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Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
The transport of a group of quinolone antibiotics across the human intestinal model, Caco-2 cells, was investigated. It was found that the transport of the quinolones generally correlated with the lipophilicity of the compounds, indicating the passive diffusional transcellular processes were involved. However, it was observed that the transport in both directions apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical was not equivalent, and polarised transport occurred. For all the quinolones studied except, BMS-284756-01, it was found that the basolateral-to-apical transport was significantly greater than the apical-to-basolateral transport. This finding suggested that the quinolones underwent a process of active secretion. The pKas and logPs for the quinolones were determined using potentiometric titrations. The measured logP values were compared with those determined using theoretical methods. The theoretical methods for calculating logP including the Moriguchi method correlated poorly with the measured logP values. Further investigations revealed that there may be an active transporter involved in the apical-to-basolateral transport of quinolones as well. This mechanism was sensitive to competing quinolones, but, it was unaffected by the metabolic inhibitor combination of sodium azide (15mM) with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (50mM). The basolateral-to-apical transport of quinolones was found to be sensitive to inhibition by a number of different inhibitors. The metabolic inhibitors, sodium azide (15mM) with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (50mM) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (1mM), were able to reduce the basolateral-to-apical transport of quinolones. A reduction in temperature from 37°C to 2°C caused an 80-fold decrease in the transport of gatifloxacin in both directions, however, this effect was not sufficient to abolish the greater basolateral-to-apical secretion. As with apical-to-basolateral transport, it was found that quinolones competed with gatifloxacin for basolateral-to-apical transport, both ofloxacin (100μM) and norfloxacin (100μM) significantly (P<0.003) decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of gatifloxacin; however, ciprofloxacin (100μM and 300μM) had no effect. A number of inhibitors of various transport systems were also investigated. It was found that the anion transport inhibitor, probenecid (100 μM) had a significant inhibitory effect on the basolateral-to-apical transport of ciprofloxacin (P=0.039), while the cation transport inhibitor cimetidine (100μM and 500μM) had no effect. The organic anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2' -disulphonic acid DIDS (400μM) also had a significant inhibitory effect (P=O.O 13). The PgP inhibitor and anion exchange inhibitor verapamil (400Mμ) was able to completely abolish the basolateral-to-apical secretion of gatifloxacin and bring it into line with the apical-to-basolateral flux. In conclusion, the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-toapical transport of quinolones involved an active component. The basolateral-to-apical secretion was abolished by a verapamil (400μM), a bisubstrate for PgP and the anion transporter.

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