Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: TA
Climate change is expected to result in an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. In turn, this will result in more frequent occurrences of extreme flood events, such as flash flooding and large-scale river flooding. This being the case, there is a need for more accurate flood risk assessment schemes, particularly in areas prone to extreme flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by extreme flooding. Two flood hazard assessment criteria were tested, namely: a widely used, empirically derived method, and recently introduced, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. The two selected flood hazard assessment methods were: (1) validated against experimental data, and (2) used to assess flood hazard indices for two different extreme flood events, namely: the 2010 Kostanjevica na Krki extreme river flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas prone to extreme flooding, the flood hazard indices should be based on using the formulae derived for a mechanics-based analysis, as these formulations consider all of the physical forces acting on a human body in floodwaters, take into account the rapid changes in the flow regime, which often occur for extreme flood events, and enable a rapid assessment of the degree of flood hazard risk in a short time period, a feature particularly important when assessing flood hazard indices for high Froude numbers flows.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abt SR, Wittier RJ, Taylor A, Love DJ (1989) Human stability in a high flood hazard zone. J Am Water Resour As 25:881-890
    • Alfieri L, Burek P, Feyen L, Forzieri G (2015) Global warming increases the frequency of river floods in Europe. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:2247-2260
    • Amengual A, Homar V, Jaume O (2015) Potential of a probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting approach for the 28 September 2012 extreme flash flood in Murcia, Spain. Atmos Res 166:10-23
    • Androulidakis YS, Kombiadou KD, Makris CV, Baltikas VN, Krestenitis YN (2015) Storm surges in the Mediterranean Sea: variability and trends under future climatic conditions. Dyn Atmos Oceans 71:56-82
    • Antico A, Torres ME, Diaz HF (2016) Contributions of different time scales to extreme Parana´ floods. Clim Dyn 46(11):3785-3792
    • Ashley ST, Ashley WS (2008) Flood fatalities in the United States. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 47:805-818
    • Beniston M (2009) Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophys Res Lett 36:L07707
    • Bergman N, Sholker O, Roskin J, Greenbaum N (2014) The Nahal Oz Reservoir dam-break flood: geomorphic impact on a small ephemeral loess-channel in the semi-arid Negev Desert, Israel. Geomorphology 210:83-97
    • Bouilloud L, Delrieu G, Boudevillain B, Borga M, Zanon F (2009) Radar rainfall estimation for the postevent analysis of a Slovenian flash-flood case: application of the Mountain Reference Technique at C-band frequency. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13:1349-1360
    • Brakenridge G (2012) Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, University of Colorado [Online]. http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/Archives/index.html
    • Breilh J-F, Bertin X, Chaumillon E´ , Giloy N, Sauzeau T (2014) How frequent is storm-induced flooding in the central part of the Bay of Biscay? Glob Planet Change 122:161-175
    • Bruwier M, Erpicum S, Pirotton M, Archambeau P, Dewals B (2015) Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling chain. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15:365-379
    • Chanson H (2004) Hydraulics of open channel flow. Heinemann, Butterworth
    • Chanson H, Brown R, Mcintosh D (2014) Human body stability in floodwaters: the 2011 flood in Brisbane CBD. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on hydraulic structures: engineering challenges and extremes, 2014. The University of Queensland
    • Chau VN, Holland J, Cassells S, Tuohy M (2013) Using GIS to map impacts upon agriculture from extreme floods in Vietnam. Appl Geogr 41:65-74
    • Cox R, Yee M, Ball J (2004) Safety of people in flooded streets and floodways. National conference on hydraulics in water engineering, Engineers Australia
    • Cox R, Shand T, Blacka M (2010) Revision project 10: appropriate safety criteria for people. Stage 1 report. Australian rainfall and runoff. Water Research Laboratory, The University of New South Wales
    • Davis SF (1984) TVD finite difference schemes and artificial viscosity. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
    • Di Baldassarre G, Montanari A, Lins H, Koutsoyiannis D, Brandimarte L, Blo¨schl G (2010) Flood fatalities in Africa: from diagnosis to mitigation. Geophys Res Lett 37:L22402
    • Drillis R, Contini R, Bluestein M (1964) Body segment parameters. Artif Limbs 8:44-66
    • Duffaut P (2013) The traps behind the failure of Malpasset arch dam, France, in 1959. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 5:335-341
    • Foster D, Cox R (1973) Stability of children on roads used as floodways. Technical Report No.73/13. Water Research Laboratory of the University of New South Wales, Manly Vale, Australia
    • Foudi S, Ose´s-Eraso N, Tamayo I (2015) Integrated spatial flood risk assessment: the case of Zaragoza. Land Use Policy 42:278-292
    • Foulds SA, Macklin MG, Brewer PA (2014) The chronology and the hydrometeorology of catastrophic floods on Dartmoor, South West England. Hydrol Process 28:3067-3087
    • Godunov SK (1959) A difference method for numerical calculation of discontinuous solutions of the equations of hydrodynamics. Matematicheskii Sbornik 89:271-306
    • Grillakis M, Tsanis I, Koutroulis A (2010) Application of the HBV hydrological model in a flash flood case in Slovenia. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:2713-2725
    • Gu¨neralp B, Gu¨neralp ˙I, Liu Y (2015) Changing global patterns of urban exposure to flood and drought hazards. Glob Environ Change 31:217-225
    • Harten A (1983) High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws. J Comput Phys 49:357-393
    • Herget J, Kapala A, Krell M, Rustemeier E, Simmer C, Wyss A (2015) The millennium flood of July 1342 revisited. Catena 130:82-94
    • Hunter N, Bates P, Neelz S, Pender G, Villanueva I, Wright N, Liang D, Falconer RA, Lin B, Waller S (2008) Benchmarking 2D hydraulic models for urban flood simulations. In: Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers: water management, 2008. Thomas Telford (ICE publishing) pp 13-30
    • Ishigaki T, Baba Y, Toda K, Inoue K (2005) Experimental study on evacuation from underground space in urban flood. In: Proceedings of 31st IAHR Congress on CD-ROM, Seoul, 2005
    • Ishigaki T, Kawanaka R, Onishi Y, Shimada H, Toda K, Baba Y (2009) Assessment of safety on evacuating route during underground flooding. In: Advances in water resources and hydraulic engineering. Springer, Berlin, pp 141-146
    • Jonkman SN (2005) Global perspectives on loss of human life caused by floods. Nat Hazards 34:151-175
    • Jonkman S, Penning-Rowsell E (2008a) Human instability in flood flows. J Am Water Resour As 44:1208-1218
    • Jonkman SN, Penning-Rowsell E (2008b) Human instability in flood flows. J Am Water Resour As 44:1208-1218
    • Karvonen R, Hepojoki H, Huhta H, Louhio A (2000) The use of physical models in dam-break flood analysis, Development of Rescue Actions Based on Dam-Break Flood Analysis (RESCDAM). Final report of Helsinki University of Technology. Finnish Environment Institute
    • Kaz´mierczak A, Cavan G (2011) Surface water flooding risk to urban communities: analysis of vulnerability, hazard and exposure. Landsc Urban Plan 103:185-197
    • Keller RJ, Mitsch B (1993) Safety aspects of the design of roadways as floodways. Urban Water Research Association of Australia, Australia
    • Kobold M (2011) Comparison of floods in September 2010 with registered historic flood events (in Slovenian). Ujma 25:48-56
    • Kobold M, Susˇnik M, Robicˇ M, Ulaga F, Lalic´ B (2008) Hydrological analysis of high waters and flash floods occurred in September 2007 in Slovenia. In: IOP conference series: earth and environmental science, 2008. IOP Publishing, 012008
    • Koks EE, Jongman B, Husby TG, Botzen WJW (2015) Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management. Environ Sci Policy 47:42-52
    • Kundzewicz ZW, Pin´skwar I, Brakenridge GR (2013) Large floods in Europe, 1985-2009. Hydrol Sci J 58:1-7
    • Kvocˇka D, Falconer RA, Bray M (2015) Appropriate model use for predicting elevations and inundation extent for extreme flood events. Nat Hazards 79:1791-1808
    • Lax PD, Wendroff B (1960) Systems of conservation laws. Commun Pure Appl Math 13:217-237
    • Lenderink G, van Meijgaard E (2008) Increase in hourly precipitation extremes beyond expectations from temperature changes. Nat Geosci 1:511-514
    • Liang D, Falconer RA, Lin B (2006) Comparison between TVD-MacCormack and ADI-type solvers of the shallow water equations. Adv Water Resour 29:1833-1845
    • Liang D, Lin B, Falconer RA (2007a) A boundary-fitted numerical model for flood routing with shockcapturing capability. J Hydrol 332:477-486
    • Liang D, Lin B, Falconer RA (2007b) Simulation of rapidly varying flow using an efficient TVDMacCormack scheme. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 53:811-826
    • Liang D, Wang X, Falconer RA, Bockelmann-Evans BN (2010) Solving the depth-integrated solute transport equation with a TVD-MacCormack scheme. Environ Model Softw 25:1619-1629
    • Liang D, Xia J, Falconer RA, Zhang J (2014) On the refinement of a boundary-fitted shallow water model. Coast Eng J 56:1450001
    • Lind N, Hartford D, Assaf H (2004) Hydrodynamic models of human stability in a flood. J Am Water Resour As 40:89-96
    • Maccormack RW (1976) An efficient numerical method for solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds number. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field
    • Marchi L, Borga M, Preciso E, Sangati M, Gaume E, Bain V, Delrieu G, Bonnifait L, Pogacˇnik N (2009) Comprehensive post-event survey of a flash flood in Western Slovenia: observation strategy and lessons learned. Hydrol Process 23:3761-3770
    • Mart´ınez Ibarra E (2012) A geographical approach to post-flood analysis: the extreme flood event of 12 October 2007 in Calpe (Spain). Appl Geogr 32:490-500
    • Milanesi L, Pilotti M, Ranzi R (2015) A conceptual model of people's vulnerability to floods. Water Resour Res 51:182-197
    • Min S-K, Zhang X, Zwiers FW, Hegerl GC (2011) Human contribution to more-intense precipitation extremes. Nature 470:378-381
    • Mingham CG, Causon DM, Ingram D, Mingham CG, Causon DM, Ingram D (2001) A TVD MacCormack scheme for transcritical flow. Proc Inst Civ Eng: Water Marit Eng 148:167-175
    • Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning of the Republic of Slovenia (2015) LIDAR [Online]. http://evode.arso.gov.si/indexd022.html?q=node/12
    • Moussa R, Bocquillon C (2009) On the use of the diffusive wave for modelling extreme flood events with overbank flow in the floodplain. J Hydrol 374:116-135
    • Muis S, Gu¨neralp B, Jongman B, Aerts JC, Ward PJ (2015) Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: a probabilistic analysis using global data. Sci Total Environ 538:445-457
    • Neelz S, Pender G (2009) Desktop review of 2D hydraulic modelling packages. Environment Agency, Bristol
    • Nikolova GS, Toshev YE (2007) Estimation of male and female body segment parameters of the Bulgarian population using a 16-segmental mathematical model. J Biomech 40:3700-3707
    • Penning-Rowsell E, Floyd P, Ramsbottom D, Surendran S (2005a) Estimating injury and loss of life in floods: a deterministic framework. Nat Hazards 36:43-64
    • Penning-Rowsell E, Johnson C, Tunstall S, Tapsell S, Morris J, Chatterton J, Green C (2005b) The benefits of flood and coastal risk management: a handbook of assessment techniques. Middlesex University Press, London
    • Purwandari T, Hadi MP, Kingma NC (2011) A GIS modelling approach for flood hazard assessment in part of Surakarta city, Indonesia. Indones J Geogr 43:63-80
    • Ramsbottom D, Floyd P, Penning-Rowsell E (2003) Flood risks to people: Phase 1. R&D Technical Report FD2317, Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), UK Environment Agency
    • Ramsbottom D, Wade S, Bain V, Hassan M, Penning-Rowsell E, Wilson T, Fernandez A, House M, Floyd P (2006) Flood risks to people: Phase 2. R&D Technical Report FD2321/IR2, Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), UK Environment Agency
    • Rasˇka P, Emmer A (2014) The 1916 catastrophic flood following the B´ıla´ Desna´ dam failure: the role of historical data sources in the reconstruction of its geomorphologic and landscape effects. Geomorphology 226:135-147
    • Rojas R, Feyen L, Watkiss P (2013) Climate change and river floods in the European Union: socio-economic consequences and the costs and benefits of adaptation. Glob Environ Change 23:1737-1751
    • Rusjan S, Kobold M, Mikosˇ M (2009) Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in W Slovenia in September 2007. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:947-956
    • Russo B, Go´mez M, Macchione F (2013) Pedestrian hazard criteria for flooded urban areas. Nat Hazards 69:251-265
    • Schro¨ter K, Kunz M, Elmer F, Mu¨hr B, Merz B (2015) What made the June 2013 flood in Germany an exceptional event? A hydro-meteorological evaluation. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:309-327
    • Slovenian Environment Agency (2008) Viskoe vode in poplave 18. septembra 2007 (in Slovenian) [Online]. http://www.arso.gov.si/vode/poro%C4%8Dila%20in%20publikacije/Visoke%20vode%20in%20poplave% 2018.%20septembra%202007.pdf
    • Slovenian Environment Agency (2010a) Hidrolosˇko porocilo o povodnji v dneh od 17. do 21. septembra 2010 (in Slovenian) [Online]. http://www.arso.gov.si/vode/poro%C4%8Dila%20in%20publikacije/ Poplave%2017.%20-%2021.%20september%202010.pdf
    • Slovenian Environment Agency (2010b) Porocilo o izjemno obilnih padavinah od 16. do 19. septembra 2010 (in Slovenian) [Online]. http://meteo.arso.gov.si/uploads/probase/www/climate/text/sl/weather_ events/padavine_16-19sep10.pdf
    • Slovenian Environment Agency (2013) Povratne dobe velikih in malih pretokov za merilna mesta drzˇavnega hidrolosˇkega monitoringa povrsˇinskih voda (in Slovenian) [Online]. http://www.arso.gov.si/vode/ podatki/Povratne%20dobe%20Qvk,Qnp.pdf
    • Smith G, Wasko C (2012) Revision Project 15: two dimensional simulations in urban areas-representation of buildings in 2D numerical flood models. In: Ball J (ed) Australian rainfall and runoff. Engineers Australia, Canberra
    • Takahashi S, Endoh K, Muro Z (1992) Experimental study on people's safety against overtopping waves on breakwaters. Rep Port Harb Inst 34:4-31
    • UN (2014) World Urbanizations prospects: the 2014 revision. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, New York
    • UN (2015) World population prospects: the 2015 revision. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, New York
    • Xia J, Falconer RA, Lin B, Tan G (2011) Numerical assessment of flood hazard risk to people and vehicles in flash floods. Environ Model Softw 26:987-998
    • Xia J, Falconer RA, Wang Y, Xiao X (2014) New criterion for the stability of a human body in floodwaters. J Hydraul Res 52:93-104
    • Yee M (2003). Human stability in floodways. Undergraduate Honours Thesis, University of New South Wales
    • Zanon F, Borga M, Zoccatelli D, Marchi L, Gaume E, Bonnifait L, Delrieu G (2010) Hydrological analysis of a flash flood across a climatic and geologic gradient: the September 18, 2007 event in Western Slovenia. J Hydrol 394:182-197
    • Zhi-Yong W, Gui-Hua L, Zhi-Yu L, Jin-Xing W, Heng X (2013) Trends of extreme flood events in the Pearl River Basin during 1951-2010. Adv Clim Change Res 4:110-116
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article