LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Psychiatric Research Unit, Region Zealand
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: psyc

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: mental disorders, behavioral disciplines and activities, genetic structures
- Background: The female autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype is currently underresearched. Girls with ASD may differ from boys with ASD, yet few studies have tested this hypothesis, particularly among low functioning individuals. This study compared girls and boys with predominantly low functioning ASD and typically developing girls during middle and late childhood across autism symptoms, cognition, sensory overresponsivity, and co-occurring psychopathology. \ud \ud - Methods: Three mental-age–matched groups were compared: girls with ASD (N = 27), boys with ASD (N = 27), and typically developing girls (N = 17). Their ages ranged from 7 to 19 years old. The majority of individuals in the ASD sample had an intelligence quotient of less than 70. Participants were assessed on standard social cognition and attention to detail tasks. Parents completed behavior questionnaires.\ud \ud - Results: Mean levels of autism symptoms were not significantly different for boys and girls with ASD, and they were significantly higher than those of typically developing girls. There were some weak trends for boys with ASD to show more compulsive behavior, inattention/hyperactivity and taste sensory overresponsivity than girls with ASD, but differences were not significant after controlling for multiple comparisons. The Block Design task, assessing attention to detail, showed a significant sex difference, with boys with ASD outperforming both girls with ASD and typically developing girls.\ud \ud - Conclusions: Predominantly low functioning girls with ASD differed from typically developing girls but did not differ from boys with ASD with regard to their levels of autism symptoms, sensory overresponsivity, or co-occurring psychopathology. These data feed into debates about whether ASD assessment tools require sex-specific criteria and to what degree treatment should be tailored to the sex of the individual.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders - Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012;61(3):1-18. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6103a1.htm (accessed 17 April 2012).
    • 2. Edwards TL, Watkins EE, Lotfizadeh AD, Poling A. Intervention research to benefit people with autism: How old are the participants? Res Autism Spectr Disord 2012;6(3); 996-9.
    • 3. Robinson E, Lichtenstein P, Anckarsäter H, Happe F, Ronald A. The female protective effect against autistic behaviour: Evidence from two nationally representative samples. PNAS 2013; 110(13):5258-62.
    • 4. Jacquemont S, Coe BP, Hersch M, Krumm N, Bergmann S, Beckmann J.S, et al. A higher mutational burden in females supports a “female protective model” in neurodevelopmental disorders. Am J Hum Genet 2014;94(3):415-25.
    • Wing L, Gould J. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification. J Autism Dev Disord 1979;9(1):11-29.
    • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
    • Van Wijngaarden-Cremers PJM, Van Eeten E, Groen WB, Van Deurzen PA, Oosterling IJ, Van Der Gaag RJ. Gender and age differences in the core triad of impairments in autism spectrum disorders: A systemic review and meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord 2014;4(4):627-35.
    • Frazier TW, Georgiades S, Bishop SL, Hardan AY. Behavioral and cognitive characteristics of females and males with autism in the Simons Simplex Collection. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53(3):329-40.
    • Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from a large sample of children and adolescents. J Autism Dev Disord 2012;42(7):1204-1313.
    • 10. Beeger S, Mandell D, Winjker-Holmes B, Wenderbosch S, Rem D, Stekelenburg F, et al. Sex differences in the timing of identification among children and adults with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2012;43(5):1151-6.
    • 11. Dworzynski K, Ronald A, Bolton P, Happe F. How different are girls and boys above and below the diagnostic threshold for autism spectrum disorders? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012;51(8):788-92.
    • 12. Tsai LY Beisler JM. The development of sex differences in infantile autism. Br J Psychiatry 1983;11(2):165-73.
    • 13. Volkmar FR, Szatmari P, Sparrow SS. Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 1993;23(4):579-91.
    • 14. Lord C, Schopler E, Revicki D. Sex differences in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1982;12(4):317-30.
    • 15. Tomchek SD, Dunn W. Sensory processing in children with and without autism: A comparative study using the Short Sensory Profile. Am J Occup Ther 2007;61(2):190-200.
    • 16. Lai M-C, Lombardo MV, Pasco G, Ruigrok ANV, Wheelwright SJ, Sadek SA, et al. A behavioural comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PloS One 2011;6(6):e20835.
    • 17. Solomon M, Miller M, Taylor SL, Hinshaw SP, Carter CS. Autism symptoms and internalizing psychopathology in girls and boys with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2012;42(1):48-59.
    • 18. Shah A, Frith U. (1983). An islet of ability in autism: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1983;24(4):613-20.
    • 19. Mottron L, Burack JA, Larocci G, Belleville S, Enns JT. Locally oriented perception with intact global processing among adolescents with high-functioning autism: evidence from multiple paradigms. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003;44(6): 904-13.
    • 20. Koyama T, Kamio Y, Inada N, Kurita H. Sex differences in WISCIII profiles of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2009;39(1):135-41.
    • 21. Bölte S, Duketis E, Poustka F, Holtmann M. Sex differences in cognitive domains and their clinical correlates in higher-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Autism 2011;15(4):497-511.
    • 22. Lai M-C, Lombardo MV, Ruigrok ANV, Chakrabarti B, Wheelwright SJ, Auyeung B, et al. Cognition in males and females
    • 23. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Hill J, Raste Y, Plumb I. The “Reading the mind in the eyes” Test Revised Version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or highfunctioning autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001;42(2):241-51.
    • 24. Fombonne E. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(Suppl 10):3-8.
    • 25. Koenig K. Girls growing up on the autism spectrum: What parents and professional should know about the pre-teen and teenage years (Review of the book by Nichols S, Moravcik GM, Pulver Tetenbaum S, 2009). J Autism Dev Disord 2009;40(8):1042-3.
    • 26. Head AM, McGillivray JA, Stokes MA. Gender differences in emotionality and sociability in children with autism spectrum disorders. Molecular Autism 2014;5(19):1-9.
    • 27. Koenig K, Tsatsanis K. Pervasive developmental disorders in girls. In: Bell-Dolan D, Foster S, Mash EJ. (Eds). Behavioural and emotional problems in girls. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum; 2005.
    • 28. Special educational needs and disability Act 2001. Chapter 10. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/ 10/contents
    • 29. Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation; 1974.
    • 30. Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
    • 31. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. Social communication questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
    • 32. Bodfish SL, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behaviour in autism: Comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30(3):237-43.
    • 33. Schoen SA, Miller LJ, Green KE. Pilot study of the Sensory OverResponsivity Scales: Assessment and inventory. Am J Occup Ther 2008;62(4);393-406.
    • 34. Goodman, R. The Strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1997;38(5):581-6.
    • 35. Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U. Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition 1985;21(1):37-46.
    • 36. Baron-Cohen S. Autism and symbolic play. Br J Dev Psychol 1987;5(2):139-48.
    • 37. Morgan B, Maybery M, Durkin K. Weak Central Coherence, Poor Joint Attention, and Low Verbal Ability: Independent Deficits in Early Autism. Dev Psychopathol 2003;39(4):646-656.
    • 38. Phillips W, Baron-Cohen S, Rutter M. The role of eye contact in goal detection: Evidence from normal infants and children with autism or mental handicap. Dev Psychopathol 1992;4(3):375-83.
    • 39. Wechsler D. Equivalent test and mental ages for the WISC. J Consult Psychol 1951;15(5):381-4.
    • 40. Wing L. Asperger's syndrome: a clinical account. Psychol Med 1981;11:115-29.
    • 41. Kopp S, Gillberg C. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)-Revised Extended Version (ASSQ-REV): an instrument for better capturing the autism phenotype in girls? A pre-liminary study involving 191 clinical cases and community controls. Res Dev Disabil 2011;32:2875-88.
    • 42. Holtmann M, Bölte S, Poustka F. Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007;49(5):361-6.
    • 43. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic InterviewRevised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 1994;24:659-85.
    • 44. Leekam SR, Neito C, Libby SJ, Wing L, Gould J. Describing the sensory abnormalities of children and adults with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2001;37(5):894-910.
    • 45. May T, Cornish K, Rinehart NJ. Gender profiles of behavioural attention in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Atten Disord 2012:1-9. Epub ahead of print 21 August 2012. doi:10.1177/ 1087054712455502.
    • 46. Taylor MJ, Charman T, Robinson EB, Plomin R, Happe F, Asherson P, et al. Developmental associations between traits of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A genetically-informative, longitudinal twin study. Psychol Med 2013;43(8):1735-46.
    • 47. Silliman ER, Diehl SF, Huntley Bahr R, Hnath-Chisolm T, Zenko CB, Friedman, SA. A new look at performance on Theory-of-Mind Tasks by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School 2003;34:236-52.
    • 48. Schopler E, Brehm SS, Kinsbourne M, Reichler RJ. Effect of treatment structure on development in autistic children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971;24(5):415-21.
    • 49. Carter AS, Black DO, Tewani S, Connolly CE, Kadlec MB, TagerFlusberg H. Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2007;37(1): 86-97.
    • 50. Hartley SL, Sikora DM. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: An examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behaviour problems in toddlers. J Autism Dev Disord 2009;39:1715-22.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article