Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C.A.; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O’Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E. (2016)
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: SF
In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abbott, K., McGowan, M., Pfeiffer, D., Sargison, N., 2003. Footrot in sheep. Vet. Rec. 152, 510- 511; author reply 511.
    • Angell, J., Duncan, J., Carter, S., Grove-White, D., 2014. Farmer reported prevalence and factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis in Wales: A questionnaire of 511 sheep farmers. Prev. Vet. Med. 113, 132-138.
    • Angell, J., Blundell, R., Grove-White, D., Duncan, J., 2015a. Clinical and radiographic features of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and a novel lesion grading system. Vet. Rec. vetrec-2014-1029
    • Angell, J., Grove-White, D., Duncan, J., 2015b. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms. 122, 107-120
    • Bradford Hill, A., 1965. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc. Royal Soc. Med. 58, 295.
    • Cox, D.R., Wermuth, N., 1996. Multivariate dependencies: Models, analysis and interpretation. Chapman & Hall, London.
    • Davies, I., Naylor, R., Martin, P., 1999. Severe ovine foot disease. Vet. Rec. 145, 646-646.
    • Dohoo, I., Martin, W., Stryhn, H., 2003. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. AVC Inc.
    • Duncan, J., Angell, J., Carter, S., Evans, N., Sullivan, L., Grove-White, D., 2014. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: An emerging disease. The Vet. J. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.06.007 Duncan, J., Grove-White, D., Moks, E., Carroll, D., Oultram, J., Phythian, C., Williams, H., 2012. Impact of footrot vaccination and antibiotic therapy on footrot and contagious ovine digital dermatitis. Vet. Rec. vetrec-2011-100363.
    • Duncan, J., Grove-White, D., Oultram, J., Phythian, C., Dijk, J., Carter, S., Cripps, P., Williams, H., 2011. Effects of parenteral amoxicillin on recovery rates and new infection rates for contagious ovine digital dermatitis in sheep. Vet. Rec. 169, 606-606.
    • Fraser, C., Riley, S., Anderson, R.M., Ferguson, N.M., 2004. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable. PNAS 101, 6146-6151.
    • Glenn, J., Carpenter, T.E., Hird, D.W., 1985. A field trial to assess the therapeutic and prophylactic effect of a foot rot vaccine in sheep. J. Am Vet. Med. Assoc. 187, 1009- 1012.
    • Goddard, P., Waterhouse, T., Dwyer, C., Stott, A., 2006. The perception of the welfare of sheep in extensive systems. Small Rum. Res. 62, 215-225.
    • Grogono-Thomas, R., Johnston, A., 1997. A study of ovine lameness. MAFF open contract OC59 K 45.
    • Harwood, D., Cattell, J., Lewis, C., Naylor, R., 1997. Virulent foot rot in sheep. Vet. Rec. 140.
    • Hindmarsh, F., Fraser, J., Scott, K., 1989. Efficacy of a multivalent Bacteroides nodosus vaccine against foot rot in sheep in Britain. Vet. Rec. 125, 128-130.
    • Holzhauer, M., Hardenberg, C., Bartels, C., Frankena, K., 2006. Herd-and cow-level prevalence of digital dermatitis in the Netherlands and associated risk factors. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 580- 588.
    • Kaler, J., Daniels, S., Wright, J., Green, L.E., 2010. Randomized Clinical Trial of Long‐ Acting Oxytetracycline, Foot Trimming, and Flunixine Meglumine on Time to Recovery in Sheep with Footrot. J. Vet. Int. Med. 24, 420-425.
    • Kaler, J., Green, L.E., 2008. Naming and recognition of six foot lesions of sheep using written and pictorial information: A study of 809 English sheep farmers. Prev. Vet. Med. 83, 52- 64.
    • Kaler, J., Green, L.E., 2009. Farmers' practices and factors associated with the prevalence of all lameness and lameness attributed to interdigital dermatitis and footrot in sheep flocks in England in 2004. Prev. Vet. Med. 92, 52-59.
    • Lewis, R.D., Meyer, H.H., Gradin, J.L., Smith, A.W., 1989. Effectivesness of vaccination in controlling ovine footrot. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 1160-1166.
    • Marshall, D., Walker, R., Cullis, B.R., Luff, M., 1991. The effect of footrot on body weight and wool growth of sheep. Aus.Vet. J. 68, 45-49.
    • McKinney, W., 2010. Data structures for statistical computing in Python. In, Proc. 9th Python Sci. Conf, 51-56.
    • Moore, L., Woodward, M., Grogono-Thomas, R., 2005. The occurrence of treponemes in contagious ovine digital dermatitis and the characterisation of associated Dichelobacter nodosus. Vet. Micro. 111, 199-209.
    • Morck, D.W., Gard, M.S., Olson, M.E., 1994. Experimental evaluation of a commerical footrot vaccine against native Canadian strains of Dichelobacter nodosus. Can. J. Vet.Res. - Revue Canadienne De Recherche Veterinaire 58, 122-126.
    • MSDAnimalHealth, 2014. FootvaxTM Vaccine: Technical document for veterinary surgeons and animal health advisors. July 2014.
    • Naylor, R., Martin, P., Jones, J., Burnell, M., 1998. Isolation of spirochaetes from an incident of severe virulent ovine footrot. Vet. Rec. 143, 690-691.
    • Nieuwhof, G., Bishop, S., 2005. Costs of the major endemic diseases of sheep in Great Britain and the potential benefits of reduction in disease impact. Anim. Sci. 81, 23-29.
    • Nieuwhof, G., Bishop, S., Hill, W., Raadsma, H., 2008. The effect of footrot on weight gain in sheep. Animal. 2 10 1427-1436.
    • Oliphant, T.E., 2007. Python for scientific computing. Comp. in Sci. & Engin. 9, 10-20.
    • Perez, F., Granger, B.E., 2007. IPython: a system for interactive scientific computing. Comp.in Sci. & Engin. 9, 21-29.
    • Phythian, C., Cripps, P., Grove-White, D., Jones, P., Michalopoulou, E., Duncan, J., 2013. Observing lame sheep: evaluating test agreement between group-level and individual animal methods of assessment. Anim. Welfare 22, 417-422.
    • Rasbash, J., Charlton, C., Browne, W., Healy, M., Cameron, B., 2014. MLwiN Version 2.30. Bristol, UK: Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.
    • Stewart, D., Clark, B., Jarrett, R., 1984. Differences between strains of Bacteroides nodosus in their effects on the severity of foot‐ rot, bodyweight and wool growth in Merino sheep. Aus. Vet. J. 61, 348-352.
    • Sullivan, L., Blowey, R., Carter, S., Duncan, J., Grove-White, D., Page, P., Iveson, T., Angell, J., Evans, N., 2014. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment. Vet. Rec. 175:8
    • Sullivan, L.E., Clegg, S.R., Angell, J.W., Newbrook, K., Blowey, R.W., Carter, S.D., Bell, J., Duncan, J.S., Grove-White, D.H., Murray, R.D., Evans, N.J., 2015. High-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus. J. Clin. Micro 53(5):1628-38.
    • Wassink, G., Grogono-Thomas, R., Moore, L., Green, L., 2003a. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of footrot in sheep from 1999 to 2000. Vet. Rec. 152, 351-358.
    • Wassink, G.J., Green, L.E., Grogono-Thomas, R., Moore, L.J., 2003b. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis. Vet. Rec. 152, 667-667.
    • Wassink, G., Grogono-Thomas, R., Moore, L., Green, L., 2004. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of interdigital dermatitis in sheep from 1999 to 2000. Vet. Rec. 154, 551-555.
    • Wassink, G., Moore, L., Grogono-Thomas, R., Green, L., 2005. Footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmers' practices, opinions and attitudes. Vet. Rec. 157, 761-765.
    • Wassink, G.J., King, E.M., Grogono-Thomas, R., Brown, J., Moore, L., Green, L.E., 2010. A within farm clinical trial to compare two treatments (parenteral antibacterials and hoof trimming) for sheep lame with footrot. Prev. Vet. Med. 96, 93-103.
    • Winter, A., 2008. Lameness in sheep. Small Rum. Res. 76, 149-153.
    • Winter, J.R., Kaler, J., Ferguson, E., KilBride, A.L., Green, L.E., 2015. Changes in prevalence of, and risk factors for, lameness in random samples of English sheep flocks: 2004-2013. Prev. Vet. Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.09.014
    • N: Number of farms, %: Percentage of farms, 95% CI: 95% Confidence Intervals, Prevalence of CODD: Geometric mean percentage of ewes with CODD (%) Risk Ratios which are significantly different from the baseline (according to Wald's test for significance) at 0.05 are marked in Bold, whilst those in Italics are significant at 0.1
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • RCUK | Is multistrain infection b...

Cite this article