Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Williams, C.C. (2013)
Publisher: Inderscience
Languages: English
Types: Article
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the entrepreneurship literature that has sought to deconstruct the normative view of the entrepreneur as a heroic icon of profit-motivated capitalism by developing a typology of the multifarious lived practices of entrepreneurship ranging from wholly social to wholly profit-motivated forms of entrepreneurship cross-cut by wholly informal to wholly formal forms of entrepreneurial endeavour. This is then applied by reporting evidence from a small-scale survey of the multiple forms of entrepreneurship in the English locality of Bassetlaw. The finding is that just 12% of the entrepreneurs surveyed in this locality are engaged purely in profit-driven entrepreneurship in the legitimate economy. The outcome is a call to more widely apply this typology that depicts the multiple forms of entrepreneurship in order to open up entrepreneurship to re-signification as demonstrative of the possibility of futures beyond legitimate profit-driven capitalism.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Aidis, R., Welter, F., Smallbone, D. and Isakova, N. (2006) Female entrepreneurship in transition economies: the case of Lithuania and Ukraine , Feminist Economics, Vol. 13, No.2, pp. 157-83.
    • Amin, A., Cameron, A. and Hudson, R. (2002) The UK social economy: panacea or problem? , in Bartle, I. and Castiglione, D. (eds.) Social Capital in the Economy, Russell Papers Civic Series 2002/4, University of Essex, Colchester, pp. 22-45.
    • Anderson, P. (2000) Renewals , New Left Review, Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 1-22.
    • Antonopoulos, G.A. and Mitra, J. (2009) The hidden enterprise of bootlegging cigarettes out of Greece: two schemes of illegal entrepreneurship , Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 1-8.
    • Armstrong, P. (2005) Critique of Entrepreneurship: people and policy, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    • Austin, J., Stevenson, H. and Wei-Skillern, J. (2006), Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different or both? , Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 31, No.1, pp. 1-22.
    • Bhide, A. and Stevenson, H.H. (1990) , Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No.5, pp. 121-9.
    • Bouchard, M. and Dion, C.B. (2009) Growers and facilitators: probing the role of entrepreneurs in the development of the cannabis cultivation industry , Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 25-38.
    • Burns, P. (2001), Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Palgrave, Basingstoke.
    • Cannon, T. (1991) Enterprise: creation, development and growth, ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford.
    • Carruthers, B.G. and Babb, S.L. (2000) Economy/Society: markets, meanings and social structure, Pine Oaks, Thousand Oaks, CA.
    • Castree, N., Coe, N.M., Ward, K. and Samers, M. (2004) Spaces of Work: global capitalism and the geographies of labour, Sage, London.
    • Chowdury, S.A. (2007) Egyptian voices, Routledge, London.
    • Clarke, S. (2002) Making ends meet in contemporary Russia: secondary employment, subsidiary agriculture and social networks, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
    • De Soto, H. (2001) The Mystery of Capital: why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else, Black Swan, London.
    • Dees, J.G. (1998) The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship, Duke University, Durham NC.
    • Dees, J.G. and Anderson, B.B. (2003) For-profit social ventures , International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 1-26.
    • Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M. (2008) Social enterprise in Europe: recent trends and developments , Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 202-28. International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 29-41.
    • Eikenberry, A.M. and Kluver, A.N. (2004) The marketization of the nonprofit sector: civil society at risk? , Public Administration Review, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 132-40.
    • European Commission (2007) Stepping up the fight against undeclared work, European Commission, Brussels.
    • Evans, M., Syrett, S. and Williams, C.C. (2006) The Informal Economy and Deprived Neighbourhoods: a systematic review, Department of Local Government and Regions, London.
    • Fournier, V. (1998) Stories of development and exploitation: militant voices in an enterprise culture , Organization, Vol. 61, No.1, pp. 107-28.
    • Frith, K. and McElwee, G. (2008) An emergent entrepreneur? A story of a drug dealer in a restricted entrepreneurial environment , Society and Business Review, Vol. 3, No.2, pp. 270-86.
    • Fulcher, J. (2004) Capitalism: a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Galera, G. and Borzega, C. (2009) Social enterprise: an international overview of its conceptual evolution and legal implementation , Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 5, No.3, pp. 210-28.
    • Gibson-Graham, J-K. (2006) Post-Capitalist Politics, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
    • Gottschalk, P. and Smith, R. (2011) Criminal entrepreneurship, white-collar criminality and neutralization theory , Journal of Enterprising Communities, Vol. 5, no.4, pp. 283-96.
    • Gottschalk, P., (2010), Entrepreneurship in organised crime , International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 9, No.3, pp. 295-307.
    • Gurtoo, A. (2009), Policy support for informal sector entrepreneurship: microenterprises in India , Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 181-94.
    • Gurtoo, A. and Williams, C.C. (2009) Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India , International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10, No.1, pp. 55-62.
    • Harding, R. and Cowing, M. (2004) Social Entrepreneurship Monitor United Kingdom 2004, London Business School, London.
    • Harding, R., Brooksbank, D., Hart, M., Jones-Evans, D., Levie, J., , J. and Walker, J. (2005) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor United Kingdom 2005, London Business School, London. International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 145-55.
    • Hudson, J, Williams, C.C., Orviska, M. and Nadin, S. (2012) Evaluating the impact of the informal economy on businesses in South East Europe: some lessons from the 2009 World Bank Enterprise Survey , The South-East European Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.99-110.
    • Hynes, B. (2009) Growing the social enterprise: issues and challenges , Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 114-25.
    • Jones, C. and Spicer, A. (2005) The sublime object of entrepreneurship , Organization, Vol. 12, No.2, pp. 223-46.
    • Kets de Vries, M.F.R. (1977) The entrepreneurial personality: a person at the crossroads , Journal of Management Studies, February, pp. 34-57.
    • Kets de Vries, M.F.R. (1985) The dark side of entrepreneurship , Harvard Business Review, Vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 160-67.
    • Kitchen, R. and Tate, N. (2001) Conducting Research in Human Geography: theory, practice and methodology, Prentice Hall, London.
    • Ledeneva, A.V. (1998) exchange, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Llanes, M. and Barbour, A. (2007) Self-employed and micro-entrepreneurs: informal trading and the journey towards formalization, Community Links, London.
    • Lyon, F. and Sepulveda, L. (2009) Mapping social enterprises: past approaches, challenges and future directions , Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 5, No.1, pp. 83-94.
    • Mair, J. and Marti, I. (2005) Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction and delight , Journal of World Business, Vol. 41, No.1, pp. 36-44.
    • Moore, C.W., Petty, J.W., Palich, L.E. and Longnecker, J.G. (2010) Managing Small Business: an entrepreneurial emphasis, South-Western Cengage Learning, London.
    • Nicholls, A. and Cho, A. (2006) Social entrepreneurship: the structuration of a field , in Nicholls, A. (ed.), Social entrepreneurship: new models of sustainable social change, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.99-118.
    • International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 4-20.
    • Ram, M., Edwards, P. and Jones, T. (2007) Staying underground: informal work, small firms and employment regulation in the United Kingdom , Work and Occupations, Vol. 34, No.3, pp. 318-44.
    • Rehn, A. and Taalas, S. (2004) Znakomstva I Svyazi! [Acquaintances and connections]: Blat, the Soviet Union and mundane entrepreneurship , Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 16, No.3, pp. 235-50.
    • Reynolds, P., Bygrave, W.D., Autio, E. and Hay, M. (2002) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2002 Executive Monitor, London Business School, London.
    • Skold, D. and Rehn, A. (2007) Management, Vol. 32, No.1, pp. 50-78.
    • Small Business Council (2004) Small Business in the Informal Economy: making the transition to the formal economy, Small Business Council, London.
    • Smith, R. and Christou, M.L. (2009) Extracting value from their environment: some observations on pimping and prostitution as entrepreneurship , Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 69-84.
    • St Martin, K. (2005) Mapping economic diversity in the First World , Environment and Planning A, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 959-79.
    • Thompson, J.L. (2008) Social enterprise and social entrepreneurship: where have we reached? A summary of issues and discussion points , Social Enterprise Journal, Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 149-61.
    • Valenzuela, A. (2001) Day labourers as entrepreneurs , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 27, No.2, pp. 335-52.
    • Webb, J.W., Tihanyi, L., Ireland, R.D. and Sirmon, D.G. (2009) You say illegal, I say legitimate: entrepreneurship in the informal economy , Academy of Management Review, Vol. 34, No.3, pp. 492-510.
    • Whitson, R. (2007) Hidden struggles: spaces of power and resistance in informal work in urban Argentina , Environment and Planning A, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 2916-34.
    • Williams, C.C. (2005) A Commodified World? mapping the limits of capitalism, Zed, London.
    • Williams, C.C. (2006) The Hidden Enterprise Culture: entrepreneurship in the underground economy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
    • Williams, C.C. (2007a) De-linking enterprise culture from capitalism and its public policy implications , Public Policy and Administration, Vol. 22, No.4, pp. 461- 74.
    • Williams, C.C. (2007b) Socio-spatial variations in the nature of entrepreneurship , Journal of Enterprising Communities, Vol. 1, No.1, pp.27 37.
    • Williams, C.C. (2010) Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: some lessons from England , Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 403 23.
    • Williams, C.C. (2011) Entrepreneurship, the informal economy and rural communities , Journal of Enterprising Communities, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 145-157.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article