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Actuators for haptic devices tend to have a different set of requirements in comparison to many other engineering applications. Small permanent magnet DC electric motors are commonly used as actuators in haptic devices and, in operation, tend to spend a significant period of time in a `stalled' condition where they are attempting to oppose an applied force. Ideally a haptic actuator together with its power amplifier exchange energy reversibly with the mechanical loads. However this is not feasible at room temperature and to achieve good force performance results in energy loss as heat in the motor windings. This paper identifies the relationship between heat loss and force generation in haptic electromagnetic actuators. The work then presents results on current over-stressing of small DC motors so as to understand the risks of demagnetisation against thermal damage to the armature. Results indicate that it should be possible to apply short current over-stresses to commercial DC permanent magnet motors to increase end point force. Also by paying careful attention to heat dissipation in the design of small permanent magnet actuators motors, it should be possible to improve the overall performance of actuators for haptic applications.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [5] Jacek Junak, Grzegorz Ombach, and Dave Staton. Permanent magnet dc motor brush transient thermal analysis. In Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines, pages 978-1, 2008.
    • [6] Ki-Chan Kim, Kwangsoo Kim, Hee-jun Kim, and Ju Lee. Demagnetization analysis of permanent magnets according to rotor types of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, 45(6):2799-2802, 2009.
    • [7] Rainer Leuschke, Elizabeth KT Kurihara, Jesse Dosher, and Blake Hannaford. High fidelity multi finger haptic display. In Eurohaptics Conference, 2005 and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2005. World Haptics 2005. First Joint, pages 606-608. IEEE, 2005.
    • [8] Sami Ruoho, Jere Kolehmainen, Jouni Ikaheimo, and Antero Arkkio. Interdependence of demagnetization, loading, and temperature rise in a permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, 46(3):949-953, 2010.
    • [9] R. Thomas and W.S. Harwin. Estimation of contact forces in a backdrivable linkage for cognitive robot research. In Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems, pages 235-246. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014.
    • [10] M. Zinn, O. Khatib, B. Roth, and J. Salisbury. A new actuation concept for human-friendly robot design: Playing it safe. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, pages 12-21, June 2004.
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