Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Richards, G.; Marques, Lenia (2015)
Languages: English
Types: Article
The increasingly multifaceted nature of event impacts makes them even more attractive as a potential solution to a range of urban and regional problems. As a result, competition to stage major cultural and sporting events is intensifying, and the cost of bidding is also rising. Given that such bidding processes only produce one winner, this means that a growing number of disappointed cities have to justify the costs of bidding for major events. In this context, we analyse the bidding process for the European Capital of Culture in the Netherlands (2018) and its impacts on local social structures. In particular the article focuses on the less tangible, non-economic effects of bidding for events, establishing a framework based on network formation, public support for the bidding process and social cohesion. The conclusions point to the key role of sociality and networking for events, which should therefore be developed throughout the bidding process for successful impacts, either the event is won or not.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 2018 Eindhoven/Brabant (2013). European Capital of Culture bid book. Eindhoven: 2018 Eindhoven/ Brabant.
    • Åkerlund, U., & Müller, D. (2012). Implementing tourism events: The discourses of Umeå's Bid for European Capital of Culture 2014. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 12(2), 164-180. doi:10.1080/15022250.2011.647418
    • ARUP (2002). London Olympics 2012: Costs and benefits. Retrieved from http://www.arup.com/_ assets/_download/download368.pdf
    • van Bommel, M., du Long, K., Luijten, J., & Richards, G. (2011). BrabantStad's candidacy for European Capital of Culture 2018. Baseline measurement: The principal conclusions. Eindhoven: Eindhoven/ Brabant 2018.
    • Burton, R., & O'Reilly, N. (2012, August 20). Soaring cost of Olympic host bids concerns Ueberroth. Sports Business Daily, p. 27. Retrieved from http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/ 2012/08/20/Opinion/Burton-OReilly.aspx
    • DCMS. (2013). Post games evaluation: Meta-evaluation of the impacts and legacy of the London 2012 Olympic and paralympic games. London: Department for Culture, Media & Sport.
    • Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Mistilis, N. & Mules, T. (2000). A framework for assessing “tangible” and “intangible” impacts of events and conventions. Event Management, 6(3), 175-191. doi:10.0000/ 096020197390257
    • European Capital of Culture. (2013). Selection of the European Capital of Culture 2018 in the Netherlands. The Selection Panel, Final Selection Report. Brussels: European Commission.
    • European Capitals of Culture Policy Group. (2010). An international framework of good practice in research and delivery of the European Capital of Culture programme. Liverpool: ECoC Policy Group.
    • Evans, G., & van Heur, B. (2013). European Capital of Culture - emancipatory practices and Euregional strategies: The case of Maastricht Via 2018. In G. Richards, M. de Brito, & L. Wilks (Eds.), Exploring the social impact of events (pp. 73-83). London: Routledge.
    • Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    • Garcia, B. (2005). Deconstructing the city of culture: The long-term cultural legacies of glasgow 1990. Urban Studies, 42, 841-868. doi:10.1080/00420980500107532
    • Garcia, B. (2013). London 2012: Cultural olympiad evaluation (final report). Liverpool: Institute of Cultural Capital, University of Liverpool.
    • Garcia, B., Melville, R., & Cox, T. (2009). Creating an impact: Liverpool's experience as European Capital of Culture. Liverpool: Impacts08.
    • Getz, D. (2004). Bidding on events: Critical success factors. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management, 5(2), 1-24. doi:10.1300/J143v05n02_01
    • Immler, N.L. and Sakkers, H. (2014). (Re)Programming Europe: European Capitals of Culture: Rethinking the role of culture. Journal of European Studies, 44(1), 3-29. doi:10.1177/0047244113515567
    • Jago, L., Chalip, L., Brown, G., Mules, T., & Ali, S. (2003). Building events into destination branding: Insights from experts. Event Management, 8(1), 3-14.
    • Jones, C. (2001). Mega-events and host-region impacts: Determining the true worth of the 1999 Rugby world cup. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(3), 241-251. doi:10.1002/jtr.326
    • Kania, L. (2013). Social capital in the metropolis BrabantStad. In G. Richards, M. de Brito & L. Wilks, (Eds), Exploring the social impacts of events (pp. 45-56). London: Routledge.
    • Kraft, S. E. (2008). Place-making through mega-events. In J. Ø. Baerenholdt & B. Granås (Eds), Mobility and place: Enacting Northern European peripheries (pp. 219-231). Aldershot: Ashgate.
    • Lubber, R. (2013, September 6). Onderzoek Culturele Hoofdstad. De Stem.
    • Marques, L. (2013). Constructing social landscape through events: The glocal project of 'sHertogenbosch. In G. Richards, M. de Brito, & L. Wilks (Eds.), Exploring the social impact of events (pp. 84-94). London: Routledge.
    • Nooij, M. De, & Van den Berg, (2013). The bidding paradox: Why rational politicians still want to bid for mega sports events (Discussion Paper Series No. 13-09). Tjalling C. Koopmans Research Institute. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2314350
    • Observatorio Económico de Madrid. (2013). Effectos derivados del proceso olímpico para la ciudad de Madrid. Barómetro de economía de la ciudad de Madrid, 36(2) Trimestre 2013, pp. 115-135.
    • Palmer, R. (2004). European cities and capitals of culture: Study prepared for the European commission. Brussels: Palmer/RAE Associates.
    • Palmer, R., Richards, G., & Dodd, D. (2012). European cultural capital report, volume 4. Arnhem: ATLAS.
    • van Peer, R. (2013, October 9). Blind door regenteske hoogmoed. Eindhovens Dagblad. Retrieved from http://www.ed.nl/mening/blind-door-regenteske-hoogmoed-1.4042855
    • Verhoeven, C. A. (2013). Houdoe or Houdios? BrabantStad 2018: European capital of culture and the extent of identification of Brabant's inhabitants. In G. Richards, M. de Brito & L. Wilks, (Eds.), Exploring the social impacts of events (pp. 57-72). London: Routledge.
    • Porter, M. E. (1989). The competitive advantage of nations. New York: The Free Press.
    • Richards, G. (2000). The European cultural capital event: Strategic weapon in the cultural arms race? Journal of Cultural Policy, 6(2), 159-181. doi:10.1080/10286630009358119
    • Richards, G. (2013). Assessing the return on cultural investment: The case of the European Capital of Culture. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4096364/Assessing_the_return_on_cultural_ investment_the_case_of_the_European_Capital_of_Culture
    • Richards, G. (2014). Guimarães and Maribor, European Capitals of Culture 2012. Arnhem: ATLAS.
    • Richards, G. (2015). Evaluating the European Capital of Culture that never was: Brabantstad 2018. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 7(2), 118-133. doi:10.1080/19407963. 2014.944189
    • Richards, G., Dodd, D., & Palmer, R. (2012). European cultural capital report. Arnhem: ATLAS.
    • Richards, G., de Brito, M., & Wilks, L. (2013). Exploring the social impact of events. London: Routledge.
    • Richards, G., & Palmer, R. (2010). Eventful cities: Cultural management and urban revitalisation. London: Routledge.
    • Richards, G., & Rotariu, I. (2015). Developing the eventful city in Sibiu, Romania. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 1(2), 89-102.
    • Rojek, C. (2013). Event power: How global events manage and manipulate. London: Sage.
    • Rose, A., & Spiegel, M. (2011). The olympic effect. Economic Journal, 121(553), 652-677. doi:10.1111/j. 1468-0297.2010.02407.x
    • Roth, S., & Frank, S. (2000). Festivalization and the media: Weimar, Cultural Capital of Europe 1999. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 6(2), 219-241. doi:10.1080/10286630009358122
    • Sacco, P., & Blessi, G.T. (2004). European Culture Capitals and local development strategies: Comparing the Genoa 2004 and Lille 2004 Cases. Retrieved from http://neumann.hec.ca/aimac2005/PDF_Text/ Sacco_TavanoBlessi.pdf
    • Sacco, P., & Blessi, G.T. (2007). European Culture Capitals and local development strategies: Comparing the Genoa and Lille 2004 cases. Homo Oeconomicus, 24(1), 111-141.
    • Sen, A. (1992). Inequality reexamined. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Sanetra-Szeliga, J. (2013, October 17-18). Creativity as part of the European Capital of Culture strategies - the case of Poland. Тhe idea of creative city/Тhe urban policy debate, Cracow, Conference proceedings, pp. 94-105.
    • Trono, A., & Rizello, K. (2015, May). Culture and event bidding strategies of Lecce city in Southern Italy. Paper presented at the ATLAS Events Group Meeting, Lecce.
    • Westerbeek, H. M., Turner, P., & Ingerson, L. (2002). Key success factors in bidding for hallmark sporting events. International Marketing Review, 19(3), 303-322. doi:10.1108/02651330210430712
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok