet, Plug Load Behavioural Change Demonstration Project. Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-52248, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colarado, 2011 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/ fy11osti/52248.pdf.
    • [70] B. Orland, N. Ram, D. Lang, N. Kling, M. Coccia, Saving energy in an office environment: a serious game intervention, Energy Build. 74 (2014) 43-52.
    • [71] E. Tolias, E. Costanza, A. Rogers, B. Bedwell, N. Banks, IdleWars: an evaluation of a pervasive game to promote sustainable behaviour in the workplace, Int. Conf. on Entertainment Computing (2015) http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/378861/ 1/14pages.pdf.
    • [72] W. Abrahamse, L. Steg, C. Vlek, T. Rothengatter, The effect of tailored information, goal setting, and tailored feedback on household energy use, energy-related behaviours, and behavioural antecedents, J. Exp. Psychol. 27 (2007) 265-276.
    • [73] T.A. Wright, R. Cropanzano, D.G. Bonett, The moderating role of employee positive well-being on the relation between job satisfaction and job performance, J. Occup. Health Psychol. 12 (2007) 93-104.
    • [74] G. Brager, L. Baker, Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings, Build. Res. Inf. 37 (2009) 369-380.
    • [75] R. Yun, Persistent workplace plug-load energy savings and awareness through energy dashboards: feedback, control, and automation, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems-Proceedings (2014) 331-334.
    • [76] R. Yun, A. Aziz, P. Scupelli, B. Lasternas, C. Zhang, V. Loftness, Beyond eco-feedback: adding online manual and automated controls to promote workplace sustainability, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM (2015) 1989-1992.
    • [77] P.A. Jaramillo Garcia, L.I. Lopera Gonzalez, O. Amft, Using implicit user feedback to balance energy consumption and user comfort of proximity-controlled computer screens, J. Ambient Intell. Hum. Comput. 6 (2015) 207-221.
    • [78] M. Nye, T. Hargreaves, Exploring the social dynamics of proenvironmental behaviour change, J. Ind. Ecol. 14 (2009) 137-149.
    • [79] A. Nilsson, K. Andersson, C.J. Bergstad, Energy behaviors at the office: an intervention study on the use of equipment, Appl. Energy 146 (2015) 434-441.
    • [80] DECC, Carbon Culture at DECC. Can User Engagement Save Energy and Carbon at Work? An Exploration of Behavioural Economics at the Department of Energy and Climate Change, 2012 http://research.carbonculture.net/deccreport-2012/.
    • [81] C. Abraham, S. Michie, A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions, Health Psychol. 27 (2008) 379-387.
    • [82] H. Staats, E. van Leeuwen, A. Wit, A longitudinal study of informational interventions to save energy in an office building, J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 33 (2000) 101-104.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article