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Architects have a responsibility to understand clearly, and sensibly plan housing units and ultimately the cities so as to achieve a sustainable whole. By so doing, these professionals cannot afford to neglect any aspect of the housing envelope, nor consider it in part or as a whole as un-important. It is for this purpose, that we look at the aspects of harnessing daylight through a variety of systems and methods so as to make best use of this free and in-exhaustible commodity for both visual and thermal comfort. The major question which this thesis attempted to answer was to find a means of improving visual and thermal comfort in our homes while at the same time reducing our fossil fuel emissions. It was to this end that attention was turned towards the earth‟s major source of energy and to see how best to harness this resource and put it to passive use in the best possible non-intrusive manner. This thesis as a whole, attempted to evaluate existing lighting and thermal devices with an aim to enhancing them as well as suggesting novel devices to replace the existing ones. This thesis reviewed and tested the performance of solar evacuators, optical rods known to have high transmittance, as well as light pipes to see their applicability in residential dwellings in terms of the provision and lighting and heating within the residential buildings. Studies were also done to determine the effect of the combination of two technologies on the same platform i.e. light-pipes combined with light rod, as well as light rods combined with solar evacuators to ascertain and enhance their viability. These tests were carried out in three ways, viz; laboratory tests, outdoor tests as well as field tests on existing real life applications on the singular technology in use as a base-line for assessing the new technologies. Further studies were also carried out with the introduction of nano-technology, i.e. aerogel, so as to test its suitability as an insulator of heat and to examine its economic viability and use in residential buildings. Aerogel was also tested as filler in double-paned glass window to determine its transmittability whilst still maintaining its properties of being a good insulator. Consequently, suggestions were made into the application of the investigated devices, and how best they can be used in new buildings and retro-fitted in existing ones.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3.2.1. Field Study 1: The Tarmac House (Code 4), University of Nottingham, UK51
    • 3.2.2. Field Study 2: The David Wilson Home, University of Nottingham, UK .... 64
    • Diameters and Lengths.................................................................................. 72
    • 3.4.2. Experimental Uncertainty .............................................................................. 74
    • 3.4.3. Outdoor Test 1 - Tests with Light Pipe of Varying Lengths and Diameters 75
    • 3.4.4. Condition 1: 1.8m length, 100mm diameter Light Pipe in Test Box............ 76
    • 3.4.5. Condition 2: 1.2m length, 100mm diameter Light Pipe in Test Box............. 80
    • 3.4.6. Condition 3: 300mm diameter, 1.2m Length Light Pipe............................... 82
    • 3.4.7. Comparison of Results for all Three Conditions and Conclusion ................. 83
    • Diameters with Varying Lengths .................................................................. 84
    • 3.5.2. Condition 1: 100mm diameter, 1.8m length Light Rod................................. 85
    • 3.5.3. Condition 2: 100mm diameter, 1.2m length Light Rod................................. 87
    • 3.6.1. Test Set -up and Procedure ........................................................................... 94
    • 3.6.3. Comparative Analysis for the Various Sensor Positions using the Different Light Systems: .............................................................................................. 98
    • 4.1. Software Application................................................................................... 109
    • 5.2. The Use of Dark Evacuated Solar Tubes as a Means of Providing Heating in a Room ........................................................................................................ 120
    • 5.2.3. Results and Discussion ................................................................................ 123
    • 5.2.4. Analysis and Conclusion ............................................................................. 126
    • Comfort ....................................................................................................... 127
    • 5.3.2. The Test Rig: Set-up and Procedure ............................................................ 128
    • 5.3.3. Results and Analysis.................................................................................... 130
    • 6.2. Control Test for Daylighting with a Double-glazed Window in a RoomChamber in the Laboratory ......................................................................... 136
    • 6.2.2. Results and Analysis.................................................................................... 138
    • Daylighting Analysis with 13 Light Rods in a Room Chamber- Rig......... 140
    • 6.3.1. Results and Analysis.................................................................................... 142
    • 6.3.2. Daylighting with 25 Light Rods in a Room - Rig....................................... 144 xii
    • 6.4. Comparison of Light Analysis between the Window, 13 Light Rods and 25 Light Rods .................................................................................................. 146
    • 7. CHAPTER 7: NANO-INSULATION: A CASE OF AEROGEL AS A THERMAL REGULATOR........................................................................... 149
    • 7.2.1. The Experiment Set-up ................................................................................ 153
    • 7.2.2. Method of Test (Procedure)......................................................................... 155
    • 7.2.3. Analysis and Conclusion ............................................................................. 158
    • 7.2.4. Analysis and Conclusion ............................................................................. 160
    • 7.3. Light Transmittance of Aerogel/Argon Windows ...................................... 161
    • 7.3.3. Method of Test (Procedure)......................................................................... 163
    • Light Transmitting Concrete: Showing Light-Sharing ............................ 5
    • Figure 2-1: Electromagnetic Spectrum showing the visible spectrum (Source: NASA) ................................................................................................................ 13
    • Figure 2-2: Electromagnetic Spectrum showing the wavelength pattern (Source: Science Learning Hub, New Zealand) ................................................... 13
    • Figure 2-3
    • (Department of Trade and Industry) ...................................................... 18
    • Figure 2-4: Comfort Components Analysed (Vergara Salvat, 2011) ....................... 19
    • Figure 2-5
    • A Typical light pipe (Source Kim J.T., Kim, G. 2009) ......................... 22
    • Figure 2-6
    • Figure 2-7
    • G. 2009) ................................................................................................. 23
    • Elevation (Source Kim J.T., Kim, G. 2009) .......................................... 24
    • Figure 2-8: Round Monodraught Sunpipes mounted on roofs (Monodraught, 2012).. ................................................................................................................ 26
    • Figure 2-9
    • Round Monodraught Sunpipes Security Guard (Monodraught, 2012).. 26
    • Figure 2-10 Square Monodraught Sunpipe (Monodraught, 2012) ............................ 27
    • Figure 2-11 Side emission of light by rod with ground length .................................. 28
    • Figure 2-12 Three light rods with bends of 40°, 60º and 90° produced using IR heating and found during measurement to have less than 20% loss of transmittance (Shao 2000) ...................................................................... 28
    • Figure 2-13: Figure 2-14 Light Shelve (Wordpress, 2012) ........................................ 30
    • Figure 2-15: Horizontal & Vertical Louvers (Raven Industries, 2003 and Vollay Systems, 2013 respectively). ................................................................ 31
    • Figure 2-16: A typical Laser Cut Panel System. (Source: Hirning et al) .................... 32
    • Figure 2-17: Prismatic Panels on Building Exterior ................................................... 34
    • Figure 2-18: Prismatic Panels on The Trutec Building .............................................. 34
    • Figure 2-19: Residential application of LGS ............................................................... 35
    • Figure 2-20
    • light directing Holographic Optical Element. ...................................... 36
    • Figure 2-21
    • Developed World (Home Of Carbon Management, 2011).................. 38
    • Figure 2-22:
    • Top Forms of Renewable Energy Used - 2008 and 2013 .................. 39
    • Figure 2-23:
    • Key Obstacles to Global green Buildings .......................................... 40
    • Figure 2-24:
    • Location of Green Buildings Overseas .............................................. 41
    • Figure 2-25:
    • a - d BASF House .............................................................................. 43
    • Figure 2-26: Idea House, Malaysia (Pomeroy, 2011).............................................. 45
    • Figure 2-27: Idea House, Malaysia (Pomeroy, 2011) ............................................... 45
    • Figure 3-1: The Tarmac house Front View .............................................................. 52
    • Figure 3-2: The Tarmac house Front View .............................................................. 53
    • Figure 3-3: The Tarmac House Rear View............................................................... 53
    • Figure 3-4 (a-h) Interior Pictures of the Tarmac House showing experiment rig setup. ................................................................................................... 54
    • Figure 3-5 (a-h) Interior Pictures of the Tarmac House showing experiment rig setup. ................................................................................................... 55
    • Figure 3-6:
    • Tarmac House Studied (Left Wing in Red) ....................................... 55
    • Figure 3-7: Tarmac House Second Floor Plan, Perspective View of Corridor where Lightpipe is Positioned and Section of the Corridor.............................. 56
    • Figure 3-8: Analysis of Light During the hours of 16-05-12 (7am) to 17-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 57
    • Figure 3-9: Analysis of Light During the hours of 17-05-12 (7am) to 18-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 58
    • Figure 3-10: Analysis of Light During the hours of 18-05-12 (7am) to 19-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 58
    • Figure 3-11: Analysis of Light During the hours of 19-05-12 (7am) to 20-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 59
    • Figure 3-12: Analysis of Light During the hours of 20-05-12 (7am) to 21-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 60
    • Figure 3-13: Analysis of Light During the hours of 21-05-12 (7am) to 22-05-12 (7am) ...................................................................................................... 60
    • Figure 3-14: Analysis (Tarmac House) of Covered Sunpipe 22-05-12 (7.10am) to 23-05-12 (7.10am) ................................................................................. 61
    • Figure 3-15: Analysis (Tarmac House) of Covered Sunpipe 23-05-12 (7.10am) to 24-05-12 (7.10am) ................................................................................. 62
    • Figure 3-16: Analysis (Tarmac House) Covered Sunpipe 24-05-12 (7.10am) to 25- 05-12 (7.10am)....................................................................................... 62
    • Figure 3-17: West Facade of the David Wilson Eco-House..................................... 64
    • Figure 3-18: Interior of North facade showing array of glass blocks which bring light onto the hallway/corridor............................................................. 66
    • Figure 3-19: Interior of South facade showing window glazing which brings light onto the hallway/corridor ..................................................................... 66
    • Figure 3-20: Analysis of Light Intensity on 19-06-2012 from the hours of 1.31pm to midnight ............................................................................................... 67
    • Figure 3-21: Analysis of Light Intensity on 20-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 23.59pm ............................................................................ 68
    • Figure 3-22: Analysis of Light Intensity on 21-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 23.59pm ............................................................................ 68
    • Figure 3-23: Analysis of Light Intensity on 22-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 23.59pm ............................................................................ 69
    • Figure 3-24: Analysis of Light Intensity on 23-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 23.59pm ............................................................................ 70
    • Figure 3-25: Analysis of Light Intensity on 24-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 23.59pm ............................................................................ 70
    • Figure 3-26: Analysis of Light Intensity on 26-06-2012 from the hours of midnight to 2.28pm .............................................................................. 71
    • Figure 3-27:
    • Application of Light Pipe in Buildings .............................................. 73
    • Figure 3-28:
    • 1.8m Length Light Pipe covered with a piece perspex material ........ 76
    • Figure 3-29:
    • 1.8m Length Light Pipe covered with a piece perspex material ........ 76
    • Figure 3-30:
    • Schematic Sketch for 1.8m Length; 100mm Diameter Light Pipe .... 77
    • Figure 3-31: Irradiance Level During the Test Period of 10.44am-3.30pm on 09- 08-2012 ................................................................................................ 78
    • Figure 3-32: Light Intensity Single Light Pipe of 1.8m length and 100mm diameter................................................................................................ 78
    • Figure 3-33: Light Intensity for a single light pipe of of 1.2m length and 100mm diameter................................................................................................ 80
    • Figure 3-36: Comparison of the Average Light Levels from the Interior Sensors for the 3 Different Light Pipes ............................................................. 83
    • Figure 3-37a: 1.8m Length LightSingle Light Rod .................................................. 85
    • Figure 3-38: Analysis of Light with Single Light Rod (100mm dia., 1.8m height) as base line test ......................................................................................... 86
    • Figure 3-39 a & b: Light rod in place position prior to commencement of testing ..... 87
    • Figure 3-40: Analysis of Light with Single Light Rod (100mm dia., 1.2m height) as base line test ......................................................................................... 87
    • Figure 3-41:
    • Schematic Sketch for 1.2m Length; 100mm Diameter Light Rod..... 88
    • Figure 3-42: Analysis of the Average Illuminance for the Two Different Lengths of the Light Rod ................................................................................... 90
    • Figure 3-43
    • hatch opening and section Line (d) Plan............................................. 92
    • Figure 3-44: Schematic Sketch of the Dual Technology outdoor rig Component Labellings............................................................................................. 93
    • Figure 3-45: Preparation of the holes and Perspex to hold 100mm diameter light rod and 300mm diameter light pipe in place........................................ 95
    • Figure 3-46:
    • 100mm diameter light rod in place .................................................... 95
    • Figure 3-47: Detail of Gasket and Perspex holding 100mm diameter light rod in place ..................................................................................................... 96
    • Figure 3-48:
    • Placement of Light pipe over the light rod in place ........................... 96
    • Figure 3-49:
    • Analysis for L1 Light Sensor: Mid-Floor .......................................... 99
    • Figure 3-50:
    • Analysis for L2 Light Sensor: Left Corner ...................................... 101
    • Figure 3-51:
    • Analysis for L3 Light Sensor: Mid Right Wall................................ 102
    • Figure 3-52:
    • Analysis for L5 Light Sensor: Mid North Wall ............................... 103
    • Figure 3-53:
    • Analysis for L6 Light Sensor: Inner Left Corner ............................. 104
    • Figure 4-1
    • Various Angles of Incidences .............................................................. 109
    • Figure 4-4: Application of Material........................................................................ 110
    • Figure 4-5: Camera view Interior ........................................................................... 111
    • Figure 4-6: Showing the illuminance value at the centre of the box (376.3 lux) ... 111
    • Figure 4-7: Lux Reading at Other Sensor Positions .................................................. 112
    • Figure 4-8 Illumination Quality for all Conditions at all Sensor Positions ........... 115
    • Figure 4-9 Illumination Level with change in Diameter ....................................... 116
    • Figure 4-10
    • Pipe and Light Rod ............................................................................ 117
    • Figure 4-11
    • Showing the illuminance value at the centre (376.3 Lux)................ 117
    • Figure 5-1: Cell (room) showing evacuated tubes.................................................. 122
    • Figure 5-2: Interior of Cell showing insulation & open end of tubes with foil infill . .............................................................................................................. 122
    • Figure 5-3: System setup ........................................................................................ 123
    • Figure 5-4: Variations of Box (in cell) and ambient temperature when tubes were aligned at 90 degrees............................................................................ 124
    • Figure 5-5: Analysis of Light inside the Box as against light at Entry point, with tubes alignment at 90°.......................................................................... 125
    • Figure 5-7: (a) and (b) Showing Tubes and Solar Light simulators ....................... 129
    • Figure 5-8: Solar light simulator over Evacuated Tubes; Datalogger .................... 130
    • Figure 5-9: Figure Analysis of Temperature Mid Floor of the Cell ....................... 131
    • Figure 5-10:
    • Light Analysis at Entry and Inside the Cell ..................................... 132
    • Figure 6-1: Schematic Position of L1, L2, L3, L4 L5 and L6 lux sensor against the interior rear wall opposite the wall bearing the window...................... 137
    • Figure 6-2: Interior of Test Rig Showing the Skye® Lux Sensors in Position ....... 137
    • Figure 6-3: Light Analysis with the baseline test of employing a conventional double-glazed window ......................................................................... 139
    • Figure 6-4: Temperature Analysis with a Double-glazed window......................... 140
    • Figure 6-5: 300mm, 50mm dia. Light Rod (a) without collar; (b) with a wooden collar (gasket)....................................................................................... 141
    • Figure 6-6: Exterior facade of the wall showing the 13 light rod inserts ............... 141
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