Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: SAGE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: 1500
The article investigates the relationship between canonical rules (dharma) and customary rules (maryādā) in contemporary Jain mendicant life. It focuses on an analysis of the Terāpanth Śvetāmbara Jain mendicant order and presents translations and analyses of the rules and regulations and initiation rituals for a new category of Jain novices, the samaṇ order, which was introduced by the Terāpanth in 1981. It is argued that variations and cumulative changes in post-canonical monastic law can be understood in terms of rule specification and secondary canonization and not only in terms of exceptions to the rule. The article contributes both to the anthropology of South Asian asceticism and monasticism and to the exploration of the maryādā and āvaśyaka literatures of the Jains.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1 I wish to thank Samanº ¯ı Pratibha¯prajn˜ a¯, Sama nº¯ı Rº juprajn˜ a¯, Mumukºsu Anita and Sama nº¯ı Caritraprajn˜a¯, who explained to me the Niyama¯val¯ı of the samanº /¯ıs in AugustOctober 2001. I am also indebted to Adelheid Mette and Lalita Du Perron for their valuable comments on earlier drafts of this article, and to Sama nº Sthitiprajn˜ a¯, who introduced me to A¯ ca¯rya Tuls¯ı in 1992.
    • 2 The pioneers in this field were Weber, Jacobi, Leumann and Schubring. For further references see the text editions and translations cited in this article.
    • 3 Today, there are eight to ten schools (depending on definitional criteria) and some 57 independently organized mendicant orders in the S´veta¯mbara tradition. The Digambara ascetics are currently not organized into tightly regulated mendicant orders (see Flu¨gel, in press b).
    • 4 With the exception of certain technical terms at their first occurrence, I have not transliterated the inherent Sanskrit vowel 'a' in roman script, in accordance with the conventions established by McGregor, 1993: xi.
    • 5 For a general analysis of the structure and the function of rules in the Tera¯panth mendicant order see Flu¨gel, 1994: 107-45.
    • 6 A translation of the Marya¯da¯val¯ı of the monks is currently in preparation by the author.
    • 7 For the history, doctrine and organization of the Tera¯panth see Sharma 1991, Flu¨gel, 1994, 1995-96, 2000. The Tera¯panth split from the aniconic Dhanna¯ Dharmada¯sa Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı tradition in Ra¯jastha¯n in 1760 under the leadership of Muni Bh¯ıkhan (1726-1803). Bh¯ıkhan disagreed with the Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı a¯ca¯rya Raghuna¯th (1710-90) over the issue of the religious value of charity and compassionate help and advocated strict ascetic practice as the only path to salvation. In the late 19th century A¯ ca¯rya Jaya¯ca¯rya (1803-81) established the present stronghold of the Tera¯panth in the kingdom of B¯ıka¯ner where it remains the dominant aniconic Jain tradition to date. Until the reign of A¯ ca¯rya Tuls¯ı, the influence of the Tera¯panth was largely confined to Ra¯jastha¯n. Tuls¯ı was a modernizer who, under the impact of the Indian independence in 1947, changed the inward-looking orientation of the order and promoted (Tera¯panth) Jain moral values for the transformation of the world. He initiated social and monastic reforms and widened the geographical sphere of influence of the Tera¯panth to India as a whole and Nepal. In 1980, he created a new category of Tera¯panth Jain mendicants for the purpose of the Tera¯panth mission in the subcontinent and abroad.
    • 8 'The aim of establishing this new category of ascetics was not merely to help and facilitate the spread of Jainism abroad but it was also felt that it would open up new
    • 67 Rare and costly types of food, such as fruit juice, dry fruits, etc., which may be important for curing illness, etc. are considered to be the property of the entire group of ascetics at one particular place. In contrast to ordinary food, such as bread, which can be eaten by the members of each itinerant group, the availability of these types of food has to be reported to all groups in a particular location in order to be allocated to the needy by the most senior mendicant (see ON 503, 525-6).
    • 68 Breaking a fast means completing it. E.g. for two days after a four-day fast, three days after a six-day fast, five days after a ten-day fast, etc. any type of food can be taken from the whole group. This unwritten rule reflects the need for specific types of food, which are sometimes unavailable in one group, for nurturing an individual back to full strength after a long fast.
    • 69 The a¯yambila (a¯ca¯ma¯mla), or 'sour' fast, of the Tera¯panth¯ıs requires the eating, only once a day, of one unsalted cereal 'cooked only in water with a sour flavouring' (a¯mlarasa)' (Williams, 1963: 40, cf. 209). For the meaning of the word a¯yambila see Schubring, 1935: § 156.
    • 70 The threefold (tiviha¯r) fast permits drinking water, whereas the fourfold (cauviha¯r) fast requires complete abstinence. See Williams, 1963: 39.
    • 71 That is, a one and a half day release from compulsory collective work is rounded up to two days, two and a half days to three days, etc.
    • 72 The polite expression ja¯m˙ cna¯ (Pkt. ja¯yanº a¯, Skt. ya¯cana¯), to investigate, here means to ask for, to receive or accept, begging, soliciting.
    • 73 Tera¯panth mendicants may touch objects belonging to a householder but cannot borrow them without asking and receiving them formally from the hand of the owner.
    • 74 The uniform of the samanº/¯ıs and samanº¯ıs, called kavac (lit. armour), is a specially designed white cotton frock with the word 'arham' stitched in red colour onto the chest.
    • 75 Khanº dºiya are small pieces of fabric that are torn off a larger piece of cloth to be used for cleansing the body orifices and the paraphernalia of the mendicants.
    • 76 This list of possessions is not exhaustive (khanº dºiya clothes for instance are not mentioned). In addition, the samanº/¯ıs borrow most essentials for their daily use, such as soap, toothpaste, etc. from the householders.
    • 77 Samanº/¯ıs cannot accept vessels made of metal. Today, the buckets used both by samanº/ ¯ıs and sa¯dhu-sa¯dhv¯ıs are usually made of plastic, and should only comprise insignificant pieces of metal, such as a handle. Metal is avoided, because it is regarded as a valuable possession, and because it is produced in a process involving violence. Orthodox Jain mendicants also do not accept plastic vessels or vessels containing small pieces of metal.
    • 78 The technical term for discarding, which should take place not later than 48 minutes, is paraºthanº a¯ (Pkt. pariºtºthavanºa, Skt. parisºthº a¯pana). See ON 303; Mette, 1974: 138f., 143; Mette (in press); Flu¨gel (forthcoming).
    • 79 Or a pitcher, both made of plastic.
    • 80 In contrast to other objects borrowed from householders, bowls and plates used for eating should not be returned. That is, the samanº/¯ıs should only eat from their own bowls.
    • 81 The use of both water and utensils should be minimised.
    • 82 Cf. AS 2.1.8, etc. The term gocar¯ı should not be used for the begging round of the samanº/¯ıs, to distinguish them clearly from the ´sramanºas.
    • 83 Pieces of raw fruit may contain life even after being pickled. They are only considered dead after a transformation of taste induced by the admixture of different substances. The acceptability of various types of pickles is a contentious issue in the Jain tradition.
    • A¯ya¯ran˙ga Sutta (A¯ ca¯ra¯n˙ga Su¯tra). Translated by Hermann Jacobi. Sacred Books of the East Vol. 22. Jaina Su¯tras Part I: 1-213. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884.
    • A¯vassaya Nijjutti (A¯va´syaka Niryukti). With Haribhadra's Tº ¯ıka¯. Bombay: A¯ gamodaya Samiti, 1916-1917.
    • A¯vassaya mº (A¯va´syaka Su¯tra). In: Navasutta¯nº i 5. Va¯cana¯ Pramukhahº : Ga nºa¯dhipati Tuls¯ı. Sa mºpa¯dak: A¯ ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a, 3-23. La¯dnu¯ m˙: Jaina Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı, 1985.
    • Dasaveya¯liya Nijjutti (Da´savaika¯lika Niryukti). Edited by Willem B. Bolle´e, 1995, pp. 31-73.
    • Dasaveya¯liya Sutta (Da´savaika¯lika Su¯tra). Edited by Ernst Leumann. And translated, with introduction and notes, by Walther Schubring. Ahmedabad: The Managers of the Sheth Anandji Kalianji, 1932 (reprinted in: W. Schubring.
    • Kleine Schriften. Hg. K. Bruhn, 109-248. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag). Also translated by Kustur Chand Lalwani. Arya Sayyanbhava's Da´savaika¯lika Su¯tra.
    • Translation and Notes. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 1973.
    • Kappa Sutta (Kalpa Su¯tra). Translated by Walther Schubring, 1905, 1910.
    • Maha¯nis¯ıha (Maha¯ni´sitha). Chapters 1-5 translated by Jozef Deleu and Walther Schubring, Studien zum Maha¯nis¯ıha. Kapitel 1-5. Herausgegeben und u¨bersetzt.
    • Alt- und Neu-Indische Studien 10. Hamburg: De Gruyter, 1963.
    • Ni´s¯ıtha Su¯tram, with Bha¯ºs ya and Cu¯rnº i by A¯ ca¯rya Jinada¯sa Mahattar. Part I: Pithika¯. Edited by Upa¯dhya¯y Amarmuni and Muni Kanhaiya¯la¯l 'Kamal'. Second revised edn. Delhi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, (1960) 1982.
    • Oha Nijjutti (Ogha Niryukti). Verses 331-595 (Pinº dº'esanº a¯) translated by Adelheid Mette, 1974.
    • Pajjosavanº a¯ Kappa (Sa¯ma¯ya¯r¯ı). Translated by Hermann Jacobi. Sacred Books of the East Vol. 22. Jaina Su¯tras Part I: 296-311. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884.
    • AISJC = Akhil Bha¯rat¯ıya Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı Jaina Ka¯nfrens, ed. (1987) Akhil Bha¯ratvarºs¯ıya Vardhamanº Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı Jaina S´ramanº San˙gh¯ıya Sama¯ca¯r¯ı. Dill¯ı: Akhil Bha¯rat¯ıya Vardha¯man Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı Jaina Ka¯nfrens.
    • AK = Jinprabha¯, Sa¯dhv¯ı and Sa¯dhv¯ı Svarnº rekha, eds (1990) Amrºt Kala´s. 2 Volumes. 7th edn. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: A¯ dar´s Sa¯hitya San˙gh.
    • A¯ tma¯ra¯m, A¯ ca¯rya (Vijaya¯nand Su¯ri) (1888/1903) S´r¯ı Samyaktva S´alyoddha¯r (Hind¯ı Translation of Samyaktva S´uloddha¯r). Lahore: S´r¯ı A¯ tma¯nand Jaina Sabha¯ Pan˜ja¯b.
    • Balbir, Nalini (1983) 'Observations sur la Secte Jaina des Tera¯panth¯ı', Bulletin D'E´ tudes Indiennes 1 (1983) 39-45.
    • Balbir, Nalini (1993) A¯va´syaka-Studien. Introduction G´en´erale et Traductions, Alt- und Neuindische Studien 45, (1). Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag.
    • BSB = A¯ ca¯rya Tuls¯ı (Va¯cana¯ Pramukha) and A¯ ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a (Bha¯ºsyaka¯ra) (2000) Bhagava¯ı (Via¯hapanº nº att¯ı). Khanº dº 2, S´atak 3-7. Mu¯lpa¯ºth, Samº skrºt Cha¯ya¯, Hind¯ı Anuva¯d, Bha¯ºsya tatha¯ Abhayadevasu¯ri-krºt Vrºtti evamº Pari´siºsºt- S´abda¯nukram a¯di sahit. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Bolle´e, Willem B. (1995) The Nijjuttis on the Seniors of the S´vetaˆmbara Siddhaˆnta: A¯ ya¯ranga, Dasaveya¯liya, Uttarajjha¯ya¯ and Su¯yagadºa, Text and Selective Glossary. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
    • Bruhn, K. (1981) A¯va´syaka Studies I, Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus (Gedenkschrift fu¨r Ludwig Alsdorf ). Hg. K. Bruhn and A. Wezler, 11-49. Hamburg: Franz Steiner Verlag.
    • Bruhn, K. (1997-2001) 'Five Vows and Six Avashyakas: The Fundamentals of Jaina Ethics'. Ed. C. Geerdes. http://here-now4u.de/eng/spr/religion/Bruhn.html
    • Budhmal, Muni (1964/1995) Tera¯panth ka¯ Itiha¯s. Pratham Khanº dº: Tera¯panth ke Pratham Ca¯r A¯ ca¯rya. 4th revised edn. Calcutta: Jain S´veta¯mbar Tera¯panth Maha¯sabha¯ Praka¯´san.
    • Budhmal, Muni (2001) Tera¯panth ka¯ Itiha¯s. Dvit¯ıya Khanº dº. Samº pa¯dak: Muni Sumeramal 'Sudar´san' and Muni Mohanla¯l 'S´ a¯rdu¯l'. Calcutta: Jain S´veta¯mbar Tera¯panth Maha¯sabha¯ Praka¯´san.
    • Caillat, Colette (1965/1975) Atonements in the Ancient Ritual of the Jaina Monks. Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute of Indology. (Translated from the original French: Les Expiations dans le Rituel Ancien des Religieux Jaina. Paris: E. de Boccard.)
    • Deleu, Jozef (1970) Viya¯hapannatti (Bhagava¯ı). The Fifth Anga of the Jaina Canon. Introduction, Critical Analysis, Commentary and Indexes. Brugge: Rijksuniversiteit de Gent.
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (1994) Askese und Devotion: Das rituelle System der Terapanth Svetambara Jains. Doctoral dissertation, Johannes Gutenberg-Universita¨t Mainz.
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (1995-6) 'The ritual circle of the Tera¯panth S´veta¯mbara Jains', Bulletin D'E´ tudes Indiennes 13: 117-176.
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (2000) 'Zum Ursprung der Tera¯panth S´veta¯mbara Jaina Tradition'. http:/ /www.here- now4u.de/zum_ursprung_der_terapanth_sve.htm
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (2000) 'Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı I', Berliner Indologische Studien 13-14: 37-103.
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (2003) 'Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Stha¯nakava¯s¯ı II', Berliner Indologische Studien 15-16.
    • Flu¨gel, Peter (forthcoming) 'Atonements in the Rituals of the Tera¯panth S´veta¯mbara Jains'. Paper presented at the conference Aspects of Jainism, University of Warsaw, 7-8 September 2000.
    • Ganº e´sma¯l, A¯ ca¯rya (2000) Nirgrantha San˙gha Sama¯ca¯r¯ı. Handwritten copy.
    • Glasenapp, Helmuth von (1915) Die Lehre vom Karma in der Philosophie der Jainas. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz.
    • Goonasekere, Ratna Sunilsantha Abhayawardana (1986) Renunciation and Monasticism among the Jainas of India. Ph.D. dissertation. San Diego: University of California.
    • Holmstrom, Savitri (1988) Towards a Politics of Renunciation: Jain women and asceticism in Rajasthan. M.A. thesis, University of Edinburgh.
    • Jacobi, Hermann (1879) 'Kalpasu¯tra of Bhadraba¯hu', Abhandlungen fu¨r die Kunde des Morgenlandes 7, 1.
    • Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1979) The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Jaya¯ca¯rya, A¯ ca¯rya [J¯ıtmal] (1852) Barº¯ı Marya¯da¯. Jaypur: Ga nº Vidha¯n San˙grah Gadhya. (Ms.)
    • Jaya¯ca¯rya, A¯ ca¯rya (1852) Choºt¯ı Marya¯da¯. Jaypur Ga nº Vidha¯n San˙grah Gadhya (Ms.).
    • Jaya¯ca¯rya, A¯ ca¯rya (1855) Parampara¯ na¯m˙ Bol: S´aya¯tar. Gocar¯ı Sambandh¯ı. (Ms.).
    • Jaya¯ca¯rya, A¯ ca¯rya (1857-60/1983) 'Parampara¯ n¯ı m˙ Jorº'. Tera¯panth: Marya¯da¯ aur Vyavastha¯. Compiled by A¯ ca¯rya Tuls¯ı and Yuva¯ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a. Sampa¯dak: Muni Madhukar. Jaya¯ca¯rya Series Vol. 9, 339-80. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Jaya¯ca¯rya, A¯ ca¯rya (1981) Victory of Discipline. Jay Anu´sa¯san. Sampa¯dak: Muni Mahendrakumar. Comp. A¯ ca¯rya Tuls¯ı and Yuva¯ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a. Tr. S.K.L. Goswami. Jaya¯ca¯rya Series Vol. 1. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Kohl, J. F. (1953) 'Pflanzen mit gemeinsamem Ko¨rper nach der Lehre der Jainas', Zeitschrift fu¨r Ethnologie 78: 91-95.
    • Laidlaw, James (1995) Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    • Leumann, Ernst (1892a) 'Jinabhadra's J¯ıtakalpa, mit Auszu¨gen aus Siddhasena's Cu¯r nºi', Sitzungsbericht der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 55: 1195-1210.
    • Leumann, Ernst (1892b) 'Da´savaika¯lika-Su¯tra and -Niryukti nach dem Erza¨hlungsgehalt Untersucht und Herausgegeben von E. Leumann', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenla¨ndischen Gesellschaft 46: 581-663 [reprinted in E. Leumann. Kleine Schriften. Ed. N. Balbir, 207-59. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1998].
    • Leumann, Ernst (1934) U¨bersicht u¨ber die A¯va´syaka Literatur. Aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben von Walther Schubring. Alt- und Neuindische Studien 4. Hamburg: De Gruyter.
    • Maha¯prajn˜a, Yuva¯ca¯rya (1987) Acharya Tulsi: A Peacemaker par Excellance. Ed. and tr. S.L. Gandhi. Rajsamand: Anuvrat Vishva Bharati.
    • McGregor, R.S. ed. (1993) The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Mette, Adelheid (1974) Pinº dº'esanº a¯. Das Kapitel der Oha-nijjutti u¨ber den Bettelgang. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
    • Navratanmal, Muni (1981-2001) S´ a¯sana Samudra. Vols. 1-26. Published by Uttamcand Sethia. Calcutta: S´r¯ı Jain S´veta¯mbar Tera¯panth¯ı Maha¯sabha¯ Praka¯´san and La¯dº nu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Prasad, Nand Kishore (1972) Studies in Buddhist and Jaina Monachism. Vaishali: Research Institute of Prakrit, Jainology and Ahimsa.
    • Ratnacandra, A¯ ca¯rya (comp.) (1923/1988) An Illustrated Ardha-Magadhi Dictionary. Reprint. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas.
    • Rayanade, B. B. (1982) 'Jaina Literature', in Ni´s¯ıtha Sutram, with Bha¯sya and Cu¯rnº i by A¯ ca¯rya Jinada¯sa Mahattara. Part I: P¯ıth¯ıka. Edited by Upa¯dhya¯y Amarmuni and Muni Kanhaiya¯la¯l 'Kamal'. Delhi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan.
    • Sanmatiprajn˜ a¯, Samanº ¯ı (1996) Samanº D¯ıkºsa¯: Ek Paricay. La¯dº nu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Schubring, Walther (1905) Das Kalpa-su¯tra. Die alte Sammlung jinistischer Mo¨nchsvorschriften. Einleitung, Text, Analysen, U¨ bersetzung, Glossar. Indica 2. Hg. E. Leumann. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz.
    • Schubring, Walther (1910) 'The Kalpa-Su¯tra. An Old Collection of Disciplinary Rules for Jaina Monks' [revised by the author and translated into English by J. A. S. Burgess], Indian Antiquary 39: 257-67.
    • Schubring, Walther (1935) Die Lehre der Jainas. Nach den alten Quellen dargestellt. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co. (Translated into English by Wolfgang Beurlen (1962/2000) as The Doctrine of the Jainas. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas.)
    • Schubring, Walther and Colette Caillat (1966) Drei Chedasu¯tras des Jaina Kanons. A¯ya¯rodasa¯o, Vavaha¯ra, Nis¯ıha. Alt- und Neuindische Studien 11. Hamburg: De Gruyter.
    • Sha¯nta¯, N. (1985) La Voie Jaina: Histoire, Spiritualit´e, Vie des asc`etes p`elerines de l'Inde. Paris: O.E.I.L.
    • Sharma, L.P. (1991) Advent and Growth of the Terapanth Jain Sect: A Comprehensive Historical Study, Ph.D. dissertation, Jodhpur University, 1991.
    • Sumeramal, Muni, ed. (1997) Tera¯panth Digdar´san 1995-96. Kalkatta¯: Jain S´veta¯mbar Tera¯panth Maha¯sabha¯.
    • Tatia, Nathmal and Muni Mahendra, Kumar (1981). Aspects of Jaina Monasticism. Ladnun: Jain Vishva Bharati.
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya. (comp.) (1960-61) Bhikºsu-Granth Ratna¯kar. Kha nºdº 1-2. San˙grahkarta¯: Muni Cauthmal. Prabandh Sampa¯dak: S´r¯ıcand Ra¯mpuriya¯. Kalkatta¯: Jain S´veta¯mbar Tera¯panth Maha¯sabha¯.
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya (1989a) Marya¯da¯val¯ı. 2nd revised version. 20 September 1989 (2046 bha¯drapad krººsnº a 5) (Typescript) (La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: 1960).
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya (1989b) Pra¯ya´scitta Vidhi. 2nd revised version. Yuga Pradha¯n A¯ ca¯rya S´r¯ı Tuls¯ı Dva¯ra¯ Nirdha¯rit. 20 September 1989 (2046 bha¯drapad krººs nºa 5) (Ms.) (La¯dº nu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı, 31 March 1962).
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya (1990) Arhat Vandana. Cu¯ru¯: A¯ dar´s Sa¯hitya San˙gha.
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya. (1991) Niyama¯val¯ı. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙, 28 January 1991 (Handwritten copy).
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya and Yuva¯ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a (eds), (1981) Tera¯panth ke T¯ın A¯ca¯rya. Jaya¯ca¯rya Series, Vol. 6. La¯ dºnu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Tuls¯ı, A¯ ca¯rya and Yuva¯ca¯rya Maha¯prajn˜a (comp.) (1983) Tera¯panth: Marya¯da¯ aur Vyavastha¯. Sampa¯dak: Muni Madhukar. Jaya¯ca¯rya Series Vol. 9. La¯dº nu¯ m˙: Jain Vi´sva Bha¯rat¯ı.
    • Vallely, Anne (2002) Guardians of the Transcendent. An Ethnography of a Jain Ascetic Community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    • Weber, Albrecht (1883-85) 'U¨ ber die heiligen Schriften der Jaina', Indische Studien 16-17: 211-479, 1-90. (Translated into English by H. W. Smyth (1882-92) in The Indian Antiquary 17-21).
    • Williams, Ronald W. (1963) Jaina Yoga: A Survey of the Medieval S´ra¯vaka¯ca¯ras. London: Oxford University Press.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article