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Miller, Owen (2016)
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: 2300
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    • Armstrong, Charles K. 2004. The North Korean Revolution, 1945-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    • 2013. Tyranny of the Weak: North Korea and the World, 1950-1992. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    • Banaji, Jairus 2010. “The Fictions of Free Labour: Contract, Coercion and so-called Unfree Labour.” In Banaji, Theory as History: Essays on Modes of Production and Exploitation. Leiden: Brill.
    • Binns, Peter 1987. “The Theory of State Capitalism”. In: Russia: From Worker's State to State Capitalism, 73-98.
    • Kim, Janice C. H. 2009. To Live to Work: Factory Women in Colonial Korea, 1910-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    • Kim Yŏnchŏl 1998. “1950 nyŏndae pukhan ŭi nodong chŏngch'aek kwa nodongja.” [Workers and North Korea's labour policy in the 1950s]. In: Yŏksa munje yŏn'guso, 1950 nyŏndae nambukhan ŭi sŏnt'aek kwa kulchŏl, 387-409.
    • Munslow, B. and Finch, H. (eds) 1984. Proletarianisation in the Third World: Studies in the Creation of a Labour Force Under Dependent Capitalism. London: Croom Helm.
    • Palmer, Brandon 2013. Fighting for the Enemy: Koreans in Japan's War, 1937-1945. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
    • Park Soon-Won 1999. Colonial Industrialization and Labor in Korea. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Asia Center.
    • 1999. “Colonial industrial growth and the emergence of the Korean working class”, in Shin and Robinson, Colonial Modernity in Korea. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Asia Center.
    • Rioux, Sebastien 2013. “The Fiction of Economic Coercion: Political Marxism and the Separation of Theory and History.” Historical Materialism, 21.4, 92-128.
    • Van der Linden, Marcel 2008. Workers of the World: Essays toward a Global Labour History. Leiden: Brill.
    • 2007. Western Marxism and the Soviet Union. Leiden: Brill.
    • Van Ree, Eric 1989. “Limits of Juche: North Korea's dependence on Soviet industrial aid, 1953-76”, Journal of Communist Studies, 5:1, 50-73.
    • xliv This is the population figure for 1960. In 1953, shortly after the Korean War, the population of the DPRK had been 8.491 million. See: Central Statistical Board, Statistical Returns, 16.
    • xlv The statistical booklet published by the DPRK in 1960, from which these figures come, does not elucidate how it categorises the various branches of the economy that it uses to divide up the workforce. Presumably the category 'Industry' here means all forms of manufacturing.
    • xlvi The figure of 165,000 immediately following the war seems very low when compared with the figure of 1.22 million for the industrial working class in 1943. This can be explained by a number of factors. The categories used in the sources are different so the figure of 318,000 for 1953 (combining workers in industry, transportation, communications and construction) is the one that should be compared to the 1943 figure. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that while heavy industry was concentrated in the north, at the time of division South Korea had a much higher population and around two-thirds of the Korean working class. An additional factor that explains the low figure for industrial workers in 1953 was the war, which devastated North Korea's industrial facilities and killed large numbers of working age men.
    • xlvii Central Statistical Board, Statistical Returns, 125.
    • xlviii Central Statistical Board, Statistical Returns, 128. The complete elimination of the old independent peasant class in the 1950s raises the question of whether the peasantry was also proletarianised by collectivisation. In other words, it may be possible to see the sharecropping of cooperative farmers as a form of wage labour as Banaji has suggested. See Banaji, “The Fictions of Free Labour”, 145.
    • xlix It should be noted that by the 1930s there was already a long history of recruiting Koreans as workers for Japanese industries, dating back to the 1910s. See the interesting discussion in Kawashima, The Proletarian Gamble, 28-43.
    • l Park Soon-won, Colonial Industrialization, 38-9.
    • li Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 141.
    • lii Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 142.
    • liii Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 144.
    • liv Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 145.
    • lv Palmer notes that 73 factories and 56 mines in Korea were conscripted by the Government-General in February 1943. (Palmer, ibid, 146).
    • lvi Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 146-7.
    • lvii Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 150.
    • lviii Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 158. It should be emphasised that this figure does not represent a total of individuals mobilised but a total number of mobilisations and many Koreans would have been mobilised multiple times during the course of the war. Many of those who were mobilised were not proletarianised in any real sense as they may have only been mobilised for a few days or weeks for infrastructure work before returning to their rural homes and farming occupations.
    • lix Palmer, Fighting for the Enemy, 152-5.
    • lx On North Korea's conscious creation of a working class both 'in itself' and 'for itself', see Armstrong, The North Korean Revolution, 86-92.
    • lxi According to official statistics, as a proportion of the total population workers increased from 12.5 percent in 1946 to 19 percent at the end of 1949, Central Statistical Board, Statistical Returns, 17. See also: Armstrong, The North Korean Revolution, 160.
    • lxii Han Sŏnghun, Chonjaeng kwa inmin, 82.
    • lxiii Han Sŏnghun, Chonjaeng kwa inmin, 80; Kim Yŏn-chŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 394; Kim Cheehyung, The Furnace is Breathing, 39-47.
    • lxiv Han Sŏnghun, Chonjaeng kwa inmin, 90-91.
    • lxv Kim Yŏnchŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 390.
    • lxvi Kim Yŏnchŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 391-2; Ha Chaeryong, “Pukhan sanŏphwa,” 83.
    • lxvii Ha Chaeryong, “Pukhan sanŏphwa”, 84.
    • lxviii On the DPRK's rural collectivisation programme, see Lee Chong-sik, “Land Reform.” lxix Kim Yŏnchŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 392-3.
    • lxx The North Korean government actually took great pride in its use of this sort of labour, showing pictures of Pyongyang citizens working on the reconstruction of their city in publicity materials such as the photo album Democratic People's Republic of Korea (1958). This form of mobilisation continues today in the DPRK.
    • lxxi Armstrong, Tyranny of the Weak, 57.
    • lxxii Kim Yŏnchŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 394-5.
    • lxxiii Kim Yŏnchŏl, “1950 nyondae pukhan,” 394.
    • lxxiv For a discussion of the mixing of Japanese and Soviet influences in North Korea see: Armstrong, The North Korean Revolution, 191; 242-243.
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