Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Journal: Europace
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Stroke, Reviews, Subclinical atrial fibrillation, Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, Atrial fibrillation, Anticoagulation, Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Atrial high-rate episodes, Thromboembolic risk

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: cardiovascular diseases
While the benefit of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established, it is not known whether oral anticoagulation is indicated in patients with atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE) recorded on a cardiac implantable electronic device, sometimes also called subclinical AF, and lasting for at least 6 min in the absence of clinically diagnosed AF. Clinical evidence has shown that short episodes of rapid atrial tachycarrhythmias are often detected in patients presenting with stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Patients with AHRE have a higher likelihood of suffering from subsequent strokes, but their stroke rate seems lower than in patients with diagnosed AF, and not all AHRE episodes correspond to AF. The prognostic and pathological significance of AHRE is not yet fully understood. Clinical trials of OAC therapy are being conducted to determine whether therapeutic intervention would be beneficial to patients experiencing AHRE in terms of reducing the risk of stroke.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Lip GY. Does atrial fibrillation confer a hypercoagulable state? Lancet 1995;346: 1313-4.
    • 2. Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke 1991;22:983-8.
    • 3. WHO. World Health Organanisation: Tha Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Global burden of stroke http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_ atlas_15_burden_stroke.pdf?ua=1 (16 July 2015, date last accessed).
    • 4. Lamassa M, Di Carlo A, Pracucci G, Basile AM, Trefoloni G, Vanni P et al. Characteristics, outcome, and care of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation in Europe: data from a multicenter multinational hospital-based registry (The European Community Stroke Project). Stroke 2001;32:392-8.
    • 5. Patten M, Maas R, Bauer P, Luderitz B, Sonntag F, Dluzniewski M et al. Suppression of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias - results of the SOPAT trial. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1395- 404.
    • 6. Savelieva I, Camm AJ. Clinical relevance of silent atrial fibrillation: prevalence, prognosis, quality of life, and management. J Intervent Card Electrophysiol 2000;4:369-82.
    • 7. Page RL, Wilkinson WE, Clair WK, McCarthy EA, Pritchett EL. Asymptomatic arrhythmias in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation 1994;89:224 -7.
    • 8. Camm AJ, Lip GY, De Caterina R, Savelieva I, Atar D, Hohnloser SH et al. 2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation - developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association. Europace 2012;14:1385-413.
    • 9. Healey JS, Connolly SJ, Gold MR, Israel CW, Van Gelder IC, Capucci A et al. Subclinical atrial fibrillation and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 2012;366:120- 9.
    • 10. Pollak WM, Simmons JD, Interian A Jr, Atapattu SA, Castellanos A, Myerburg RJ et al. Clinical utility of intraatrial pacemaker stored electrograms to diagnose atrial fibrillation and flutter. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2001;24(4 Pt 1):424-9.
    • 11. Friberg L, Skeppholm M, Terent A. Benefit of anticoagulation unlikely in patients with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 65:225 - 32.
    • 12. Ahmad O, Ahmad KE, Dear KB, Harvey I, Hughes A, Lueck CJ. Atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation in a stroke unit population. Intern Med J 2009;39:752 - 6.
    • 13. Hannon N, Sheehan O, Kelly L, Marnane M, Merwick A, Moore A et al. Stroke associated with atrial fibrillation - incidence and early outcomes in the north Dublin population stroke study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2010;29:43 - 9.
    • 14. Palm F, Kleemann T, Dos Santos M, Urbanek C, Buggle F, Safer A et al. Stroke due to atrial fibrillation in a population-based stroke registry (Ludwigshafen Stroke Study) CHADS(2), CHA(2) DS(2) -VASc score, underuse of oral anticoagulation, and implications for preventive measures. Eur J Neurol 2013;20:117 - 23.
    • 15. Camm AJ, Lip GY, De Caterina R, Savelieva I, Atar D, Hohnloser SH et al. 2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2719 - 47.
    • 16. Camm AJ, Pinto FJ, Hankey GJ, Andreotti F, Hobbs FD, Writing Committee of the Action for Stroke Prevention A. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and atrial fibrillation guidelines in practice: barriers to and strategies for optimal implementation. Europace 2015;17:1007 - 17.
    • 17. Kirchhof P, Ammentorp B, Darius H, De Caterina R, Le Heuzey JY, Schilling RJ et al. Management of atrial fibrillation in seven European countries after the publication of the 2010 ESC Guidelines on atrial fibrillation: primary results of the PREvention oF thromboemolic events - European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation (PREFER in AF). Europace 2014;16:6 - 14.
    • 18. Savelieva I, Camm AJ, European Society of Cardiology. 'Preferred' management of atrial fibrillation in Europe. Europace 2014;16:1 - 3.
    • 19. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, Hoffman EB, Deenadayalu N, Ezekowitz MD et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2014; 383:955 - 62.
    • 20. Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, Diener HC, Hart R, Golitsyn S et al. Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;364:806 - 17.
    • 21. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, Lopes RD, Hylek EM, Hanna M et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365: 981 - 92.
    • 22. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, Pan G, Singer DE, Hacke W et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365:883 - 91.
    • 23. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, Wiviott SD, Halperin JL et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:2093 - 104.
    • 24. Defaye P, Dournaux F, Mouton E. Prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias from the automated analysis of data stored in the DDD pacemakers of 617 patients: the AIDA study. The AIDA Multicenter Study Group. Automatic Interpretation for Diagnosis Assistance. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1998;21(1 Pt 2):250 - 5.
    • 25. Todd D, Hernandez-Madrid A, Proclemer A, Bongiorni MG, Estner H, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C et al. How are arrhythmias detected by implanted cardiac devices managed in Europe? Results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey. Europace 2015;17:1449 - 53.
    • 26. Flaker GC, Belew K, Beckman K, Vidaillet H, Kron J, Safford R et al. Asymptomatic atrial fibrillation: demographic features and prognostic information from the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. Am Heart J 2005;149:657 - 63.
    • 27. Rizos T, Guntner J, Jenetzky E, Marquardt L, Reichardt C, Becker R et al. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke. Stroke 2012;43: 2689 - 94.
    • 28. Grond M, Jauss M, Hamann G, Stark E, Veltkamp R, Nabavi D et al. Improved detection of silent atrial fibrillation using 72-hour Holter ECG in patients with ischemic stroke: a prospective multicenter cohort study. Stroke 2013;44:3357 - 64.
    • 29. Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, Di Lazzaro V, Bernstein RA, Morillo CA et al. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2014;370: 2478 - 86.
    • 30. Gladstone DJ, Spring M, Dorian P, Panzov V, Thorpe KE, Hall J et al. Atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med 2014;370:2467 - 77.
    • 31. Doliwa Sobocinski P, Anggardh Rooth E, Frykman Kull V, von Arbin M, Wallen H, Rosenqvist M. Improved screening for silent atrial fibrillation after ischaemic stroke. Europace 2012;14:1112 - 6.
    • 32. Jorfida M, Antolini M, Cerrato E, Caprioli MG, Castagno D, Garrone P et al. Cryptogenic ischemic stroke and prevalence of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation: a prospective study. J Cardiovasc Med 2014. Epub. DOI:10.2459/JCM.0000000000000181
    • 33. Alhadramy O, Jeerakathil TJ, Majumdar SR, Najjar E, Choy J, Saqqur M. Prevalence and predictors of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on Holter monitor in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2010;41:2596 - 600.
    • 34. Tayal AH, Tian M, Kelly KM, Jones SC, Wright DG, Singh D et al. Atrial fibrillation detected by mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry in cryptogenic TIA or stroke. Neurology 2008;71:1696 - 701.
    • 35. Kerr CR, Connolly SJ, Abdollah H, Roberts RS, Gent M, Yusuf S et al. Canadian trial of physiological pacing: effects of physiological pacing during long-term follow-up. Circulation 2004;109:357 - 62.
    • 36. Skanes AC, Krahn AD, Yee R, Klein GJ, Connolly SJ, Kerr CR et al. Progression to chronic atrial fibrillation after pacing: the Canadian Trial of Physiologic Pacing. CTOPP Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:167 - 72.
    • 37. Glotzer TV, Hellkamp AS, Zimmerman J, Sweeney MO, Yee R, Marinchak R et al. Atrial high rate episodes detected by pacemaker diagnostics predict death and stroke: report of the Atrial Diagnostics Ancillary Study of the MOde Selection Trial (MOST). Circulation 2003;107:1614 - 9.
    • 38. Glotzer TV, Daoud EG, Wyse DG, Singer DE, Ezekowitz MD, Hilker C et al. The relationship between daily atrial tachyarrhythmia burden from implantable device diagnostics and stroke risk: the TRENDS study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2: 474 - 80.
    • 39. Wiesel J, Spinelli M. Subclinical atrial fibrillation and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1351; author reply 2 - 3.
    • 40. Mittal S, Stein K, Gilliam FR III, Kraus SM, Meyer TE, Christman SA. Frequency, duration, and predictors of newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation following dual-chamber pacemaker implantation in patients without a previous history of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2008;102:450 - 3.
    • 41. Singer D, Ziegler P, Schmitt S, Chang Y, Fan J, Than CT et al. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation poses a large but transient increase in ischemic stroke risk: a case crossover study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;65(10_S)A314, doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60314-X.
    • 42. Boriani G, Laroche C, Diemberger I, Fantecchi E, Popescu MI, Rasmussen LH et al. Asymptomatic atrial fibrillation: clinical correlates, management, and outcomes in the EORP-AF Pilot General Registry. Am J Med 2015;128:509 - 18.e2.
    • 43. Potpara TS, Polovina MM, Marinkovic JM, Lip GY. A comparison of clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with first-diagnosed atrial fibrillation: the Belgrade Atrial Fibrillation Study. Int J Cardiol 2013;168:4744 - 9.
    • 44. Boriani G, Glotzer TV, Santini M, West TM, De Melis M, Sepsi M et al. Devicedetected atrial fibrillation and risk for stroke: an analysis of .10,000 patients from the SOS AF project (Stroke preventiOn Strategies based on Atrial Fibrillation information from implanted devices). Eur Heart J 2014;35:508 - 16.
    • 45. Benezet-Mazuecos J, Rubio JM, Cortes M, Iglesias JA, Calle S, de la Vieja JJ et al. Silent ischaemic brain lesions related to atrial high rate episodes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Europace 2015;17:364 - 9.
    • 46. Gonzalez M, Keating RJ, Markowitz SM, Liu CF, Thomas G, Ip JE et al. Newly detected atrial high rate episodes predict long-term mortality outcomes in patients with permanent pacemakers. Heart Rhythm 2014;11:2214 - 21.
    • 47. Freestone B, Lip GY. The endothelium and atrial fibrillation. The prothrombotic state revisited. Hamostaseologie 2008;28:207 - 12.
    • 48. Savelieva I, Kakouros N, Kourliouros A, Camm AJ. Upstream therapies for management of atrial fibrillation: review of clinical evidence and implications for European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Part I: primary prevention. Europace 2011;13: 308 - 28.
    • 49. Guo Y, Lip GY, Apostolakis S. Inflammation in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:2263 - 70.
    • 50. Savelieva I, Kakouros N, Kourliouros A, Camm AJ. Upstream therapies for management of atrial fibrillation: review of clinical evidence and implications for European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Part II: secondary prevention. Europace 2011;13: 610 - 25.
    • 51. Inoue H, Nozawa T, Okumura K, Jong-Dae L, Shimizu A, Yano K. Prothrombotic activity is increased in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and risk factors for embolism. Chest 2004;126:687 - 92.
    • 52. Watson T, Shantsila E, Lip GY. Mechanisms of thrombogenesis in atrial fibrillation: Virchow's triad revisited. Lancet 2009;373:155 - 66.
    • 53. Goldsmith I, Kumar P, Carter P, Blann AD, Patel RL, Lip GY. Atrial endocardial changes in mitral valve disease: a scanning electron microscopy study. Am Heart J 2000;140:777 - 84.
    • 54. Brambatti M, Connolly SJ, Gold MR, Morillo CA, Capucci A, Muto C et al. Temporal relationship between subclinical atrial fibrillation and embolic events. Circulation 2014;129:2094 - 9.
    • 55. Botto GL. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: does the AF burden matter? Presented at the ESC Congress, 27 - 31 August 2011, Paris, France. Available at: http://spo. escardio.org/abstract-book/ Accessed 3 September 2016.
    • 56. Warraich HJ, Gandhavadi M, Manning WJ. Mechanical discordance of the left atrium and appendage: a novel mechanism of stroke in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Stroke 2014;45:1481 - 4.
    • 57. You JJ, Singer DE, Howard PA, Lane DA, Eckman MH, Fang MC et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012;141(2 Suppl.):e531S - 75S.
    • 58. Weigner MJ, Caulfield TA, Danias PG, Silverman DI, Manning WJ. Risk for clinical thromboembolism associated with conversion to sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation lasting less than 48 hours. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:615 - 20.
    • 59. Daoud EG, Glotzer TV, Wyse DG, Ezekowitz MD, Hilker C, Koehler J et al. Temporal relationship of atrial tachyarrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and systemic emboli based on stored device data: a subgroup analysis of TRENDS. Heart Rhythm 2011;8:1416 - 23.
    • 60. Shanmugam N, Boerdlein A, Proff J, Ong P, Valencia O, Maier SK et al. Detection of atrial high-rate events by continuous home monitoring: clinical significance in the heart failure-cardiac resynchronization therapy population. Europace 2012;14: 230 - 7.
    • 61. Swiryn S, Benditt DG, DiMarco JP, Lloyd-Jones D, Orlov M, Slawsky MT et al. Clinical implications of device-detected atrial tachyarrhythmias: results from the Registry of Atrial Tachycardia and Atrial Fibrillation Episodes in the Cardiac Rhythm Management Device Population (RATE). Circulation 2012;126:2792.
    • 62. Healey JS, Martin JL, Duncan A, Connolly SJ, Ha AH, Morillo CA et al. Pacemakerdetected atrial fibrillation in patients with pacemakers: prevalence, predictors, and current use of oral anticoagulation. Can J Cardiol 2013;29:224 - 8.
    • 63. Anderson K, Benzauquen BS. Do patients with pacemaker-detected atrial fibrillation receive appropriate anticoagulation? 2011. Europace 2011;13:519.
    • 64. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Rothbart RM, McAnulty JH, Asinger RW, Halperin JL. Stroke with intermittent atrial fibrillation: incidence and predictors during aspirin therapy. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35: 183 - 7.
    • 65. Kishore A, Vail A, Majid A, Dawson J, Lees KR, Tyrrell PJ et al. Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke 2014;45:520 - 6.
    • 66. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Eikelboom J, Oldgren J, Parekh A et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361: 1139 - 51.
    • 67. Benezet-Mazuecos J, Rubio JM, Farre J. Atrial high rate episodes in patients with dual-chamber cardiac implantable electronic devices: unmasking silent atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2014;37:1080 - 6.
    • 68. Chen-Scarabelli C, Scarabelli TM, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL. Device-detected atrial fibrillation: what to do with asymptomatic patients? J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;65: 281 - 94.
    • 69. Glotzer TV, Ziegler PD. Does atrial fibrillation detected by cardiac implantable electronic devices have clinical relevance? Cardiol Clin 2014;32:271 - 81.
    • 70. Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, Ahlsson A, Atar D, Casadei B et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS: The Task Force for the management of atrial fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESCEndorsed by the European Stroke Organisation (ESO). Europace 2016 Aug 27 [Epub ahead of print].
    • 71. Kirchhof P, Lip GY, Van Gelder IC, Bax J, Hylek E, Kaab S et al. Comprehensive risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation: emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options - a report from the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference. Europace 2012;14:8 - 27.
    • 72. Varma N, Epstein AE, Irimpen A, Schweikert R, Love C, TRUST Investigators. Efficacy and safety of automatic remote monitoring for implantable cardioverterdefibrillator follow-up: the Lumos-T Safely Reduces Routine Office Device Followup (TRUST) trial. Circulation 2010;122:325 - 32.
    • 73. Martin DT, Bersohn MM, Waldo AL, Wathen M, Choucair W, Lip G et al. Randomized trial of atrial arrhythmia monitoring to guide anticoagulation in patients with implanted defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization devices. Eur Heart J 2015;36: 1660 - 8.
    • 74. NCT01706146. Rhythm Evaluation for AntiCoagulaTion with COntinuous Monitoring (REACT COM). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01706146 (23 October 2015, date last accessed).
    • 75. Dion F, Saudeau D, Bonnaud I, Friocourt P, Bonneau A, Poret P et al. Unexpected low prevalence of atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic ischemic stroke: a prospective study. J Intervent Card Electrophysiol 2010;28:101 - 7.
    • 76. Rosiak M, Dziuba M, Chudzik M, Cygankiewicz I, Bartczak K, Drozdz J et al. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation: not always severe heart disease, not always so 'lonely'. Cardiol J 2010;17:437 - 42.
    • 77. Chiti A, Orlandi G. Subclinical atrial fibrillation and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1351 - 2; author reply 2 - 3.
    • 78. Aronsson M, Svennberg E, Rosenqvist M, Engdahl J, Al-Khalili F, Friberg L et al. Costeffectiveness of mass screening for untreated atrial fibrillation using intermittent ECG recording. Europace 2015;17:1023 - 9.
    • 79. Vilchez JA, Roldan V, Hernandez-Romero D, Valdes M, Lip GY, Marin F. Biomarkers in atrial fibrillation: an overview. Int J Clin Pract 2014;68:434 - 43.
    • 80. Kirchhof P, Breithardt G, Bax J, Benninger G, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Boriani G et al. A roadmap to improve the quality of atrial fibrillation management: proceedings from the fifth Atrial Fibrillation Network/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference. Europace 2016;18:37 - 50.
    • 81. Ohara K, Inoue H, Nozawa T, Hirai T, Iwasa A, Okumura K et al. Accumulation of risk factors enhances the prothrombotic state in atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 2008; 126:316 - 21.
    • 82. Lip GY, Lane D, Van Walraven C, Hart RG. Additive role of plasma von Willebrand factor levels to clinical factors for risk stratification of patients with atrial fibrillation. Stroke 2006;37:2294 - 300.
    • 83. Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Siegbahn A, Granger CB, Wallentin L. Biomarkers in atrial fibrillation: a clinical review. Eur Heart J 2013;34:1475 - 80.
    • 84. Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Andersson U, Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Hohnloser SH et al. Cardiac biomarkers are associated with an increased risk of stroke and death in patients with atrial fibrillation: a Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) substudy. Circulation 2012;125:1605 - 16.
    • 85. Camm AJ, Savelieva I, Potpara T, Hindriks G, Pison L, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C. The changing circumstance of atrial fibrillation - progress towards precision medicine. J Intern Med 2016;279:412 - 27.
    • 86. Botto GL, Padeletti L, Santini M, Capucci A, Gulizia M, Zolezzi F et al. Presence and duration of atrial fibrillation detected by continuous monitoring: crucial implications for the risk of thromboembolic events. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2009;20: 241 - 8.
    • 87. Boriani G, Botto GL, Padeletti L, Santini M, Capucci A, Gulizia M et al. Improving stroke risk stratification using the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc risk scores in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by continuous arrhythmia burden monitoring. Stroke 2011;42:1768 - 70.
    • 88. NCT01938248. Apixaban for the Reduction of Thrombo-Embolism in Patients with Device-Detected Sub-Clinical Atrial Fibrillation (ARTESiA); https:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01938248 (23 October 2015, date last accessed).
    • 89. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02618577. Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial High Rate Episodes (NOAH). https:// clinicaltrialsgov/ct2/show/NCT02618577 (22 December 2015, date last accessed).
    • 90. Orlov MV, Houde-Walter HQ, Qu F, Swiryn S, Waldo AL, Benditt DGwe et al. Atrial electrograms improve the accuracy of tachycardia interpretation from ICD and pacemaker recordings: The RATE Registry. Heart Rhythm 2016;13:1475 - 80.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article