LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Objective To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. Methods We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. Results There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. Conclusions The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies’ lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 15. Chantornvong S, McCargo D. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand. Tob Control 2001;10:48-54.
    • 16. Bohl K. Problems of developing country access to WTO dispute settlement. Chi.-Kent J. Int'l & Comp. L. 2009;9:130-97.
    • 17. Bown CP. Self-Enforcing Trade. Developing Countries and WTO Dispute Settlement. Washington, DC: Brookings 2009.
    • 18. Elsig M, Stucki, P. Low-income developing countries and WTO litigation: Why wake up the sleeping dog? Review of International Political Economy 2012;19:292-316.
    • 19. Sattler T, Bernauer T. Gravitation or discrimination? determinants of litigation in the World Trade Organization. European Journal of Political Research 2011;50:143-67.
    • 20. Bown CP, Hoekman, BM. WTO dispute settlement and the missing developing country cases: engaging the private sector. Journal of International Economic Law 2005;8:861.
    • 21. Bero L. Implications of the tobacco industry documents for public health and policy. Annual Review of Public Health 2003;24:267-88.
    • 22. Fooks GJ, Gilmore AB, Smith KE, et al. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy elites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents. PLoS Medicine 2011; 8: e1001076.
    • 23. United States General Accounting Office. International Trade: Advertising and Promoting US Cigarettes in Selected Asian Countries, December 1992, Bates No. 503114678-503114766. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bio30a99 (accessed 20 May 2015).
    • 24. Holden C, Lee K, Gilmore A., et al. Trade policy, health and corporate influence: British American Tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization. Int J Health Serv 2010;40: 421-441.
    • 25. Bollyky TJ. Forging a New Trade Policy on Tobacco. Council on Foreign Relations 2011. http://www.cfr.org/trade/forging-new-trade-policy-tobacco/p25658# (accessed 1 May 2015).
    • 26. Fooks G, Gilmore AB. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Tob Control 2014;23e1:3.
    • 27. Martin A. Philip Morris leads plain packs battle in global trade arena. Bloomberg 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-08-22/philip-morris-leads-plain-packs-battle-in-global-trade-arena (accessed 1 May 2015).
    • 28. WHO. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organisation 2008.29. Euromonitor. Statistics. www.euromonitor.com (accessed 19 May 2015).
    • 30. International Trade Centre (ITC). Trade Map. http://www.trademap.org/Index.aspx (accessed 19 May 2015).
    • 31. Levin M. As Nations Try to Snuff Out Smoking, Cigarette Makers Use Trade Treaties to Fire Up Legal Challenges. Fair Warning, http://www.fairwarning.org/2012/11/as-nations-try-to-snuff-out-smoking-cigarettemakers-use-trade-treaties-to-fire-up-legal-challenges/ (accessed 1 May 2015).
    • 32. Nebehay S. Australia says big tobacco aiding WTO challengers. Reuters 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/22/trade-tobacco-idUSL5E8GMHBW20120522 (accessed 1 May 2015).
    • 33. The Sydney Morning Herald. Ukraine likely to drop plain packaging challenge against Australia, 5 June 2015. http://www.smh.com.au/world/ukraine-likely-to-drop-plain-packaging-challenge-against-australia-20150602- ghevfi.html#ixzz3nAM3EGqb (accessed 29 Sep 2015).
    • 34. WTO. Canada - Bill C-32 amendment to Tobacco Act.
    • 35. WTO. Brazil - Draft Resolution No. 112 on maximum levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide permitted on tobacco products and prohibition of additives.
    • 36. Jurberg C. Brazil and tobacco use: a hard nut to crack. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009;87: 812-3.
    • 37. ITC Project. ITC Uruguay National Report. Findings from the Wave 1 to 4 Surveys (2006-2012). Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo; Centro de Investigación para la Epidemia del Tabaquismo and Universidad de la República, Uruguay 2014.
    • 38. Holden C, Lee K. A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries: how British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market. Globalization and Health 2011;7: 15.
    • 39. Gilmore AB, McKee M. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union. Tob Control 2004;13:136-42.
    • 40. Hurt RD, Ebbert JO, Achadi A, et al. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia. Tob Control 2011; 21:306-12.
    • Table 3 Issues with greatest number of WTO members raising concerns at TBT Committee (1995-2013). Tobacco control issues indicated in bold.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article