Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Journal: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: glycolipids, flour, solvent extraction, fatty acid, Research Articles, starch, lipid, phospholipids, neutral lipids

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages, lipids (amino acids, peptides, and proteins)
BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches).
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1 Chung OK and Ohm JB, Wheat lipid as a quality determinant, in Proceedings of the International Wheat Quality Conference, Manhattan, KS, pp. 83-100 (1997).
    • 2 MacRitchie F, The liquid phase of dough and its role in baking. Cereal Chem 53:318-326 (1976).
    • 3 Finnie SM, Jeannotte R, Morris CF and Faubion JM, Variation in polar lipid composition among near- isogenic wheat lines possessing different puroindoline haplotypes. J Cereal Sci 51:66-72 (2010).
    • 4 Pauly A, Pareyt B, De Brier N, Fierens E and Delcour JA, Starch isolation method impacts soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Claire) starch puroindoline and lipid levels as well as its functional properties. J Cereal Sci 56:464-469 (2012).
    • 5 Morrison WR, Wheat lipid composition. Cereal Chem 55:548-558 (1978).
    • 6 Riisom T, Krog N and Erikson J, Amylose complexing capacities of cis- and trans- unsaturated monoglycerides in relation to their functionality in bread. J Cereal Sci 2:105-117 (1984).
    • 7 Konopka I, Czaplicki S and Rotkiewicz D, Differences in content and composition of free lipids and carotenoids in flour of spring and winter wheat cultivated in Poland. Food Chem 95:290-300 (2006).
    • 8 Wang L, Yin Z, Wu J, Sun Z and Xie B, A study on freeze-thaw characteristics and microstructure of Chinese water chestnut starch gels. J Food Eng 88:186-192 (2008).
    • 9 Simmonds DH, Wheat and Wheat Quality in Australia. CSIRO Australia, Queensland (1989).
    • 10 Ruibal-Mendieta NL, Delacroix DL and Meurens M, A comparative analysis of free, bound and total lipid content on spelt and winter wheat wholemeal. J Cereal Sci 35:337-342 (2002).
    • 11 Fisk ID, White DA, Lad M and Gray DA, Oxidative stability of sunflower oil bodies. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:962-968 (2008).
    • 12 White DA, Fisk ID and Gray DA, Characterisation of oat (Avena sativa L.) oil bodies and intrinsically associated E-vitamers. J Cereal Sci 43:244-249 (2006).
    • 13 Morrison WR, Starch lipids: a reappraisal. Starch - Sta¨rke 33:408-410 (1981).
    • 14 Ando H, Sugi K, Watanabe K, Morita N and Mitsunaga T, Distribution of food components in each fraction of wheat grain. Food Sci Technol Res 8:10-13 (2002).
    • 15 Marion D, Dubreil L and Douliez J, Functionality of lipids and lipid-protein interactions in cereal-derived food products. Ole´agineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 10:47-56 (2003).
    • 16 Barnes PJ, Lipids in Cereal Technology. Academic Press, London (1983).
    • 17 Pareyt B and Delcour JA, The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar, and fat in low moisture cereal based products: a review on sugar-snap cookies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48:824-839 (2008).
    • 18 Ukai T and Urade R, Cooperation of phosphatidylcholine with endogenous lipids of wheat flour for an increase in dough volume. Food Chem 102:225-231 (2007).
    • 19 Pareyt B, Finnie SM, Putseys JA and Delcour JA, Lipids in bread making: sources, interactions, and impact on bread quality. J Cereal Sci 54:266-279 (2011).
    • 20 Gerits LR, Pareyt B and Delcour JA, Single run HPLC separation coupled to evaporative light scattering detection unravels wheat flour endogenous lipid redistribution during bread dough making. LWT - Food Sci Technol 53:426-433 (2013).
    • 21 Finnie SM, Jeannotte R, Morris CF, Giroux MJ and Faubion JM, Variation in polar lipids located on the surface of wheat. starch. J Cereal Sci 51:73-80 (2010).
    • 22 Hobbard JD, Downing JM, Ram MS and Chung OK, Lipid extraction from wheat flour using supercritical fluid extraction. Cereal Chem 81:693-698 (2004).
    • 23 Wootton MJ, Binding and extractibility of wheat flour lipid after dough formation. J Sci Food Agric 17:297-301 (1966).
    • 24 Macmurray TA and Morrison WR, Composition of wheat-flour lipids. J Sci Food Agric 21:520-528 (1970).
    • 25 Morrison WR, Mann DL and Coventry WSAM, Selective extraction and quantitative analysis of non-starch and starch lipids from wheat flour. J Sci Food Agric 26:507-521 (1975).
    • 26 AACC, Approved Methods of Analysis. AACC International, St Paul, MN (1999).
    • 27 Clements RL, Quantitative studies of wheat-flour lipids extracted with various solvents by an elution method. Cereal Chem 54: 1198-1206 (1977).
    • 28 Bligh EG and Dyer WJ, A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911-917 (1959).
    • 29 Morrison WR, Lipids in cereal starch: a review. J Cereal Sci 8:1-15 (1988).
    • 30 Hajra AK, An extraction of acyl and alkyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate from incubation mixtures. Lipids 9:502-504 (1974).
    • 31 Snyder LR, Classification of the solvent properties of common liquids. J Chromatogr Sci 16:223-234 (1978).
    • 32 Hara A and Radin NS, Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Anal Biochem 90:420-426 (1978).
    • 33 Ohm JB and Chung OK, Estimation of free glycolipids in wheat flour by high performance liquid chromatography. Cereal Chem 76:873-876 (1999).
    • 34 Fisk I, Gkatzionis K, Lad M, Dodd CR and Gray D, Gamma-irradiation as a method of microbiological control, and its impact on the oxidative labile lipid component of Cannabis sativa and Helianthus annus. Eur Food Res Technol 228:613-621 (2009).
    • 35 Morrison WR, Lipids in cereal starches: a review. J Cereal Sci 8:1-15 (1988).
    • 36 Smedes F and Askland TK, Revisiting the development of the Bligh and Dyer total lipid determination method. Mar Pollut Bull 38:193-201 (1999).
    • 37 Bloksma A, Extraction of flour by mixtures of butanol-1 and water. Cereal Chem 43:602-622 (1966).
    • 38 MacMurray T and Morrison W, Composition of wheat-flour lipids. J Sci Food Agric 21:520-528 (1970).
    • 39 Fisher N, Bell BM, Rawlings CEB and Bennett R, The lipid of wheat.III. Further studies of the lipids of flours from single wheat variaties of widely varying quality. J Sci Food Agric 17:370-383 (1966).
    • 40 Nelson JH, Glass RL and Gedde WF, The triglycerides and fatty acids of wheat. Cereal Chem 40:343-350 (1963).
    • 41 Osman RO, Abd El Gelil FM, El Noamany HM and Dawood MG, Oil content and fatty acid composition of some varieties of barley and sorghum grains. Grasas Aceites 51:157-162 (2000).
    • 42 Price PB, Breeding for improved feed quality of barley. Barley Newsl 37-41 (1972).
    • 43 Fedak G and De La Roche I, Lipid and fatty acid composition of barley kernels. Can J Plant Sci 57:257-266 (1977).
    • 44 Madazimov SHT, Tukhtamuradov ZT and Ibragimova KI, Fatty acid composition of Uzker barley and changes during malting. Pirkladnaya Biokhimiyai Microbiologiya 12:734 (1976).
    • 45 Prabhasankar P, Kumar MV, Lokesh BR and Rao PH, Distribution of free lipids and their fractions in wheat flour milled streams. Food Chem 71:97-103 (2000).
    • 46 Vasanthan T and Hoover R, Comparative study of the composition of lipids associated with starch granules from various botanical sources. Food Chem 45:19-29 (1992).
    • 47 Christie WW, Lipid Analysis: Isolation, Separation, Identification, and Structural Analysis of Lipids. The Oily Press, Cambridge, UK (2003).
    • 48 Roose P and Smedes F, Evaluation of the results of the QUASIMEME lipid intercomparison: the Bligh and Dyer total lipid extraction method. Mar Pollut Bull 32:674-680 (1996).
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article