LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: SF, S1

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: embryonic structures
A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% at 41 days of incubation, just prior to hatching. Air cell volume at 29 days of incubation for infertile eggs (19.3%) was significantly higher when compared to dead-in-shell (DIS) eggs (14.3%) and eggs that hatched (13.8%). There was a significantly larger air cell volume in eggs that hatched normally compared with DIS eggs at 41 days of incubation (28.3% vs. 21.7%, respectively). No differences in air cell volume were observed up to day 17 of incubation for eggs that hatched normally between eggs that exhibited high, average or low rates of water loss, but from 20 days of incubation the air cell volume was significantly larger for high weight loss eggs. However, for the DIS eggs, air cell volume was consistently larger in eggs that exhibited high rates of water loss. Air cell volume was largely independent of adult strain (SA Black or Zimbabwean Blue) or whether chicks were assisted to hatch. Although some subtle differences in air cell size were detected between hatched and DIS chicks during this study, it is unlikely to find useful application in the broader industry.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Ar, A. & Gefen, E., 1998. Further improving hatchability in artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. Proc. 2nd Int. Ratite Conf., 21-25 September 1998, Oudtshoorn, South Africa. pp. 141-147.
    • Blood, J.R., Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Cloete, S.W.P. & Brand, Z., 1998. Embryonic deaths in relation to water loss of artificially incubated ostrich eggs. Proc. 2nd Int. Ratite Conf. Oudtshoorn, South Africa. pp. 148-151.
    • Bradley, A., 1998. Boosting ostrich production through better egg hatchability. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC Publication no. 98/17.
    • Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Brown, C.R. & Malecki, I.A., 2007. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 78, 195-200.
    • Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Malecki, I.A. & Brown, C.R., 2008a. The genetic relationships between water loss and shell-deaths in ostrich eggs, assessed as traits of the dam. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48, 1326-1331.
    • Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Brown, C.R. & Malecki, I.A., 2008b. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 38, 315-325.
    • Brown, C.R., Peinke, D. & Loveridge, A., 1996. Mortality in near-term ostrich embryos during artificial incubation. Br. Poult. Sci. 37, 73-85.
    • Bunter, K.L. & Cloete, S.W.P., 2004. Genetic parameters for egg-, chick- and live-weight traits recorded in farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus). Livest. Prod. Sci. 91, 9-22.
    • Cloete, S.W.P., Bunter, K.L., Brand, Z. & Lambrechts, H., 2004. (Co)variances for reproduction, egg weight and chick weight in ostriches. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 34, 17-19.
    • Deeming, D.C., 1995. The hatching sequence of ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryos with notes on development as observed by candling. Br. Poult. Sci. 36, 67-78.
    • Deeming, D.C., Ayres, L. & Ayres, F.J., 1993. Observations on the commercial production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in the United Kingdom: incubation. Vet. Rec. 132, 602-307.
    • Deeming, D.C., 1999. Factors affecting the success of commercial incubation. In: The Ostrich Biology, Production and Health. Ed. Deeming, D.C. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom. pp. 159-190.
    • Deeming, D.C. & Ar, A., 1999. Factors affecting the success of commercial incubation. In: The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health. Ed: Deeming, D.C. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom. pp. 275-292.
    • Deeming, D.C., Dick, A.C.K. & Ayres, L.L, 1996. Ostrich Chick rearing. A Stockman's Guide. Ratite Conference, Oxfordshire, ISBN 0-952758-1-5. pp. 5-14.
    • Gefen, E. & Ar, A., 2001. Morphological description of the developing ostrich embryo: a tool for embryonic age estimation. Israel J. Zool. 47, 87-97.
    • Gilmour, A.R., Cullis, B.R., Welham, S.J. & Thompson, R., 1999. ASREML - Reference manual. NSW Agriculture Biometric Bulletin No. 3 NSW Agriculture, Orange agriculture Institute, Forest Road, Orange 2800, NSW, Australia.
    • Hodgetts, B., 1990. Current hatchabilities in species of domestic importance and the scope for improvement. In: Avian Incubation. Ed. Tullett, S.G., CAB Direct. pp. 139-144.
    • Jarvis, M.J.F., Keffen, R.H. & Jarvis, C., 1985. Some physical requirements for ostrich egg incubation. Ostrich 56, 42-51.
    • Reiner, G. & Dzapo, V., 1994. The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation and its significance for chick vitality. Ostrich News, December 1994. pp. 49-58.
    • Soft Imaging System, 1999. AnalySIS┬« User's guide. Soft Imaging System GmbH, Hammer Street 89, D48153 M├╝nster, Germany.
    • Swart, D. & Rahn, H., 1988. Microclimate of ostrich nests: Measurements of egg temperature and nest humidity using egg hygrometers. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 157, 845-853.
    • Van Schalkwyk, S.J., 1998. Improvement of fertility and hatchability of artificially incubated ostrich eggs in the Little Karoo. MSc thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
    • Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P. & Brown, C.R., 1999. Effects of time of egg collection and pre-incubation treatment on blastoderm development and embryonic mortality in ostrich embryos. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29, 154-163.
    • Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Cloete, S.W.P., Brown, C.R. & Brand, Z., 2000. Hatching success of ostrich eggs in relation to setting, turning and angle of rotation. Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 46-52.
    • Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Cloete, S.W.P. & Brown, C.R., 2002. Gas exchange of the ostrich embryo during peak metabolism in relation to incubator design. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32, 122-129.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article