Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ronald, Lisa A; Kenny, Sarah L; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Akoto, Alex O; Boakye, Isaac; Barnish, Guy; Donnelly, Martin J (2006)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: Malaria Journal
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RC955-962, RC109-216, wh_155, wc_755_1, Infectious and parasitic diseases, Arctic medicine. Tropical medicine, ws_200, Research

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: parasitic diseases



A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia). The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to identify potential risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia.


A cross-sectional house-to-house survey of P. falciparum parasitaemia, clinical malaria, anaemia, anthropometric indices, and intestinal helminths was conducted in April-May 2005. Data collection included child and household demographics, mosquito avoidance practices, distance to nearest health facility, child's travel history, symptoms, and anti-malarial use. Risk factors for P. falciparum and anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) were identified using generalized linear mixed models.


In total, 296 children were tested from 184 households. Prevalences of P. falciparum, clinical malaria, anaemia, and stunting were significantly higher in Moshie Zongo (37.8%, 16.9%, 66.2% and 21.1%, respectively) compared to Manhyia (12.8%, 3.4%, 34.5% and 7.4%). Of 197 children tested for helminths, four were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Population attributable risks (PAR%) of anaemia were 16.5% (P. falciparum) and 7.6% (malnutrition). Risk factors for P. falciparum infection were older age, rural travel, and lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors for anaemia were P. falciparum infection, Moshie Zongo residence, male sex, and younger age.


Heterogeneities in malariometric indices between neighbouring Kumasi communities are consistent over time. The low helminth prevalence, and the twofold higher PAR% of anaemia attributable to P. falciparum infection compared to malnutrition, indicate the importance of malaria as a cause of anaemia in this urban population.

  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Donnelly MJ, McCall PJ, Lengeler C, Bates I, D'Alessandro U, Barnish G, Konradsen F, Klinkenberg E, Townson H, Trape JF, Hastings IM, Mutero C: Malaria and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J 2005, 4:1-5.
    • 2. Keiser J, Utzinger J, de Castro MC, Smith TA, Tanner M, Singer BH: Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa and implication for malaria control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004, 71:118-127.
    • 3. Urban and Rural Health Areas 2003 (Report # ST/ESA/SER.A/231) New York, USA: United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2004.
    • 4. Klinkenberg E, McCall PJ, Hastings IM, Wilson MD, Amerasinghe FP, Donnelly MJ: Malaria and irrigated crops, Accra, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis 2005, 11:1290-1293.
    • 5. Hay SI, Guerra CA, Tatem AJ, Atkinson PM, Snow RW: Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005, 3:81-90.
    • 6. Omumbo JA, Guerra CA, Hay SI, Snow RW: The influence of urbanization on measures of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in East Africa. Acta Trop 2005, 93:11-21.
    • 7. Lindsay SW, Campbell H, Adiamah JH, Greenwood AM, Bangali JE, Greenwood BM: Malaria in a peri-urban area of The Gambia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1990, 84:553-562.
    • 8. Klinkenberg E, McCall PJ, Wilson MD, Akoto AO, Amerasinghe FP, Bates I, Verhoeff FH, Barnish G, Donnelly MJ: Urban malaria and anaemia: a cross-sectional survey of two cities in Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 2006, 11:578-588.
    • 9. Trape JF: Malaria and urbanization in Central Africa: The example of Brazzaville. Part IV: Parasitological and serological surveys in urban and surrounding rural areas. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987, 81(Suppl 2):26-33.
    • 10. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2003 Calverton, Maryland: Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), and ORC Macro; 2004.
    • 11. Ashford RW, Barnish G, Viney ME: Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi : infection and disease in Papua New Guinea. Parasitol Today 1992, 8:314-318.
    • 12. Gwatkin DR, Rusten S, Johnson K, Paude RP, Wagstaff A: Socioeconomic differences in health nutrition and population in Ghana Washington, USA: World Bank; 2000.
    • 13. Walter SD: Calculation of attributable risks from epidemiological data. Int J Epidemiol 1978, 7:175-182.
    • 14. Davis JC, Clark TD, Kemble SK, Talemwa N, Njama-Meya D, Staedke SG, Dorsey G: Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment. Malar J 2006, 5:1-11.
    • 15. Wang SJ, Lengeler C, Smith TA, Vounatsou P, Akogbeto M, Tanner M: Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) IV: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Coutonou (Benin). Malar J 2006, 5:.
    • 16. Wang SJ, Lengeler C, Mtasiwa D, Mshana T, Maname L, Maro G, Tanner M: Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) II: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Malar J 2006, 5:.
    • 17. Wang SJ, Lengeler C, Smith TA, Vounatsou P, Diadie DA, Pritroipa X, Convelbo N, Kientga M, Tanner M: Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) I: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Ougadougou. Malar J 2005, 4:.
    • 18. Wang SJ, Lengeler C, Smith TA, Vounatsou P, Cisse G, Tanner M: Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) III: Epidemiology of urban malaria in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan). Malar J 2006, 5:.
    • 19. Ng'andu N, Watts WE, Wray JR, Chela C, Zulu B: Some risk factors for transmission of malaria in a population where control measures were applied in Zambia. East Afr Med J 1989, 66:728-737.
    • 20. Browne ENL, Frimpong E, Sieverstsen J, Hagen J, Hamelmann C, Dietz K, Horstmann RD, Burchard GD: Malariometric update for the rainforest and savanna of Ashanti region, Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2000, 94:15-22.
    • 21. Koram KA, Owusu-Agyei S, Fryauff DJ, Anto F, Atuguba F, Hodgson A, Hoffman SL, Nkrumah FK: Seasonal profiles of malaria infection, anaemia, and bednet use among age groups and communities in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 2003, 8:793-802.
    • 22. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape JF, Duchemin JB, Warren M, Beier JC: Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003, 68:169-176.
    • 23. Crawley J: Reducing the burden of anemia in infants and young children in malaria-endemic countries of Africa: from evidence to action. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004, 71(Suppl 2):25-34.
    • 24. Korenromp EL, Armstrong-Schellenberg JRM, Williams BG, Nahlen BL, Snow RW: Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa-a quantitative review. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2004, 9:1050-1065.
    • 25. Tshikuka JG, Gray-Donald K, Scott M, Olela KN: Relationship of childhood protein-energy malnutrition and parasite infections in an urban African setting. Trop Med Int Health 1997, 2:374-382.
    • 26. Verhoef H, West CE, Veenemans J, Beguin Y, Kok FJ: Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children. Pediatrics 2002, 110:e48.
    • 27. Caufield LA, Richard SA, Black RE: Undernutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004, 71(Suppl 2):55-63.
    • 28. Crompton DW, Savioli L: Intestinal parasitic infections and urbanisation. Bull World Health Organ 1993, 71:1-7.
    • 29. Mboera LEG, Fanello CI, Malima RC, Talbert A, Fogliati P, Bobbio F, Molteni F: Comparison of the Paracheck-Pf® test with microscopy, for the confirmation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2006, 100:115-122.
    • 30. Proux S, Hkirijareon L, Ngamngonkiri C, McConnell S, Nosten F: Short communication: Paracheck-Pf: a new, inexpensive and reliable rapid test for P. falciparum malaria. Trop Med Int Health 2001, 6:99-101.
    • 31. Moody A: Rapid diagnostic tests for malarial parasites. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002, 15:66-78.
    • 32. Biritwum RB, Welbeck J, Barnish G: Incidence and management of malaria in two communities of different socio-economic level, in Accra, Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2000, 94:771-778.
    • 33. Njama D, Dorsey G, Guwatudde D, Kigonya K, Greenhouse B, Musisi S, Kamya MR: Urban malaria: primary caregivers' knowledge, attitudes, practices and predictors of malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children. Trop Med Int Health 2003, 8:685-692.
    • 34. Nshakira N, Kristensen M, Ssali F, Whyte SR: Appropriate treatment of malaria? Use of antimalarial drugs for children's fevers in district medical units, drug shops and homes in eastern Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 2002, 7:309-316.
    • 35. Basco LK: Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon XIX. Quality of antimalarial drugs used for self-medication. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004, 70:245-250.
    • 36. Bates I, Fenton C, Gruber J, Lalloo D, Lara AM, Squire SB, Theobald S, Thomson R, Tolhurst R: Vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part 1: determinants operating at individual and household level. Lancet Infect Dis 2004, 4:267-277.
    • 37. Buor D: Analysing the primacy of distance in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South District, Ghana. Int J Health Plann Manage 2003, 18:293-311.
    • 38. Schellenberg JA, Newell JN, Snow RW, Mung'ala J, Marsh K, Smith PG, Hayes RJ: An analysis of the geographical distribution of severe malaria in children in Kilifi District, Kenya. Int J Epidemiol 1998, 27:323-329.
    • 39. Carter R, Mendis KN, Roberts D: Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull World Health Organ 2000, 78:1401-1411.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article