Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

arxiv: Physics::Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics::Space Physics, Astrophysics::Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, Astrophysics::High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Generally, ocean waves are thought to act as a drag on the surface\ud wind so that momentum is transferred downwards, from the atmosphere\ud into the waves. Recent observations have suggested that when long\ud wavelength waves, characteristic of remotely generated swell,\ud propagate faster than the surface wind momentum can also be\ud transferred upwards. This upward momentum transfer acts to accelerate\ud the near-surface wind, resulting in a low-level wave-driven wind\ud jet. Previous studies have suggested that the sign reversal of the\ud momentum flux is well predicted by the inverse wave age, the ratio of\ud the surface wind speed to the speed of the waves at the peak of the\ud spectrum. ECMWF ERA-40 data has been used here to calculate the global\ud distribution of the inverse wave age to determine whether there are\ud regions of the ocean that are usually in the wind-driven wave regime\ud and others that are generally in the wave-driven wind regime. The\ud wind-driven wave regime is found to occur most often in the\ud mid-latitude storm tracks where wind speeds are generally high. The\ud wave-driven wind regime is found to be prevalent in the tropics where\ud wind speeds are generally light and swell can propagate from storms at\ud higher latitudes. The inverse wave age is also a useful indicator of\ud the degree of coupling between the local wind and wave fields. The\ud climatologies presented emphasise the non-equilibrium that exists\ud between the local wind and wave fields and highlight the importance of\ud swell in the global oceans.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Ahrens, C. D., 2003: Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. 7th ed. Thomson/ Brooks/Cole, 624 pp.
    • Alves, J. H., M. L. Banner, and I. R. Young, 2003: Revisiting the Pierson-Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1301-1323.
    • Belcher, S. E., and J. C. R. Hunt, 1993: Turbulent shear flow over slowly moving waves. J. Fluid Mech., 251, 109-148.
    • Caires, S., A. Sterl, J.-R. Bidlot, N. Graham, and V. Swail, 2004: Intercomparison of different wind-wave reanalyses. J. Climate, 17, 1893-1913.
    • Chen, G., B. Chapron, R. Ezraty, and D. Vandemark, 2002: A global view of swell and wind sea climate in the ocean by satellite altimeter and scatterometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 1849-1859.
    • de las Heras, M. M., G. Burgers, and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Variational wave data assimilation in a third-generation wave model. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 1350-1369.
    • Donelan, M. A., W. M. Drennan, and K. B. Katsaros, 1997: The air-sea momentum flux in conditions of wind sea and swell. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2087-2099.
    • Drennan, W. M., K. K. Kahma, and M. A. Donelan, 1999: On momentum flux and velocity spectra over waves. Bound.- Layer Meteor., 92, 489-515.
    • --, H. C. Graber, D. Hauser, and C. Quentin, 2003: On the wave age dependence of wind stress over pure wind seas. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8062, doi:10.1029/2000JC000715.
    • Edson, J., and Coauthors, 2007: The Coupled Boundary Layers and Air-Sea Transfer experiment in low winds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 341-356.
    • Grachev, A. A., and C. W. Fairall, 2001: Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1698-1711.
    • Hanley, K. E., and S. E. Belcher, 2008: Wave-driven wind jets in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2646-2660.
    • Harris, D. L., 1966: The wave-driven wind. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 688-693.
    • Hasselmann, S., and Coauthors, 1988: The WAM model-A third generation ocean wave prediction model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 1775-1810.
    • Janssen, P. A. E. M., 1989: Wave-induced stress and the drag of air flow over sea waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 745-754.
    • --, 1991: Quasi-linear theory of wind-wave generation applied to wave forecasting. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1631-1642.
    • --, B. Hanssen, and J.-R. Bidlot, 1997: Verification of the ECMWF wave forecasting system against buoy and altimeter data. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 763-784.
    • Komen, G. J., L. Cavaleri, M. Donelan, K. Hasslemann, S. Hasslemann, and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, 520 pp.
    • McWilliams, J. C., and J. M. Restrepo, 1999: The wave-driven ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2523-2540.
    • Pierson, W. J., and L. Moskowitz, 1964: A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii. J. Geophys. Res., 69, 5181-5190.
    • Smedman, A., U. H o¨gstr o¨m, H. Bergstrom, A. Rutgersson, K. K. Kahma, and H. Pettersson, 1999: A case study of air-sea interaction during swell conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25 833-25 851.
    • --, X. G. Larsen, U. H o¨gstr o¨m, K. K. Kahma, and H. Pettersson, 2003: Effect of sea state on the momentum exchange over the sea during neutral conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3367, doi:10.1029/2002JC001526.
    • Snodgrass, F. E., G. W. Groves, K. Hasselmann, G. R. Miller, W. H. Munk, and W. H. Powers, 1966: Propagation of ocean swell across the Pacific. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 259A, 431-497.
    • Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961-3012.
    • Young, I. R., 1999: Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 931-950.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article