Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Taylor and Francis Group
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: JZ, JA, H1
This article highlights and analyses a hitherto largely neglected dimension to the growing agency of large developing countries in global affairs – their hosting of international sports mega-events. Why are large developing countries hosting sports mega-events and what does this contemporary phenomenon tell us about the significance of, for example, the Olympics and World Cup in global affairs? We explore these questions through brief examination of the cases of the three most active sport mega-event hosting states in recent times; Brazil, China and South Africa. The 2008 Beijing Olympics, the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, and the up-coming\ud 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil provide interesting examples with which to explore developing country agency in the international system and in particular the discursive basis of that agency. We see the hosting of sports-mega events as the practice of public diplomacy by states to both demonstrate existing soft power capability as well as pursue its further enhancement.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/southafrica2010/organisation/media/newsid=1473143/in dex.html. Accessed, 14.5.13.
    • 51 Lepp, A., & Gibson, H., (2011) 'Reimaging a nation: South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup', Journal of Sport & Tourism, 16 (3): 211-230; see also Donaldson, R., & Ferreira, S., (2009).
    • '(Re-)creating Urban Destination Image: Opinions of Foreign Visitors to South Africa on Safety and Security?', Urban Forum, 20: 1-18.
    • 52 Ibid., Cornelissen, Bob and Swart, 2011.
    • 53 Ibid., Harris, 2011.
    • 54 See Ibid., Cornelissen, Bob & Swart, 2011; Ibid., Donaldson & Ferreira, 2009; Holtzhausen, D., & Fullerton, J., (2013). 'The 2010 FIFA World Cup and South Africa: A study of longer-term effects and moderators of country reputation', Journal of Marketing Communications.(ahead of print): 1-14.
    • 55 Knott, ., B Fyall, A., & Jones, I., (2013). 'The Nation-Branding Legacy of the 2010 FIFA World Cup for South Africa', Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. Published online.
    • http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19368623.2012.663155#.UZfIhkp80lQ.
    • 56 Vieira, M., (2012). 'Rising States and Distributive Justice: Reforming International Order in the 21st Century'. Global Society 26 (3): 311-329.
    • 57 Kuper, S., (2011). 'Sport: Developing nations go on offensive for games' http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/aa7cef8c-273f-11e0-80d7-00144feab49a.html#axzz1mMDENFR9, accessed 14.02.12.
    • 58 Black, D., & Van der Westhuizen, J., (2004). 'The Allure of Global Games for “Semi-peripheral” Polities and Spaces: A Research Agenda', Third World Quarterly, 25 (7): 1195-1224, here, 1206.
    • 59 BBC. (2009) 'Rio to Stage 2016 Games', at http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympic_games/8282518.stm, 2nd October, 2013. Accessed 17.7.13.
    • 60 Rohter, L., (2010). Brazil on the Rise. The Story of a Country Transformed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 224.
    • Anholt, S., (2012). 'Nation “Branding”: Propaganda or Statecraft?', Public Diplomacy Magazine, Online at http://publicdiplomacymagazine.com/nation-branding-propagandaor-statecraft/. Accessed 6.7.11
    • Black, D., (2008). 'Dreaming Big: The Pursuit of “Second Order” Games as a Strategic Response to Globalisation', Sport in Society, 11 (4): 467-80.
    • Blatter, S., (2010). 'Russia, Qatar Take World Cup to New Lands', 2011. Available from: http://in.reuters.com/article/2010/12/ 02/idINIndia-53307220101202. Accessed 20.06.12.
    • Breslin, S., (2013). 'China and the global order: signalling threat or friendship?' International Affairs, 89 (3): 615-634.
    • Brownwell, S., (2008). Beijing's Games. What the Olympics mean to China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    • Cornelissen, S., (2008). 'Scripting the nation: sport, mega-events, foreign policy and statebuilding in post-apartheid South Africa,' Sport in Society, 11 (4): 481-493 Cornelissen, S., (2009). 'A delicate balance: sport mega-events and development,' in R. Levermore and A. Beacom (eds.) Sport and International Development: New York: Palgrave.
    • Cornelissen, S., (2010). 'The geopolitics of global aspiration: sport mega-events and emerging powers'. The International Journal of the History of Sport 27: 3008-3025.
    • Cornelissen, S., (2011). 'More than a Sporting Chance? Appraising the sport for development legacy of the 2010 FIFA World Cup., Third World Quarterly, 32 (3): 503-529 Cornelissen, S., & Swart, K., (2006). 'The 2010 Football World Cup as a political construct: The challenge of making good on an African promise'. The Sociological Review 54: 108-123.
    • Cornelissen, S., Bob, U., & Swart, K., (2011) 'Towards redefining the concept of legacy in relation to sport mega-events: Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup', Development Southern Africa, 28 (3): 307-318.
    • Economist, The (2012) 'The Brazilian Model', at http://www.economist.com/node/21537004, accessed 15.7.13.
    • Finlay, C J & Xin, X (2010) 'Public Diplomacy Games: A Comparative Study of American and Japanese Responses to the Interplay of Nationalism, Ideology and Chinese Soft Power Strategies around the 2008 Beijing Olympics', Sport in Society, 13 (5): 876-900; Foley, M., McGillivray, D., McPherson, G.,( 2012). 'Policy pragmatism: Qatar and the global events circuit'. International Journal of Event and Festival Management 3: 101-115.
    • Gratton, C., Dobson, N., Shibli, S., (2001). 'The role of major sports events in the economic regeneration of cities'. in C. Gratton and H.P Henry Sport in the city: The role of sport in economic and social regeneration. London: Routledge Gratton, C., Shibli, S., Coleman, R., (2006). 'The economic impact of major sports events: a review of ten events in the UK'. The Sociological Review 54: 41-58.
    • Grix, J. (2013a) 'Sports Politics and the Olympics', Political Studies Review, 11, 1, 15-25.
    • Grix, J. (2013b) ''Image' Leveraging and Sports Mega-Events: Germany and the 2006 World Cup', Journal of Sport and Tourism (in press).
    • Guardian, The. (2013) 'FIFA Wins, Brazilians Lose', 24.6.13, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/jun/23/brazil-world-cup-deepenproblems-fifa, accessed 5.7.13.
    • Guttmann, A (2002) The Olympics. A History of the Modern Games, 2nd edition. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    • Habermas, J., (1979) Legitimation problems in the modern state. In Communication and the evolution of society, trans. T. McCarthy, Boston Mass.: Beacon Books.
    • Harris, L., (2011). 'Mega-events and the developing world: A look at the legacy of the 2010 Soccer World Cup', South African Journal of International Affairs, 18 (3): 407-427 House of Commons Culture Media and Sport Committee (2011), '2018 World Cup Bid', Sixth Report of Session 2010-2012. London: Stationary Office.
    • Huish, R., (2011). 'Punching above its Weight: Cuba's use of sport for South-South cooperation.' Third World Quarterly 32: 417-433.
    • Kurlantzick, J., (2007) Charm offensive: how China's soft power is transforming the world . Connecticut: Yale University Press.
    • Lee, D (2004) The Growing Influence of Business in UK Diplomacy' International Studies Perspectives, 5 (1): 50-56.
    • Lee, D & Hocking, B (2011) 'Diplomacy' in Walter Carlsnaes et al (eds.) International Political Science Association Encyclopedia of Political Science, Sage.
    • Levermore, R & Budd, A (eds.) (2004), Sport and International Relations. London: Routledge.
    • Li, M., (2009). Soft power: China's emerging strategy in international politics.(Lexington, Virginia: Lexington Books.
    • Maguire, J., (1999). Global sport: Identities, societies, civilizations. (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press).
    • Maguire, J., (2002), Sport Worlds: A Sociological Perspective. Human Kinetics, Champaign, 2002.
    • Manzenreiter, W (2010) 'The Beijing Games in the Western Imagination of China: The Weak Power of Soft Power', Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34, (1): 29-48.
    • Markovits, A.S., Rensmann, L., (2010). Gaming the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • Mohan, G. & Tan-Mullins, M., (2013). China's Resource Diplomacy in Africa: Powering Development?, Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    • Narlikar, A., (2010). 'New Powers in the Club: The Challenges of Global Trade Governance'. International Affairs 86, pp. 717-728.
    • Schirm, S.A., (2010). Leaders in need of followers: Emerging powers in global governance. European Journal of International Relations 16: 197-221.
    • Sharp, P., (2009). Diplomatic theory of international relations. (Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press).
    • Shaw, T.M., Cooper, A.F., Antkiewicz, A.,( 2007). 'Global and/Or Regional Development at the Start of the 21st Century? China, India and (South) Africa'. Third World Quarterly 28: 1255-1270.
    • South African Tourism, (2010). 'Impact of 2010 FIFA World Cup, SA Tourism: Johannesburg, http://celebrate.southafrica.net/uploads/legacy/1/335208/World_Cup_Impact_Study_v8_r eport_03122010.pdf, accessed 14.5.13.
    • Stephen, M.D., (2012). 'Rising Regional Powers and International Institutions: The Foreign Policy Orientations of India, Brazil and South Africa'. Global Society 26:. 289-309.
    • Van der Westhuizen, J., Swart, K., (2011). 'Bread or circuses? The 2010 World Cup and South Africa's quest for marketing power'. The International Journal of the History of Sport 28: 168-180.
    • Xinchun, N., (2011). 'Eight myths about Sino-U.S. relations', Contemporary International Relations 21 (4) (no page numbers) available http://www.cicir.ac.cn/english/ArticleView.aspx?nid=2935 [last accessed 3 July, 2013).
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article