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Bowman, Glenn W. (2015)
Publisher: University of California Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: GN, JC, G1, JV
The radical closure of Gaza serves here as an extreme example of a process of\ud isolation and immiseration of national enemies that is deeply rooted in Israeli\ud ideology and practices of state formation. I use encystation to reveal the dual\ud meaning of the term—that of radical isolation of diseased elements and that of\ud protecting a fetus within a womb—and to show how the two meanings connect\ud with respective Israeli policies toward Palestinians and Jews. I suggest in closing\ud that the Oslo Accords have put in place mechanisms for the future imposition\ud on West Bank Palestinians of the same containment currently afflicting Gaza
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    • Michel Warschawski, On the Border, trans. Levi Laub (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2005 [2002]), p. 12.
    • Sharon Rotbard, “Wall and Tower (Homa Umigdal): The Mold of Israeli Architecture,” in A Civilian Occupation: The Politics of Israeli Architecture, ed. Rafi Segal and Eyal Weizman (Tel Aviv and London: Babel and Verso, 2003), p. 39-56; p. 52 and passim.
    • “Law of Return 5710-1950,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2013, http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/mfaarchive/1950-1959/pages/law%20of%20return%205710-1950.aspx.
    • 10 “Aliyah,” The Jewish Agency for Israel, http://www.jewishagency.org/aliyah.
    • 11 Ulrich Raulff, “Interview with Giorgio Agamben. Life, A Work of Art without an Author: The State of Exception, the Administration of Disorder and Private Life,” trans. Morag Goodwin, German Law Journal 5, no. 5 (2004), p. 610, http://www.germanlawjournal.com/print.php?id=437. The interview was originally published in Suddeutsche Zeitung, 6 April 2004.
    • 12 Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998 [1995]), p. 18.
    • 13 Agamben, Homo Sacer, p. 18.
    • 14 See Laurie King-Irani, “Exiled to a Liminal Legal Zone: Are We All Palestinians Now?” Third World Quarterly 27, no. 5 (2006): pp. 923-36; and Giorgio Agamben, State of Exception, trans. Kevin Attell. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005 [2003]).
    • 15 Yehouda Shenhav and Yael Berda, “The Colonial Foundations of the State of Exception: Juxtaposing the Israeli Occupation of the Palestinian Territories with Colonial Bureaucratic History,” in The Power of Inclusive Exclusion: Anatomy of Israeli Rule in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, ed. Adi Ophir, Michael Givoni, and Sari Hanafi (Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2009), p. 342.
    • 16 Shenhav and Berda, “Colonial Foundations,” p. 355.
    • 17 Neve Gordon, Israel's Occupation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), p. 206; see also Avram Bornstein, Crossing the Green Line: Between the West Bank and Israel (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002). Gordon notes that during this period “Israel invested considerable resources in closely monitoring the nutritional value of the Palestinian food basket in order to ensure that its policies were decreasing Palestinian susceptibility to disease and making inhabitants more useful in economic terms” (pp. 207-8).
    • 18 Shenhav and Berda, “Colonial Foundations,” p. 338. Israeli policies of curtailing its dependence on Palestinian labor and importing immigrant workers to replace it undermines parallels between Israel and South Africa. South Africa's apartheid regime, and the neoliberal systems that have replaced it, reflect that country's dependence on black labor; Israel, in the wake of the first intifada, no longer needs its Palestinian population, and this puts that population at greater risk than simple exploitation.
    • 19 Gordon, Israel's Occupation, p. 206; see also Baruch Kimmerling, Politicide: Ariel Sharon's War against the Palestinians (London: Verso, 2003).
    • 20 Gordon, Israel's Occupation, pp. 206-7.
    • 21 Quoted in Mouin Rabbani, “Israel Mows the Lawn,” London Review of Books 36, no. 15 (31 July 2014): p. 8.
    • 22 Glenn Bowman, “Israel's Wall and the Logic of Encystation: Sovereign Exception or Wild Sovereignty?” Focaal: European Journal of Anthropology 50 (2007): pp. 127-36.
    • 23 Only 2 percent of promised interim withdrawals from 13 percent of the West Bank were carried out after the Wye River Memorandum, and they were reoccupied during Operation Defensive Shield.
    • 24 Whereas the Oslo Accord of 1993 designated 316.9 square kilometers of the West Bank as Area A, the subsequent Oslo II Agreement (1995) reduced this to 96.3 square kilometers. (http://www.arij. org/atlas40/media/18.jpg, see also http://www.biu.ac.il/SOC/besa/books/maps.htm.
    • 26 Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Annex I: Protocol Concerning Redeployment and Security Arrangements, Article V.3 (Areas B and C); see http:// www.knesset.gov.il/process/docs/heskemb2_eng.htm.
    • 26 Akiva Eldar, “West Bank Outposts Spreading into Area B, in Violation of Oslo Accords,” Haaretz, 18 February 2012; http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/west-bank-outposts-spreading-intoarea-b-in-violation-of-oslo-accords-1.413390.
    • 27 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Area C of the West Bank: Key Humanitarian Concerns,” fact sheet, August 2014, http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_ opt_area_c_factsheet_august_2014_english.pdf.
    • 28 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Territorial Fragmentation of the West Bank,” May 2006, http://unispal.un.org/Unispal.Nsf/eed216406b50bf6485256ce10072f637/ bb027df1429e73c6852571720054c874?OpenDocument
    • 29 CIA World Factbook, July 2014 (2012 figures, not counting East Jerusalem). See https://www.cia.gov.
    • 30 See Bård Helge Kårtveit, Dilemmas of Attachment: Identity and Belonging among Palestinian Christians (Leiden: Brill, 2014) reviewed in this issue.
    • 31 Theodore Herzl, Complete Diaries I, 19 cited in Kornberg 1993: p.166; see also Glenn Bowman, “Migrant Labour”: Constructing Homeland in the Exilic Imagination,” Anthropological Theory 2, no. 4 (2002): pp. 447-68; and Bowman, “A Place for the Palestinians in the Altneuland: Herzl, AntiSemitism, and the Jewish State,” in Surveillance and Control in Israel/Palestine: Population, Territory and Power, eds. Elia Zureik, David Lyon and Yasmeen Abu-Laban (New York and London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 65-79.
    • 32 This position is elaborated by Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Zionist leader and founder of the clandestine antiBritish militant organization, Irgun, in his 1923 manifesto for a Jewish state, “O Zhelznoi Stene (The Iron Wall-We and the Arabs),” Rassvyet, 4 November 1923, http://www.marxists.de/middleast/ ironwall/ironwall.htm. See also The Iron Wall (We and the Arabs); see also Avi Shlaim, The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World (London: Allen Lane, 2000).
    • 33 See Kimmerling, Politicide, 2003.
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