LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Journal: Health Psychology Review
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: personality, diagnosis, evolution, Research Article
This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality health\ud link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these with in evolutionary cost benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model\ud (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abercrombie, H.C., Giese-Davos, J., Sephton, S., Epel, E.S., Turner-Cobb, J.M., & Spiegel, D. (2004). Flattened cortisol rhythms in metastatic breast cancer patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 1082 1092.
    • Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1982). Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression and murine Systemic Lupus Erythomotosis. Science, 215, 1534 1536.
    • Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1993). Psychoneuroimmunology: Conditioning and stress. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 53 85.
    • Albus, C., Jordan, J., & Hermann-Lingen, C. (2004). Screening for psychosocial risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease Recommendations for clinical practice. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 11, 75 79.
    • Almeida, L., Falcao, A., Vaz-da-Silva, M., Coelho, R., Albino-Teixeira, A., & Soaresda-Silva, P. (2008). Personality characteristics of volunteers in phase 1 studies and likelihood of reporting adverse advents. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 46, 340 348.
    • American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
    • Anusic, I., Schmmack, U., Oinkus, R.T., & Lockwood, P. (2009). The nature and structure of the correlations among the big five ratings: The Halo-Alpha-Beta model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 1142 1156.
    • Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Goldberg, L.R. (2004). A hierarchical analysis of 1,710 English personality-descriptive adjectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 707 721.
    • Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Goldberg, L.R., & de Vries, R.E. (2009). Higher order factors of personality: Do they exist? Personality and Social Psychological Review, 13, 79 91.
    • Backstrom, M., Bjorklund, F., & Larson, M.R. (2009). Five factor inventories have a major general factor related to social desirability which can be reduced by framing items neutrally. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 335 344.
    • Bagby, R.M., Taylor, G.J., & Parker, J.D.A. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto alexithymia scale-II: Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 33 40.
    • Barbosa, F., Mota, C., Alves, M., Alcantara, C., Rossinol, B., Patricio, P., & . . . Ferreira, C. (2009). Alexithymia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1173, 227 234.
    • Barsky, A.R., Ahern, D.K., Bailey, E.D., Saintfort, R., Liu, E.B., & Peekna, H.M. (2001). Hypochondriacal patient's appraisals of health and physical risk. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 783 787.
    • Barsky, A.R., Coeytaux, R.R., Sarnie, M.K., & Clearly, P.D. (1993). Hypochondriacal patient's beliefs about good health. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1085 1089.
    • Batson, C.D., Early, S., & Salvarani, G. (1997). Perspective taking: Imaging how another feels versus imagining how you would feel. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 23, 751 758.
    • Batson, C.D., Lishner, D.A., Carpenter, A., Dulin, L., Harjusola-Webb, S., Stocks, E.L., . . . Sampat, B. (2007). '' . . . As you would have them do unto you'': Does imagining yourself in the other's place stimulate moral action? Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 29, 1190 1201.
    • Baumann, D.J., Cialdini, R.B., & Kenrick, D.T. (1981). Altruism as hedonism: Helping and self-gratification as equivalent responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1039 1046.
    • Beauchaine, T.P. (2007). A brief taxometric primer. Journal of Clinical and Child Adolescent Psychology, 36, 654 676.
    • Bekkers, R. (2006). Traditional and health-related philanthropy: The role of resources and personality. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69, 349 366.
    • Bibby, P.A., & Ferguson, E. (2010). Alexithymia, BIG 5, sensation seeking and loss aversion. Personality and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.001
    • Biesanz, J.C., & West, S.G. (2004). Towards understanding assessments of the big five: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of convergent and discriminant validity across measurement occasions and type of observer. Journal of Personality, 72, 845 876.
    • Blair, R.J.P. (2005). Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating form of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 698 718.
    • Bogaerts, K., Notebaert, K., van Diest, I., Devriese, S., de Peuter, S., & van den Bergh, O. (2005). Accuracy of respiratory symptom perception in different affective contexts. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 537 543.
    • Bogg, T., & Roberts, B.W. (2004). Conscientiousness and health-related behaviors: A metaanalysis of the leading behavioral contributors to mortality. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 887 919
    • Booth-Kewley, S., & Vickers, R.R. (1994). Associations between major domains of personality and health behaviour. Journal of Personality, 62, 281 298.
    • Bouchard, T.J., Jr, & Loehlin, J.C. (2001). Genes, evolution, and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31, 243 273.
    • Brown, S.L., Nesse, R.M., Vinokur, A.D., & Smith, D.M. (2003). Providing social support is more beneficial than receiving it. Psychological Science, 14, 320 327.
    • Burke, H.M., Davis, M.C., Otte, C., & Mohr, D.C. (2005). Depression and cortisol responses: A meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 846 856.
    • Buss, D.M. (2009). How can evolutionary psychology successfully explain personality and individual differences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 359 366.
    • Buss, D.M., & Duntley, J.D. (2008). Adaptations for exploitation. Group Dynamics, 12, 53 62.
    • Capitanio, J.P., Abel, K., Mendoza, S.P., Blozis, S.A., McChesney, M.B., Cole, S.W., & Mason, W.A. (2008). Personality and serotonin transporter genotype interact with social context to affect immunity and viral set-point in simian immunodeficiency virus disease. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 22, 676 689.
    • Capitanio, J.P., Mendoza, S.P., & Baroncelli, S. (1999). The relationship of personality dimensions in adult male rhesus macaques to progression of simian immunodeficiency virus disease. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 13, 138 154.
    • Carver, C.S., & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679 704.
    • Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Taylor, A., Craig, I.W., Harrington, H., & . . . Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386 389.
    • Cave, J., Woolf, K., Jones, A., & Dacre, J. (2009). Easing the transition from student to doctor: How medical schools help prepare their graduates for starting work? Medical Teacher, 31, 403 408.
    • Cavigelli, S.A. (2005). Animal personality and health. Behaviour, 142, 1223 1244.
    • Chapman, B.P., Duberstein, P.R., Epstein, R., Fiscella, K., & Kravitz, R.L. (2008). Patient centered communication during primary care visits for depressive symptoms. Medical Care, 46, 806 812.
    • Chapman, B.P., Fiscella, K., Kawachi, I., & Duberstein, P.R. (2010). Personality, socioeconomic status, and all-cause mortality in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171, 83 92.
    • Chapman, B.P., Khan, A., Harper, M., Stockman, D., Fiscella, K., Walton, J., & . . . Moynihan, J. (2009). Gender, race/ethnicity, personality, and interleukin-6 in urban primary care patients. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 23, 636 642.
    • Chartzi, L., Bitsiois, P., Solidaki, E., Christou, I., Kyrlaki, E., Sfakianaki, M., & . . . Pappas, A. (2009). Type 1 diabetes is associated with alexithymia in nondepressed, non-mentally ill diabetic patients: A case-control study. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 307 313.
    • Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., & Hagger, M.S. (2008). Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behavior. Psychology and Health, 23, 347 367.
    • Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2009). Cortisol awakening response and psychological factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 80, 265 278.
    • Cialdini, R.B., Darby, B.L., & Vincent, J.E. (1973). Transgression and altruism: A case for hedonism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 502 516.
    • Cialdini, R.B., & Kenrick, D.T. (1976). Altruism and hedonism: A social development perspective on the relationship of negative mood state and helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 907 914.
    • Cialdini, R.B., Schaller, M., Houlihan, D., Arps, K., Fultz, J., & Beaman, A.L. (1987). Empathy-based helping: Is it selflessly or selfishly motivated? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 749 758.
    • Conner, M., & Abraham, C. (2001). Conscientiousness and the theory of planned behavior: Toward a more complete model of the antecedents of intentions and behavior. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 27, 1547 1561.
    • Conner, M., Grogan, S., Fry, G., Gough, B., & Higgins, A.R. (2009). Direct, mediated and moderated impacts of personality variables on smoking initiation in adolescents. Psychology and Health, 24, 1085 1104.
    • Connor-Smith, J.K., & Flachsbart, C. (2007). Relations between personality and coping: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1086 1107
    • Costa, A., Peppe, A., Carlesimo, G.A., Salamone, G., & Callagirone, C. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of alexithymia in Parkinson's Disease. Psychosomatics, 51, 22 28.
    • Creed, F., & Barsky, A. (2004). A systematic review of the epidemiology of somatisation disorder and hypochondriasis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 391 408.
    • David, J.P., & Suls, J. (1999). Coping efforts in daily life: Role of the big five traits and problem appraisals. Journal of Personality, 67, 265 294.
    • Davis, M.H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113 126.
    • Deary, I.J. (2010). Cognitive epidemiology: Its rise, its current issues, and its challenges. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 337 343.
    • Deary, I.J., Blenkin, H., Agius, R.M., Endler, N.S., & Zeally, H. (1996). Models of job-related stress and personal achievement among consultant doctors. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 3 29.
    • de Bruijn, G.J., Brug, J., & van Lenthe, F.J. (2009). Neuroticism, conscientiousness and fruit consumption: Exploring mediator and moderator effects of the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology and Health, 24, 1051 1069.
    • De Fruyt, P., & Denollet, J. (2002). Type D personality: A five-factor model perspective. Psychology and Health, 17, 671 683.
    • DeLongis, A., & Holtzman, S. (2005). Coping in context: The role of stress, social support, and personality in coping. Journal of Personality, 73, 1633 1656.
    • Denissen, J.J.A., & Penke, L. (2008). Motivational individual reaction norms underlying the five-factor model of personality: First steps towards a theory-based framework. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1285 1302.
    • Denollet, J. (1998). Personality and risk of cancer in men with coronary heart disease. Psychological Medicine, 28, 991 993
    • Denollet, J., Conraads, V.M., Brutsaert, D.L., De Clerck, L.S., Stevens, W.J., & Vrints, C.J. (2003). Cytokines and immune activation in systolic heart failure: The role of type D personality. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 17, 305 309.
    • Denollet, J., Pedersen, S.S., Vrints, C.J., & Conraads, V.M. (2006). Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five year cardiac events above and beyond current symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 97, 970 973.
    • Denollet, J., Sys, S.U., Stroobant, N., Rombouts, H., Gillebert, T,C., & Brutsaert, D.L. (1996). Personality as independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Lancet, 347, 417 421.
    • Devriese, S., Winters, W., Stegen, K., Van Diest, I., Veulemans, H., Memery, B., & . . . Van der Bergh, O. (2000). Generalization of acquired somatic symptoms in response to odors: A Pavlovian perspective on multiple chemical sensitivity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 751 759.
    • de Wall, F.B.M. (2008). Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279 300.
    • Dewaraja, R., Tanigawa, T., Araki, S., Kawamura, N., Ago, Y., & Sasaki, Y. (1997). Decreased cytotoxic lymphocyte counts in alexithymia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66, 83 86.
    • DeYoung, C.G. (2006). Higher-order factors of the big five in a multi-informant sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 1138 1151.
    • DeYoung, C.G. (2010). Toward a theory of the Big Five. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 26 33.
    • DeYoung, C.G., Hirsh, J.B., Shane, M.S., Papdemetris, X., Rajeevan, N., & Gray, J.R. (2010). Testing predictions from personality neuroscience: Brain structure and the big five. Psychological Science, 21, 820 828.
    • Digman, J.M. (1997). Higher-order factors of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1246 1256.
    • Dingmanse, N.J., Kazem, A.J.N., Reale, D., & Wright, J. (2010). Behavioral reaction norms: Animal personality meets individual plasticity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 81 89.
    • Dowlati, Y., Herrmann, N., Swardfager, W., Liu, H., Sham, L., Reim, E.K., & Lanctot, K.L. (2010). A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 446 457.
    • Eaton, L.G., & Tinsley, B.J. (1999). Maternal personality and health communication in the pediatric context. Health Communication, 11, 75 96.
    • Eaves, L.J., Martin, N.G., Heath, A.C., Hewitt, J.K., & Neale, M.C. (1990). Personality and reproductive fitness. Behavior Genetics, 20, 563 568.
    • Eysenck, H.J. (1992). Four ways five factors are not basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 667 673.
    • Feldman, P.J., Cohen, S., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., & Gwaltney, J.M. (1999). The impact of personality on the reporting of unfounded symptoms and illness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 370 378.
    • Ferguson, E. (1998). Hypochondriacal concerns, symptom reporting and secondary gain mechanisms. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 281 295.
    • Ferguson, E. (2000). Hypochondriacal concerns and the five factor model of personality. Journal of Personality, 68, 705 724.
    • Ferguson, E. (2001). Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 311 325.
    • Ferguson, E. (2004a). Conscientiousness, emotional stability, perceived control and the frequency, recency, rate and years of blood donor behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 293 314.
    • Ferguson, E. (2004b). Personality as a predictor of hypochondriacal concerns: Results from two longitudinal studies. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 307 312.
    • Ferguson, E. (2008). Health anxiety moderates the day-time cortisol slope. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 487 494.
    • Ferguson, E. (2009). A taxometric analysis of health anxiety. Psychological Medicine, 39, 277 285.
    • Ferguson, E. (2010). Openness to experience and mortality: A meta-analysis (Manuscript submitted for publication)
    • Ferguson, E., Bibby, P.A., Rosamond, S., O'Grady, C., Parcell, A., Amos, C., . . . O'Carroll, R. (2009a). Alexithymia, cumulative cognitive feedback and performance on the Iowa gambling task: Differential response patterns for Alexithymics. Journal of Personality, 77, 883 902.
    • Ferguson, E., & Cassaday, H. (1999). The Gulf War and illness by association. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 459 476.
    • Ferguson, E., & Cassaday, H. (2002). Theoretical accounts of Gulf War syndrome: From environmental toxins to psychoneuroimmunology and neurodegeneration. Behavioural Neurology, 13, 133 147.
    • Ferguson, E., & Cox, T. (1997). The functional dimensions of coping scale: Theory, reliability and validity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 109 129.
    • Ferguson, E., Farrell, K., & Lawrence, C. (2008). Blood donation is an act of benevolence rather than altruism. Health Psychology, 27, 327 336.
    • Ferguson, E., France, C.R., Abraham, C., Ditto, B., & Sheeran, P. (2007). Improving blood donor recruitment and retention: Integrating social and behavioral science agendas. Transfusion, 47, 1999 2010.
    • Ferguson, E., James, D., & Madelely, L. (2002). Factors associated with success in medical school: Systematic review of the literature. British Medical Journal, 324, 952 957.
    • Ferguson, E., James, D., O'Hehir, F., & Sanders, A. (2003). A pilot study of the roles of personality, references and personal statements in relation to performance over the 5 years of a medical degree. British Medical Journal, 326, 429 431.
    • Ferguson, E., & Kerrin, M. (2004). Health psychology with organizational contexts. In S. Michie & C. Abraham (Eds.), Health psychology in practice (pp. 251 266). Oxford: Blackwell.
    • Ferguson, E., Moghaddam, N.G., & Bibby, P.A. (2007). Memory bias in health anxiety is related to the emotional valence of health related words. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62, 263 274.
    • Ferguson, E., Sanders, A., O'Hehir, F., & James, D. (2000a). Predictive validity of personal statements and the role of the five factor model of personality in relation to medical training. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 321 344.
    • Ferguson, E., Swairbrick, R., Clare, S., Bignell, C., & Anderson, C. (2000b). Hypochondriacal concerns, somatosensory amplification, and primary and secondary cognitive appraisals. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 355 370.
    • Ferguson, E., Williams, L., O'Connor, R., Howard, S., Hughes, B.M., Johnston, D.W., & . . . O'Carroll, R.E. (2009b). A taxometric analysis of type-D personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 981 986.
    • Gangestad, S.W., Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2006). Evolutionary foundations of cultural variations: Evoked culture and mate preference. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 75 95.
    • Gerend, M.A., Aiken, L.S., & West, S.G. (2004). Personality factors in older women's perceived susceptibility to diseases of age. Journal of Personality, 72, 243 270.
    • Gerritsen, L., Geerlings, M.I., Bremmer, M.A., Beekmna, A.T.F., Deeg, D.J.H., Penninx, B.W.J.H., & Comijs, H.C. (2009). Personality characteristics and the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis regulation in older persons. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 1077 1084.
    • Glaser, K.M., Markham, F.W., Adler, H.M., McManus, R.P., & Hojat, M. (2007). Relationship between scores on the Jefferson scale of physician empathy, patient perceptions of physician empathy, and humanistic approaches to patient case: A validity study. Medical Science Monitor, 13, CR291 CR294.
    • Gollwitzer, P.M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69 119.
    • Goodwin, R.D., & Friedman, H.S. (2006). Health status and the five-factor personality traits in a national representative sample. Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 643 654.
    • Gosling, S.D. (2001). From mice to men: What can we learn about personality from animal research? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 45 86.
    • Gosling, S.D., & John, O.P. (1999). Personality dimensions in nonhuman animals: A crossspecies review. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 69 75.
    • Gosling, S.D., Kwan, V.S.Y., & John, O.P. (2003). A dog's got personality: A cross-species comparative approach to personality judgments in dogs and humans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 1161 1169.
    • Gou, Y.Q., Kuroki, T., & Koizumi, S. (2001). Abnormal illness behaviour of patients with functional somatic symptoms: Relation to psychiatric disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 23, 223 229.
    • Grabe, H.J., Schwahn, C., Barnow, S., Spitzer, C., John, U., Freyberger, H.J., & . . . Vo¬® lzke, H. (2010). Alexithymia, hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in the general population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 139 147.
    • Gramling, S.E., Clawson, E.P., & McDonald, M.K. (1996). Perceptual and cognitive abnormality model of hypochondriasis: Amplification and physiological reactivity in women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 423 431.
    • Granot, M (2005). Personality traits associated with perception of noxious stimuli in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Journal of Pain, 6, 168 173.
    • Gritti, P., Lombardi, S., Nobile, B., Trappoliere, P., Gambardella, A., Di Capprio, E.L., & Resicato, G. (2010). Alexithymia and cancer-related fatigue: A controlled cross-sectional study. Tumori, 96, 131 137.
    • Hein, G., & Singer, T. (2008). I feel how you feel but not always: The empathic brain and its modulation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 153 158.
    • Helmers, K.F., & Mente, A. (1996). Alexithymia and health behaviors in healthy male volunteers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47, 635 645.
    • Herbert, T.B., & Cohen, S. (1993). Depression and immunity: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 472 486.
    • Hershey, J.C., Asch, D.A., Thumasathit, T., Meszaros, J., & Waters, V.V. (1994). The roles of altruism, free-riding, and bandwagoning in vaccination decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59, 177 187.
    • Hilbert, A., Martin, A., Zech, T., Rauh, E., & Rief, W. (2010). Patients with medically unexplained symptoms and their significant others: Illness attributions and the behaviors as predictors of the patient functioning over time. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 253 262.
    • Hiller, W., & Fischter, M.M. (2004). High-utilizers of medical care: A crucial subgroup among somatizing patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 437 443.
    • Hoffman, M.L. (1979). Development of moral thought, feeling and behaviour. American Psychologist, 34, 958 966.
    • Hooker, C.I., Verosky, S.C., Miyakawac, A., Knight, R.T., & Esposito, M. (2008). The influence of personality on neural mechanisms of observational fear and reward learning. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2709 2724.
    • Hoyle, R.H. (2000). Personality processes and problem behaviour. Journal of Personality, 68, 953 966.
    • Ironson, G.H., O'Cleirigh, C., Weiss, A., Schneiderman, N., & Costa, P.T. (2008). Personality and HIV disease progression: Role of NEO-PI-R openness, extraversion, and profiles of engagement. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 245 253.
    • Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D.P. (2006). Development and validation of the basic empathy scale. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 598 611.
    • Jonassaint, C.R., Boyle, S.H., Williams, R.B., Mark, D.B., Siegler, I.C., & Barefoot, J.C. (2007). Facets of openness predict mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 319 322.
    • Jones, F., O'Connor, D.B., Conner, M., McMillan, B., & Ferguson, E. (2007). Impact of daily mood, work hours, and iso-strain variables on self-reported health behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1731 1740.
    • Jorgensen, M.M., Zachariae, R., Skytthe, A., & Kyvik, K. (2007). Genetic and environmental factors in alexithymia: A population-based study of 8,785 Danish twin pairs. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 369 375.
    • Karoly, P., & Lecci, L. (1993). Hypochondriasis and somatisation in college women: A personal projects analysis. Health Psychology, 12, 103 109.
    • Kasteler, J., Kane, R.L., Olsen, D.M., & Thetford, C. (1976). Issues underlying prevalence of 'doctor shopping' behaviour. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 17, 328 339.
    • Katerngahl, D.A. (1999). Illness attitudes and coping processes in subjects with panic attacks. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 561 565.
    • Kauhanen, J., Kaplan, G.A., Cohen, R.D., Julkunen, J., & Salonen, J.T. (1996). Alexithymia and risk of death in middle-aged men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 541 549.
    • Kellner, R. (1986). Somatization and hypochondriasis. New York: Prager.
    • Kendzor, D.E., Cofta-Woerpel, L.M., Mazas, C., Li, Y., Vidrine, J.I., Reitzrl, L.R., & . . . Wetter, D.W. (2008). Socioeconomic status, negative affect and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 17, 2546 2554.
    • Kern, M.L., & Friedman, H.S. (2008). Do conscientious individuals live longer? A quantitative review. Health Psychology, 27, 505 512.
    • Kessler, R.C. (2002). Epidemiology perspectives for the development of future diagnostic systems. Psychopathology, 35, 158 161.
    • Kim, S.S., Kaplowitz, S., & Johnston, M.V. (2004). The effects of physician empathy on patient satisfaction and compliance. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 27, 237 251.
    • Kim, Y., Schulz, R., & Carver, C.S. (2007). Benefit finding in the cancer caregiving experience. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 283 291.
    • Kiviniemi, M.T., Voss-Humke, A.M., & Seifert, A.L. (2007). How do I feel about the behavior? The interplay of affective associations with behaviors and cognitive beliefs as influences on physical activity and behaviour. Health Psychology, 26, 152 158.
    • Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Hulle, C.V., Robinson, J.J., & Rhee, S.H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition towards empathy: Genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 8, 737 752.
    • Kooiman, C.G., Spinhoven, P., & Trijsburg, R.W. (2002). The assessment of alexithymia: A critical review of the literature and psychometric study of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale20. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 1083 1090.
    • Kotov, R., Gamez, W., Schmidt, F., & Watson, D. (2010). Linking big personality traits to anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 768 821.
    • Kroenke, K. (2001). Studying symptoms: Sampling and measurement issues. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 844 853.
    • Kupper, N., & Denollet, J. (2007). Type D personality as prognostic factor in heart disease: Assessment and mediating mechanisms. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 265 276.
    • Kupper, N., Denollet, J., De Geus, E.J.C., Boomsma, D.I., & Willemsen, G. (2007). Heritability of Type-D personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 675 668.
    • Lafferty, K.D. (2006). Can the common brain parasite, toxoplasma gonii, influence human culture? Proceeding of the Royal Society, B, 273, 2749 2755.
    • Lawrence, C. (2006). Measuring individual responses to aggression-triggering events: Development of the Situational Triggers of Aggressive Responses (STAR) scale. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 241 252.
    • Lawrence, C., & Hodgkins, E. (2009). Personality influences on interpretations of aggressive behavior: The role of provocation sensitivity and trait aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 319 324.
    • Lawton, R., Conner, M., & McEachan, R. (2009). Desire and reason: Predicting health behaviors from affective and cognitive attitudes. Health Psychology, 28, 56 65.
    • LeBlanc, J., & Ducharme, M.B. (2005). Influence of personality traits on plasma levels of cortisol and cholesterol. Physiology and Behavior, 84, 677 680.
    • Lee, S.A. (2009). Does empathy mediate the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptomatology among college students? Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 429 433.
    • Lee, W.E., Wadsworth, M.E.J., & Hotopf, H. (2006). The protective role of trait anxiety: A longitudinal cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 345 351.
    • Lesser, I.R. (1981). A review of the Alexithymia concept. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43, 531 543.
    • Lievens, F., Coessier, P., De Fruyt, F., & Maeseneer, J. (2002). Medical students' personality characteristics and academic performance: A five factor model perspective. Medical Education, 36, 1050 1056.
    • Lievens, F., Ones, D.S., & Dilchert, S. (2009). Personality scale validities increase throughout medical school. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1514 1535.
    • Luminet, O., Bagby, R.M., Wagner, H., Taylor, G.J., & Parker, J.D.A. (1999). Relation between alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality: A facet-level analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73, 345 358.
    • Lumley, M.A. (2004). Alexithymia. Emotional disclosure, and health: A program of research. Journal of Personality, 72, 1271 1300.
    • Lumley, M.A., Neely, L.C., & Burger, A.J. (2007). The assessment of alexithymia in medical settings: Implications for understanding and treating health problems. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 130 246.
    • Lumley, M.A., Stettner, L., & Wehmer, F. (1996). How are alexithymia and physical illness linked? A review and critique of pathways. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 505 518.
    • MacCallum, R.C., Roznowski, M., & Necowitz, L.B. (1992). Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: The problem of capitalization on chance. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 490 504.
    • MacDonald, K. (1995). Evolution, the 5-factor model, and levels of personality. Journal of Personality, 63, 525 567.
    • MacKintosh, N.J. (1985). Conditioning and Associative Learning. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Maier, S., & Watkins, L. (1998). Cytokines for psychologists: Implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood and cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 83 107.
    • Maner, J.K., Luce, C.L., Neuberg, S.L., Cialdini, R.B., Brown, S., & Sagarin, B.J. (2002). The effects of perspective taking on motivations for helping: Still no evidence for altruism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 1601 1610.
    • Mantani, T., Okamoto, Y., Shirao, N., Okado, G., & Yamawaki, S. (2005). Reduced activation of posterior cingulated cortex during imagery in subjects with high degrees of alexithymia: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 982 990 Manucia, G.K., Baumann, D.J., & Cialdini, R.B. (1984). Mood influences on helping: Direct effects or side effects? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 357 364.
    • Marshall, G.N., Wortman, C.B., Vickers, R.R., Kusulas, J., & Hervig, L. (1994). The fivefactor model of personality as a framework for personality-health research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 278 286.
    • McCrae, R.R. (1996). Social consequences of experiential openness. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 323 337.
    • McCulloch, P., Kaul, A., Wagstaff, G.F., & Wheatcroft, J. (2005). Tolerance of uncertainty, extroversion, neuroticism and attitudes to randomized controlled trials among surgeons and physicians. British Journal of Surgery, 92, 1293 1297.
    • McManus, I.C., Winder, B., & Paice, E. (2002). How consultants, hospitals, trusts and deaneries affect pre-registration house officer posts: A multilevel model. Medical Education, 36, 35 44.
    • Meehl, P.E. (1995). Bootstrap taxometrics: Solving the classification problem in psychopathology. American Psychologist, 50, 266 275.
    • Mehta, P.H., & Gosling, S.D. (2008). Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 22, 651 661.
    • Meszaros, J.R., Asch, D.A., Baron, J., Hershey, J.C., Kunreuther, H., & Schwartz-Buzaglo, J. (1996). Cognitive processes and the decisions of some parents to forego pertussis vaccination for their children. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 697 703.
    • Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.
    • Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246 268.
    • Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1999). Integrating dispositions and processing dynamics within a unified theory of personality: The cognitive-affective personality system. In A. Pervin & O.P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed, pp. 197 218). New York: Guildford Press.
    • Moghaddam, N.G., & Ferguson, E. (2007). Smoking, mood regulation and personality: An event contingent-sampling exploration of potential models and moderation. Journal of Personality, 75, 451 478.
    • Mols, F., Holterhues, C., Nijsten, T., van de Poll-Franse, LV., & Lonneke, V. (2010). Personality is associated with heath status and impact of cancer among melanoma survivors. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 573 580.
    • Mols, R., & Denollet, J. (2010). Type D personality in the general population: A systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease and work-related problems. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8(9). Retrieved from http://www.hqlo.com/content/8/1/9 Moss-Morris, R., & Petrie, K.J. (2001). Redefining medical students' disease to reduce morbidity. Medical Education, 35, 724 728.
    • Mroczek, D.K., Spiro, A., & Turiano, N.A. (2009). Do health behaviors explain the effect of neuroticism on mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 653 659.
    • Munafo, M.R., Matheson, I.J., & Flint, J. (2007). Association of the DRD2 gene Taq1A polymorphism and alcoholism: A meta-analysis of case-control studies and evidence of publication bias. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 454 461.
    • Nettle, D. (2006). The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. American Psychologist, 61, 622 631.
    • Nettle, D. (2009). Beyond nature versus culture: Cultural variation as an evolved characteristic. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 15, 223 240.
    • Nettle, D., & Liddle, B. (2008). Agreeableness is related to social-cognitive, but not socialperceptual, theory of mind. European Journal of Personality, 22, 323 335.
    • Neuberg, S.L., Cialdini, R.B., Brown, S.L., Luce, C., Sagarin, B.J., & Lewis, B.P. (1997). Does empathy lead to anything more than superficial helping? Comment on Batson et al., 1997. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 510 516.
    • Nimnuan, C., Hotopf, M., & Wessely, S. (2001). Medically unexplained symptoms: An epidemiological study in seven specialities. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 361 367.
    • Noar, S.M., Benac, C.N., & Haris, M.S. (2007). Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behaviour change interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 673 693.
    • Noyes, R., Happel, R.L., & Yagla, S.J. (1999). Correlates of hypochondriasis in a nonclinical population. Psychosomatics, 40, 461 469.
    • Noyes, R., Watson, D.B., Letuchy, E.M., Longley, S.L., Black, D.W., Carney, C.P., & Doeddeling, B.N. (2005). Relationship between hypochondriacal concerns and personality dimensions and traits in a military population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 110 118.
    • O'Connor, D.B., & Ashley, L. (2008). Are alexithymia and emotional characteristics of disclosure associated with blood pressure reactivity and psychological distress following written emotional disclosure? British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 495 512.
    • O'Connor, D.B., Jones, F., Conner, M., McMillan, B., & Ferguson, E. (2009). Effects of conscientiousness and daily hassles on health behaviors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 184 196.
    • O'Rouke, N., Neufeld, E., Claxton, A., & Smith, J.Z. (2010). Knowing me knowing you: Reported personality and trait discrepancies as predictors of marital idealization between long-wed spouses. Psychology and Aging, 26, 412 421.
    • Ozer, D.J., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 401 421.
    • Parker, J.D.A., Keefer, K.V., Taylor, G.J., & Bagby, R.M. (2008). Latent structure of the alexithymia construct: A taxometric investigation. Psychological Assessment, 20, 385 396.
    • Paterson, H., Reniers, R., & Vollm, B. (2009). Personality types and mental health experiences of those who volunteer for helplines. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 37, 459 471.
    • Patterson, F., & Ferguson, E. (2007). Selecting for medical education and training. Edinburgh: Association for the Study of Medical Education (ASME).
    • Patterson, F., Ferguson, E., Lane, P., & Norfolk, T. (2005). A new selection system to recruit GPRS. British Medical Journal, 330, 711 714.
    • Pedersen, S.S., Herrmann-Lingen, C., de Jonge, P., & Scherer, M. (2010). Type D personality is a predictor of poor emotional quality of life in primary care heart failure patients independent of depressive symptoms and New York Heart Association functional class. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 72 80.
    • Penke, L., Denissen, J.J.A., & Miller, G.F. (2007). The evolutionary genetics of personality. European Journal of Personality, 21, 549 587.
    • Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1992). When small effects are impressive. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 160 164.
    • Preston, S.D., & de Wall, F.B.M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximal bases. Behavioral and Brian Sciences, 25, 1 72.
    • Pud, D., Eisnberg, E., Sprecher, E., Rogowski, Z., & Yarnitsky, D. (2004). The tridimensional personality theory and pain: Harm avoidance and reward dependence traits correlate with pain perception in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Pain, 8, 31 38.
    • Rastling, M., Brosig, B., & Beutel, M.E. (2005). Alexithymic characteristics and patienttherapist interaction: A video analysis of facial affect display. Psychopathology, 38, 105 111.
    • Raudenbush, S.W., & Bryk, A.S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. London: Sage.
    • Raynor, D.A., & Levine, H. (2009). Associations between the five-factor model of personality and health behaviour among college students. Journal of American College Health, 58, 73 81.
    • Ricciardolo, F.L.M., Nijkamp, F., De Rose, V., & Folkerts, G. (2008). The guinea pig as an animal model for asthma. Current Drug Targets, 9, 452 465.
    • Roberts, B.W., & Jackson, J.J. (2008). Sociogenomic personality psychology. Journal of Personality, 76, 1523 1544.
    • Roberts, B.W., Kuneel, N.R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Goldberg, L.E. (2007). The power of personality. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 2, 313 345.
    • Roberts, B.W., Smith, J., Jackson, J.J., & Edmonds, G. (2009). Compensatory conscientiousness and health in older couples. Psychological Science, 20, 553 559.
    • Robinson, G.E. (2004). Beyond nature and nurture. Science, 304, 397 399.
    • Robinson, G.E., Grozinger, C.M., & Whitfield, C.W. (2005). Sociogenomics: A social life in molecular terms. Nature Reviews: Genetics, 6, 257 271.
    • Ruiz, J.M., Matthews, K.A., Scheier, M.F., & Schultz, R. (2006). Does who you marry matter for your health? Influence of patients' and spouses' personality on their partners' psychological well-being following coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 255 267.
    • Ruscio, J., Haslam, N., & Ruscio, A.M. (2006). Introduction to the taxometric method: A practical guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    • Rushton, J.P., & Irwing, P. (2009). A general factor of personality in the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, and the Personality Assessment Inventory. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 1091 1095.
    • Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2008). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between the five-factor model and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: A facet level analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1326 1342.
    • Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L.R. (1998). What is beyond the big five? Journal of Personality, 66, 495 524.
    • Schaller, M., & Cialdini, R.B. (1988). The economics of empathic helping: Support for a mood management motive. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 163 181.
    • Schaller, M., & Murray, D.R. (2008). Pathogens, personality, and culture: Disease prevalence predicts worldwide variability in sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 212 221.
    • Schieman, S., & van Gundy, K. (2000). The personal and social links between age and selfreported empathy. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63, 152 174.
    • Schwarzer, R., & Fuchs, R. (1996). Self-efficacy and health behaviours. In M. Conner and P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting Health Behaviour (pp. 163 196). Buckingham, UK: Oxford University Press
    • Shekelle, R.B., Vernon, S.W., & Ostfeld, A.M. (1991). Personality and coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 176 184.
    • Sherman, P.W., & Billing, J. (1999). Darwinian gastronomy: Why we use spices. BioScience, 49, 453 463.
    • Silvester, J., Patterson, F., Koczwara, A., & Ferguson, E. (2007). Trust me . . .': Psychological and behavioral predictors of perceived physician empathy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 519 527.
    • Singer, T., & Lamm, C. (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1156, 81 96.
    • Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Kaube, H., Dolan, R.J., & Frith, C. (2004). Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain. Science, 303, 1157 1161.
    • Skallova, A., Novotna, M., Kolbekova, P., Gasova, Z., Vesely, V., & Flegr, J. (2005). Decreased levels of novelty seeking in blood donors infected with toxoplasma. Neuroendocrinology, 26, 480 486.
    • Smith, A. (2006). Cognitive empathy and emotional empathy in human behavior and evolution. The Psychological Record, 56, 3 21.
    • Smith, B.R., & Blumstein, D.T. (2008). Fitness consequences of personality: A meta-analysis. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 448 455.
    • Smolderen, K.G.E., Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M., Croon, M.A., & Denollet, J. (2007). Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology. BMC Public Health, 7, 339.
    • Steering, C. (1988). Findings from the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians' Health Study. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 262 264.
    • Steptoe, A., Dockray, S., & Wardle, J. (2009). Positive affect and psychobiological processes relevant to health. Journal of Personality, 77, 1747 1776.
    • Taylor, G.L. (2000). Recent developments in alexithymia theory and research. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 134 142
    • Taylor, G.J., Bagby, R.M., & Parker, J.D.A. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Taylor, M.D., Whiteman, M.C., Fowkes, G.R., Lee, A.J., Allerhand, M., & Deary, I.J. (2009). Five factor model of personality traits and all-cause mortality in the Edinburgh Artery study cohort. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 631 641.
    • Taylor, S., Thordarson, D.S., Jang, K.L., & Asmundson, G.J.G. (2006). Genetic and environmental origins of health anxiety: A twin study. World Psychiatry, 5, 47 50.
    • Tolmunen, T., Lehto, S.M., Heliste, H., Kurl, S., & Kauhanen, J. (2010). Alexithymia is associated with increased cardiovascular morality in middle-aged Finnish men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 187 191.
    • Toneatto, T., Lecce, J., & Bagby, M. (2009). Alexithymia and pathological gambling. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 28, 193 198.
    • Tonks, A. (2002). What's a good doctor and how do you make one? British Medical Journal, 325, 711.
    • Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barlow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 19 136). New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Totman, R., Kiff, J., Reed, S.E., & Craig, J.W. (1980). Predicting experimental colds in volunteers from different measures of recent life stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 155 163.
    • Tsunoda, I., Lane, T.E., Blackett, J., & Fujiinami, R.S. (2004). Distinct roles of IP-10/CXCL10 in three animal models, Theiler's virus, EAE, and MHV infection, for multiple sclerosis: Implications of differing roles of IP-10. Multiple Sclerosis, 10, 26 34.
    • Van Egeren, L.F. (2009). A cybernetic model of global personality traits. Personality and Social Psychological Review, 13, 92 108.
    • Van Oers, K., de Jong, G., van Noordwijk, A.J., Kempenaers, B., & Drent, P.J. (2005). Contribution of genetics to the study of animal personalities: A review of case studies. Behaviour, 142, 1185 1206.
    • Vaughn, C., Leff, J., & Sarner, M. (1999). Relatives' expressed emotions and the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47, 461 469.
    • Vollrath, M., Knoch, D., & Cassano, L. (1999). Personality, risky health behaviour, and perceived susceptibility to health risks. European Journal of Personality, 13, 39 50.
    • Walker, S. (1985). Animal thought. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • Waller, N.G., & Meehl, P.E. (1998). Multivariate taxometric procedures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    • Warwick, H.M.C., & Salkovskis, P.M. (1990). Hypochondriasis. Behavioural Research and Therapy, 28, 105 117.
    • Watson, D., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1989). Health complaints, stress and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 234 254.
    • Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R.M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behaviour and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 222 244.
    • Weiss, A., King, J.E., & Perkins, L. (2006). Personality and subjective well-being in Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 501 511.
    • Williams, L., O'Connor, R.C., Howard, S., Hughes, B.M., Johnston, D.W., Hay, J.L., & . . . O'Carroll, R.E. (2008). Type D personality mechanisms of effect: The role of health-related behaviour and social support. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 63 69.
    • Williams, L., O'Carroll, R.E., & O'Connor, R.C. (2009). Type D and cardiac output in response to stress. Psychology and Health, 24, 489 500.
    • Wood, D., & Brumbaugh, C.C. (2009). Using revealed mate preferences to evaluate market forces and differential preference explanations for mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1226 1244.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article