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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: N7321
Official Thai history gives the iconic role of King Chulalongkorn as the civiliser of which is the theme underpinning my study. This thesis aims to complicate this narrative by investigating the historical specificity of Chulalongkorn’s visual representation operating with the mechanisms of westernisation. The study discusses how the King presented and represented his royal person and his regal power and how the King consequently changed and shaped Siam’s visual and material culture at the turn of the century. Chulalongkorn’s royal family portraits and grand architectural programme, as well as his European art collection recreated a new concept of Siamese kingship and the monarchy: this wide-ranging analysis traces the shift from a semidivine to a secular and modernised monarchy. This thesis argues that the westernisation programme was a process and product of transcultural exchange within the colonial encounters between Siam, the West and their colonies. Chulalongkorn’s appropriation, adaptation and reinterpretation of Western art doubly transformed the monarchy and its kingdom into a modernising nation under the pressure of Western colonialism. This compelled Siam to become a crypto-colonial state of nation. Chulalongkorn’s aspiration for westernised visual representation turned political loyalty into religious devotion in later years. Collective memory of Chulalongkorn was strongly embedded in the public’s perception through the practice of remembrance, nostalgia and commemoration fed by the royalist narrative in official Thai history. This thesis also contributes to an ongoing dialogue on the relations between the monarchy, memory and national identity through an investigation of celebratory exhibitions of the Chakri Dynasty. The issues of visual representation and its impact addressed in this thesis are arguably as bound up with issues of national identity and national politics.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Figure 5. Anonymous, Portrait of King Chulalongkorn, 1882 (?). Oil on canvas, 275 x 170 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 6. Antonio Salviati, King Chulalongkorn, 1882. Mosaic. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 7. Cesare Fantachiotti, King Chulalongkorn, 1897. Marble, h. 172 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 8. King Chulalongkorn (at the front) during the procession in the Celebrations of his Fortieth Anniversary on the Throne, 1908. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 9. Carolus-Duran, Portrait of King Chulalongkorn, 1907. Oil on canvas, 196.5 x 112 cm. Boromphiman Residential Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 10. Photograph of Carolus-Duran taken by King Chulalongkorn at Francesco Margotti's studio in San Remo, Italy, 1907. Source: King Chulalongkorn. Klai Ban. Bangkok: Global Intercommunication, 2008. n.p.
    • Figure 11. The Royal Equestrian Statue of King Chulalongkorn at the Susse Frère Foundry in Paris, France, 1907-1908. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 12. Carl Vandyke, King Chulalongkorn and his sons at the Taplow Court in Maidenhead, Berkshire, England, August 1897. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 13. W. and D. Downey, King Chulalongkorn in Cambridge University's academic dress, 25 June 1907. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 14. Engraving of the arrival of King Edward VII, Queen Alexandra, King Chulalongkorn, and other guests to the Windsor garden-party from Illustrated London News, Saturday 29 June 1907.
    • Figure 15. Attributed to Alexander Bassano's workshop, Portraits of King Chulalongkorn and Prince Asdang Dechawut, 1892. Oil on canvas, 121 x 87 cm. Warophat Phiman Hall, Bang Pa-in Palace, Ayutthaya Province. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 24. Émile François Chatrousse, King Mongkut, 1863. Gilded bronze, h. 59 cm. Ratcha Karanya Sabha Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 26. Luang Theprojana, King Mongkut, 1868. Gilded bronze, Wat Bowon Niwet, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 27. From left to right: Somdet Phra Phuttha Kosachan, 1843. Bronze. Wat Molee Loke, Bangkok and Somdet Phra Sangkaraja Suk, 1844. Bronze. Wat Maha That, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 28. Emilien Nieuwerkerke, Portrait busts of Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie, 1859. Bronze, h. 75 cm./81 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 29. Mode Amatayakul, a daguerreotype of King Mongkut, 1857. The Royal Collection © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Photographies East: The Camera and its history in East and Southeast Asia, 2009)
    • Figure 30. Mode Amatayakul, a daguerreotype of King Mongkut and his daughter, 1861. © US National Archives and Records, http://docsteach.org)
    • Figure 31. John Thomson, King Mongkut, 1865-66. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 32. Anonymous, Portrait of King Mongkut, 1857. Source: Bowring, Sir John. The Kingdom and People of Siam: with a Narrative of the Mission to that Country in 1855. London: Oxford University Press, 1969. n.p.
    • Figure 33. Anonymous, Portrait of King Mongkut, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 34. Anonymous, Portrait of King Pinklao, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 35. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama I returned from the battle in Cambodia, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 36. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama II as the patron of Thai art, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 37. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama III, a devoted Buddhist, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 38. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama IV the Pious, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 39. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama V's Abolition of Slavery, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 40. Galileo Chini and Carlo Rigoli, King Rama VI's Coronation, 1906-1908. Fresco. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 41. King Mongkut and Queen Debsirindra,1856. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 42. King Mongkut and Queen Debsirindra,1860. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 44b. H. Rousseau, Engraving of Engraving of King of Siam's Two Wives,1863. Source: Mouhot, Henri. Travels in the Central Parts of Indo-China (Siam), Cambodia, and Laos: Volume 1. London: John Murray, 1864. Page 51.
    • Figure 45a. After Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Portrait of Empress Eugénie, 1855-56. Oil on canvas, 130 x 95 cm. Tamnak Klang, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 45b. Mary Curtis (after Franz Xaver Winterhalter), Portrait of Empress Eugénie, 1857. Oil on canvas, 242 x 159.8 cm. The Royal Collection © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
    • Figure 46. Chao Chom Erb, Portrait of Chao Chom Aab Bunnag, 1901-1910. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 47. Anonymous, Queen Sunanda Kumariratana, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 48. Anonymous, Queen Sukumala Marasri, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 49. Anonymous, Queen Savang Vadhana, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 50. Anonymous, Queen Saovabha Bongsri, 1896-1897. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm. Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 51. Engraving of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Savang Vadhana from Le Petit Journal, Saturday 10 June 1893. Source: Krairoek Nana, In Search of Rattanakosin Era, Bangkok: 2010. Page 15.
    • Figure 52. Engraving of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha from Le Journal Illustré, Sunday 8 August 1897. Source: Krairoek Nana, King Chulalongkorn in the Western World. Bangkok: Matichon, 2004. Page 171.
    • Figure 2. After Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Portrait of Empress Eugénie, 1855-56. Oil on canvas, 130 x 95 cm., Tamnak Klang, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 3a. Jean Marius Fouqué, after Gérôme's The Reception of Siamese Ambassadors by Emperor Napoleon III at the Château de Fontainebleau, date unknown. Oil on canvas, Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 3b. Jean-Léon Gérôme, The Reception of Siamese Ambassadors by Emperor Napoleon III at the Château de Fontainebleau (27 June 1861), 1864. Oil on canvas, 128 x 260 cm., Musée national du Château de Versailles, France. © Château de Fontainebleau
    • Figure 4a. Unknown artist, Siamese Ambassadors in the Reign of King Mongkut in an Audience with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, 1857. Oil on canvas, Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 4b. Engraving of the Reception of Siamese Ambassadors, presents by Her Majesty, at Windsor Castle, from Illustrated London News, Saturday, December 05, 1857, Issue 891.
    • Figure 4c. Robert Thomas Landells, Reception of the Ambassadors from the King of Siam, 19 November 1857, 1858. Watercolour, 30.8 x 46 cm. The Royal Collection © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
    • Figure 5. L. Bernstamm, Tzar Nicholas II and Tzarina Alexandra of Russia, 1897. Plaster, h. 48 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 6. G. Tadolini, King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Savoy, 1893. Marble, h. 110 cm. and 117 cm., Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 7. Unknown artist, Emperor Wilhelm II of the German Empire, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 72 x 51 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 8. William Pape, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg, 1909. Oil on canvas, 88 x 71 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 9. Unknown artist, a replica of Giovanni Bologna's Rape of the Sabine Woman, date unknown. Marble, h. 165 cm., Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 10. Cesare Lapini, Head of David by Michelangelo, date unknown. Marble, h. 120 cm., Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 11. Unknown artist, a set of Crouching Venus type, date unknown. Marble, various sizes, Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 12. The Lely Venus or a naked crouching Aphrodite at her bath, Roman copy, 2nd century AD. Marble, h. 1.120 cm., British Museum, London, May 2013. Photo: Author. © Trustees of the British Museum.
    • Figure 13a. A reproduction of Titian's Danaë with Eros, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 75 x 101 cm., Boromphiman Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 13b. Titian, Danaë with Eros, 1544. Oil on canvas, 120 x 172 cm., National Museum of Capodimonte, Naples. Source: The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVDROM, 2002. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. Available from: Wikimedia commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tizian_011.jpg (accessed July 13, 2013).
    • Figure 14a. A reproduction of Raphael's Madonna of the Chair, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 72 x 72 cm., Boromphiman Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 14b. Raphael, Madonna of the Chair, c. 1513-1514. Oil on canvas, 71 x 71 cm., the Palatine Gallery, Pitti Palace, Florence, July 2015. Photo: Author.
    • Figure 15. A print of L'Atelier de Raphael Sanzio, an engraving by Paul Allais, date unknown. 70 x 100 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 16. Giovanni Battista Quadrone, A Painter in His Studio, 1871. Oil on canvas, 24 x 41 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 17. Giovanni Battista Quadrone, The Prisoners, 1880. Oil on canvas, 24 x 30 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 18. B. Bachy, Untitled, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 38 x 46 cm., Boromphiman Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 19. Achille Glisenti, The First Quarrel, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 118 x 152 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 20. Cesare Lapini, Surprise, 1897. Marble, h. 150 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 21. Raffaello Romanelli, Cupid and Psyche , 1897. Marble, h. 81 cm., Boromphiman Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 22. Orientalist interior design at Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 23. Interior decorating with Edwardian furnitures and Edoardo Gelli's painting, Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 24. King Chulalongkorn, Edoardo Gelli in his studio, 1907. Source: Chulalongkorn, King. Klai Ban. Bangkok: Global Intercommunication, 2008. n.p.
    • Figure 25. Edoardo Gelli, Untitled, 1907. Oil on canvas, 258 x 126 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 26. Edoardo Gelli, Untitled, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 106.5 x 208.5 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 27. Harold Speed, Untitled, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 52 x 166 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 28. Unknown artist, Untitled, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 193.5 x 67.5 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 29. Edoardo Gelli, After the Bath, date unknown. Oil on canvas, 220 x 78 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 30. The Mother Earth, detail from the scene of Buddhist mythology, “Mara Vijaya” (The Triumph of Lord Buddha over the Demon), c. late 17th century. Fresco, Wat Chombhuwek, Nonthaburi Province, January 2019. Photo: Prabhassara Chuvichean.
    • Figure 31. Hermann Dischler, Untitled, 1907. Oil on canvas, 97 x 155 cm., Boromphiman Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 32. Pierre Ribéra, The Conversation, 1907. Oil on canvas, 177 x 157 cm., Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 33. Pierre Ribéra, The Fight, 1907. Oil on canvas, 177 x 162 cm., Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 34. Pierre Ribéra, Andalusia, triptych, 1907. Oil on canvas. Source: Société des artistes français. Catalogue illustré du Salon peinture et sculpture (1907). Paris: Bibliothèque des annales, 1907. Page 28. Available from: http://www.archive.org/details/ catalogueillust00soci (accessed August 10, 2013).
    • Figure 35. Jean-Eugène Buland, Penniless; After Running Away, 1907. Oil on canvas, 123 x 98 cm., Vimanmek Mansion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 36. Gaston Édouard Guédy, Maternity, 1907. Oil on canvas, 164 x 122 cm., Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 37. Armand Guéry, Sunset, Storm Breaking, Champagne, 1907. Oil on canvas, 179 x 217 cm., Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 38. Édouard Bernard Debat-Ponsan, Summer on the Loire, 1907. Oil on canvas, 64 x 90 cm. ,Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 39. Hubert Denis Etcheverry, On the Beach in Biarritz, 1905-1906. Oil on canvas, 197 x 268 cm., Chitralada Villa, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 40. Léon Comerre, Golden Rain, 1906. Oil on canvas, 124 x 178 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 41. Ludovic Alleaume, The Playfulness of the Wave, 1907. Oil on canvas, 56 x 86 cm., Chitralada Villa Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 42. Gaston Bussièrre, Brunhild's Awakening, 1907. Oil on canvas, 206 x 150 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 43. Lucien Hector Jonas, Ruffians, Strike Scene at Anzin, 1907. Oil on canvas, 218 x 358 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 44. Louis Roger, The Tug; Metropolitan Railway, 1907. Oil on canvas, 180 x 200 cm., Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 45. Photograph of Chulalongkorn (left) sat for Cesare Ferro (centre) and Phra Soralak Likhit (right), at Aphisek Dusit Throne Hall, Dusit Palace on May 17, 1906. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 46. Phra Sorlak Likhit, King Vajiravudh, 1932. Oil on canvas, 272 x 150 cm., Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall, Grand Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 47a. Phra Soralak Likhit, A reproduction of Giorgione's Sleeping Venus, early 20th century. Oil on canvas, 141 x 208 cm., National Art Gallery, Bangkok. Courtesy of National Art Gallery Bangkok.
    • Figure 47b. Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, 1510. Oil on canvas, 108.5 cm × 175 cm., Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden. Source: Google Art Project. Available from: Wikimedia commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Giorgione_- _Sleeping_Venus_-_Google_Art_Project_2.jpg?uselang=en-gb (accessed July 13, 2013).
    • Figure 48. Concordia Hall, Royal Museum's original building between 1874-1887. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 49. Terrestrial globes and a model of steam locomotive, gifts from Queen Victoria, Bangkok National Museum, Bangkok, September 2013. Photo: Preedaphon Iamchae.
    • Figure 50. The Front Palace, now Bangkok National Museum, Bangkok, September 2013. Photo: Preedaphon Iamchae.
    • Figure 51. Exhibitions of the Royal Museum during the early Twentieth century. Source: Wright, Arnold, ed. Twentieth century impressions of Siam. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994. Page 251.
    • Figure 52. Prince Naris, King Sanpetch IX and Phra Maha Uparaja Hunt Wild Elephants in the Night, (First prize), 1887. Tempera on panel. Warophat Phiman Hall, Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Source: FAD. Illustrations of the Royal Chronicles. Bangkok: FAD, 2007. Page 165, Fig. 57. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 53. Luang Phitsanukam, Elephants Duel Battle between King Naresuan of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya and Crown Prince Minyekyawswa I of the Toungoo Dynasty, January 25, 1592, 1887. Tempera on panel. Warophat Phiman Hall, Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Source: FAD. Illustrations of the Royal Chronicles. Bangkok: FAD, 2007. Page 88, Fig. 29. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 54. Phra Jang, King of Annam Swears Allegiance to King Rama I (Twelfth prize), 1887. Tempera on panel. Warophat Phiman Hall, Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Source: FAD. Illustrations of the Royal Chronicles. Bangkok: FAD, 2007. Page 246, Fig. 89. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 55. Unknown artist, Royal Barge Possession at the Escort of the Emerald Buddha and Phra Bang to Thon Buri, 1887. Tempera on panel. Warophat Phiman Hall, Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Source: FAD. Illustrations of the Royal Chronicles. Bangkok: FAD, 2007. Page 196, Fig. 71. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 56. Floorplan of Wat Benchama Bophit's ordination hall and its cloister, Bangkok. Source: Manop Issaradetch. The Oeuvre of architecture of H.R.H Prince Narisaranuvattivongse. MA thesis, Silpakorn University, 1990. Page 374, plate 3.
    • Figure 57. Chiang Saen style (Northern region) Buddha image, the cloister of Wat Benchama Bophit, Bangkok, September 2013. Photo: Rungroj Thamrungrueng.
    • Figure 58. Gandharan style Fasting Buddha from India, the cloister of Wat Benchama Bophit, Bangkok, September 2013. Photo: Rungroj Thamrungrueng.
    • Figure 59. Japanese Buddha image, the cloister of Wat Benchama Bophit, Bangkok, September 2013. Photo: Rungroj Thamrungrueng.
    • Figure 60. Siamese display at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876. Source: Lisa McQuail Taylor, “Articles of Peculiar Excellence.”JSS 79, 2 (1991). Page 14, fig. 2.
    • Figure 61. Siamese display at Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889. Source: Monod, Émile. L'Exposition universelle de 1889. Paris: E. Dentu, 1890. Page 67. Available from: http:// www.archive.org/details/lexpositionunive03mono (accessed October 15, 2013).
    • Figure 62. Siam's pavilion at Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889. © The Library of Congress
    • Figure 63. Siam's Pavilion at Louisiana Purchase Exhibition of 1904. © The Library of Congress
    • Figure 64. Siam's Pavilion at The Turin International in 1911 (L) with the pavilion of Serbia on the right. Source: Simona, Pavilion of Serbia and Siam, 2010, Digital image. Available from: Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/mammaoca2008/4682947600/ (accessed October 28, 2013).
    • Figure 10. A drawing of the Phra Aphinao Niwet group by a French artist named Thérond, after a photograph. Source: Mouhot, Henri. “Voyage dans les royaumes de Siam, de Cambodge, de Laos et autres parties centrales de l'Indo-Chine, 1858-1861.” Le Tour du Monde (deuxième semestre,1863). Page 232.
    • Figure 12. The interior of the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, from La ilustración artística (Barcelona) (Tomo XVI Año XVI Número 826 - 25 October 1897). Source: Virtual Library of Historical Newspapers, La ilustración artística Número 826, 2009, Digital Image. Available from: Virtual Library of Historical Newspapers, http://prensahistorica.mcu.es/en/ catalogo_imagenes/grupo.cmd? interno=S&posicion=7&path=7148513&presentacion=pagina (accessed November 13, 2014). © 2009 Ministerio de Cultura
    • Figure 28. The Ministry of Defence Headquarter (1882-1884). Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 354-355.
    • Figure 29. The additional hexastyle portico at the West front of the Ministry of Defence building, Bangkok, December 2011. Photo: Patcharaphon Niamsoi.
    • Figure 30. The Court of Justice, designed by Joachim Grassi. It was demolished and replaced by the new Supreme Court building. Source: Wright, Arnold, ed. Twentieth century impressions of Siam. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994. Page 94.
    • Figure 31. The Customs House in 1907 at the time of the ceremony for King Chulalongkorn's return from Europe. Designed by Grassi. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 362.
    • Figure 32. The layout of the Dusit Palace in the early twentieth century: 1. Vimanmek Mansion, 2. Abhisek Dusit Throne Hall, 3. Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, 4. Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. The western area of the palace grounds was named 'Suan Sunanta' a residential quarter of Chulalongkorn's wives and daughters. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 33. The south front of Vimanmek Mansion (1900-1902), Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © National Archives of Thailand
    • Figure 34. Vimanmek Mansion as seen from the north. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 76-77.
    • Figure 35. Phra Tamnak Ruen Ton (completed in 1904), Dusit Palace, Bangkok. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 102.
    • Figure 36. Ratcharudi Pavilion was built to the southeast of the Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, It was then relocated to the National Museum of Thailand, its current location. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 105.
    • Figure 37. Saowakhonthakudi Pavilion, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 106.
    • Figure 38. Abhisek Dusit Throne Hall, the east front (1902-1904), Bangkok. December 2014. Photo: Sirimas Singhalampong.
    • Figure 39. Detail of the exterior decoration of the central porch of Abhisek Dusit Throne Hall. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 85.
    • Figure 40. Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, a view from the southeast (1902-1906). Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 86.
    • Figure 41. The interior decoration of the Amphon Sathan Residential Hall. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 42. Fresco by Cesare Ferro depicts the symbol of Chakri Dynasty flanked by 'Siamese Putti' with the traditional hairstyle called 'chuk' (top-knot) of Siamese children. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 43. Cesare Ferro, The Abduction of Manora, 1904-1906. Fresco, Amphon Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Bangkok. © 2003 BRH
    • Figure 44. An article from the Sketch published the news of King Chulalongkorn's furniture being made by furniture stores on Tottenham Court Road, London in 1893. Source: The Sketch, vol. 2, 22 (June 28, 1893). Page 467.
    • Figure 50. The first photographic competition and exhibition at Wat Benchamabophit in 1905. Source: Sakda Siriphan, King and Camera: Evolution of Photography in Thailand, 1845-1992. Bangkok: Dansuttha Kanphim, 1992. Page 95, Figure 4.12
    • Map 3. Detail of the map of Bangkok depicting the urban formation in 1910. Source: Royal Thai Survey Department. Map of Bangkok A.D. 1888-1931. Bangkok: Royal Thai Armed Forces, 1999. n.p.
    • Figure 51. General view of Bangkok shows traditional Thai architecture on the foreground and modern architecture at the background. Source: Wright, Arnold, ed. Twentieth century impressions of Siam. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994. Pages 238.
    • Figure 52. View of Bangkok shows Asadang Road and shophouses. Source: Wright, Arnold, ed. Twentieth century impressions of Siam. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994. Pages 240.
    • Figure 53. Aerial view of the Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Pages 130-131.
    • Figure 54. The Warophat Phiman Residential Hall, Bang Pa-In Palace, Ayutthaya Province, September 2008. Photo: Author.
    • Figure 65. St. Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore (1856 and 1862). Source: Braddell, Roland St. John and Gilbert Edward Brooke, One Hundred Years of Singapore Volume 2. London: Murrey, 1921. n.p.
    • Figure 66. The exterior decoration of the main entrance at Wat Niwet's ordination hall: Siam's Coat of Arm and statuettes of Buddhist deities, Ayutthaya Province, September 2008. Photo: Author.
    • Figure 67. A replica of stained glass above the main entrance of Wat Niwet's ordination hall depicting a portrait of Chulalongkorn. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 268.
    • Figure 68. The interior of Wat Niwet's ordination hall shows a hammerbeam roof and a NeoGothic altar. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 268.
    • Figure 69. Thai and Neo-Gothic interior decoration of the ordination hall of Wat Ratchabophit, Bangkok, March 2008. Photo: Praphat Chuwichien.
    • Figure 70. West façade (main entrance) of Phra Ram Ratchaniwet Palace, Phetchaburi Province, October 2008. Photo: Author.
    • Figure 71. South dome of Phra Ram Ratchaniwet Palace, Phetchaburi Province, October 2008. Photo: Author.
    • Figure 72. Municipal Theatre of Bremerhaven, Germany (1908-1911). Source: Public domain, Digital image, Available from: zeno.org Meine Bibliothek, http://www.zeno.org/nid/ 2000058486X (accessed January 1, 2015).
    • Figure 73. The interior of the upper floor's main hall adorn with an Art Nouveau decoration. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 184.
    • Figure 74. Staircase to the main hall decorated with green ceramic tiles and figurines. Source: Phirasri Phowathong et. al. The Architecture of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Advanced Info Service Public, 2010. Page 185.
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    • Figure 2. King Chulalongkorn's earliest coin depicting his privy seal and the Emblem of Siam. Source: Graham, Mark. Thai Coins. Bangkok: Finance One, 1992. n.p.
    • Figure 3. Coin depicting Chulalongkorn's profile and Siam's Coat of Arms. Source: Graham, Mark. Thai Coins. Bangkok: Finance One, 1992. n.p.
    • Figure 4. Siam's Coat of Arms. Source: Secretariat of Cabinet, The. Royal Thai Orders and Decorations. Bangkok: Secretariat of Cabinet,1993. Page 379.
    • Figure 5. Thailand's first series of postage stamps commonly referred to as the 'Sorot Stamp' (right) with its original drawing for the stamp (left). Printed by Waterlow & Sons Ltd., in England, it was issued on 4 August 1883. Source: Prakaipetch Inthusophon. Thai Postage Stamps and a History of Postal Services during the Reign of King Rama IV-V. Bangkok: Three-D Kan Phim, 1989. Page 55.
    • Figure 21. The Monument of King Chulalongkorn, erected in 1993, at the Phra Chulachomklao Fortress, Samut Prakarn Province, January 2014. Photo: Chaiwat Sirisoomsuwan.
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