Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Springer
Languages: English
Types: Article
This paper investigates the downlink resource allocation problem in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) consisting of macro cells and small cells sharing the same frequency band. Dense deployment of small cells overlaid by a macro layer is considered to be one of the most promising solutions for providing hotspot coverage in future 5G networks. The focus is to devise an optimised policy for small cells’ access to the shared spectrum, in terms of their transmissions, in order to keep small cell served users sum data rate at high levels while ensuring that certain level of quality of service (QoS) for the macro cell users in the vicinity of small cells is provided. Both data and control channel constraints are considered, to ensure that not only the macro cell users’ data rate demands are met, but also a certain level of Bit Error Rate (BER) is ensured for the control channel information. Control channel reliability is especially important as it holds key information to successfully decode the data channel. The problem is addressed by our proposed linear binary integer programming heuristic algorithm which maximises the small cells utility while ensuring the macro users imposed constraints. To further reduce the computational complexity, we propose a progressive interference aware low complexity heuristic solution. Discussion is also presented for the implementation possibility of our proposed algorithms in a practical network. The performance of both the proposed algorithms is compared with the conventional Reuse-1 scheme under different fading conditions and small cell loads. Results show a negligible drop in small cell performance for our proposed schemes, as a trade-off for ensuring all macro users data rate demands, while Reuse-1 scheme can even lead up to 40 % outage when control region of the small cells in heavily loaded.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] V. Chandrasekhar, J. Andrews, and A. Gatherer, “Femtocell Networks: a Survey,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 59-67, 2008.
    • [2] I. Hwang, B. Song, and S. Soliman, “A Holistic View on Hyper-dense Heterogeneous and Small Cell Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 20-27, June 2013.
    • [3] S. Navaratnarajah, A. Saeed, M. Dianati, and M. Imran, “Energy Efficiency in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 37-43, October 2013.
    • [4] A. Saeed, A. Akbari, M. Dianati, and M. A. Imran, “Energy Efficiency Analysis for LTE Macro-Femto HetNets,” in Proceedings of 19th European Wireless Conference (EW), April 2013.
    • [5] S.-E. Elayoubi and B. Fourestie, “On Frequency Allocation in 3G LTE Systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Sept 2006.
    • [6] S. Ali and V. C. M. Leung, “Dynamic Frequency Allocation in Fractional Frequency Reused OFDMA Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 4286-4295, August 2009.
    • [7] R. Y. Chang, Z. Tao, J. Zhang, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “A Graph Approach to Dynamic Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) in Multi-cell OFDMA Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2009, pp. 3993-3998.
    • [8] A. Stolyar and H. Viswanathan, “Self-Organizing Dynamic Fractional Frequency Reuse in OFDMA Systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE 27th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), April 2008.
    • [9] D. Lopez-Perez, C. Xiaoli, and Z. Jie, “Dynamic Downlink Frequency and Power Allocation in OFDMA Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2904-2914, 2012.
    • [10] D. Lopez-Perez, X. Chu, A. V. Vasilakos, and H. Claussen, “Power Minimization Based Resource Allocation for Interference Mitigation in OFDMA Femtocell Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 333-344, February 2014.
    • [11] J. Ling, D. Chizhik, and R. Valenzuela, “On Resource Allocation in Dense Femto-Deployments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronics Systems, Nov 2009.
    • [12] F. Bernardo, R. Agusti, J. Cordero, and C. Crespo, “Self-Optimization of Spectrum Assignment and Transmission Power in OFDMA Femtocells,” in Proceedings of Sixth Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications (AICT), May 2010.
    • [13] V. Chandrasekhar and J. Andrews, “Spectrum Allocation in Tiered Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3059-3068, October 2009.
    • [14] J. D. Hobby and H. Claussen, “Deployment Options for Femtocells and Their Impact on Existing Macrocellular Networks,” Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 145-160, 2009.
    • [15] H. Claussen, “Co-Channel Operation of Macro- and Femtocells in a Hierarchical Cell Structure,” International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 137-147, 2008.
    • [16] M. Arslan, J. Yoon, K. Sundaresan, S. Krishnamurthy, and S. Banerjee, “A Resource Management System for Interference Mitigation in Enterprise OFDMA Femtocells,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1447-1460, Oct 2013.
    • [17] X. Chu, Y. Wu, D. Lopez-Perez, and X. Tao, “On Providing Downlink Services in Collocated Spectrum-Sharing Macro and Femto Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4306-4315, December 2011.
    • [18] D. Gonzalez G, M. Garcia-Lozano, and S. Ruiz Boque, “Power Allocation for the PDCCH in LTE: A Way to Increase Its Capacity in Realistic Deployments,” in Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), 2013 16th International Symposium on, June 2013.
    • [19] S. Uygungelen, Z. Bharucha, and H. Taoka, “Control Region Protection in LTE-A Networks,” in Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on, Sept 2012, pp. 986-991.
    • [20] Z. Bharucha, G. Auer, and T. Abe, “Downlink Femto-to-Macro Control Channel Interference for LTE,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2011 IEEE, March 2011, pp. 1259-1264.
    • [21] H. Yang, A. Huang, R. Gao, T. Chang, and L. Xie, “Interference Self-Coordination: A Proposal to Enhance Reliability of System-Level Information in OFDM-Based Mobile Networks via PCI Planning,” Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1874-1887, April 2014.
    • [22] Z. Bharucha, G. Auer, T. Abe, and N. Miki, “Femto-to-macro control channel interference mitigation via cell id manipulation in lte,” in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2011 IEEE, Sept 2011, pp. 1-6.
    • [23] 3GPP TS36.212, “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and Channel Coding (Release 9),” 2010.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article