Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Routledge, Sarah
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Foaming during fermentation reduces the efficiency of the process leading to increased costs and reduced productivity. Foaming can be overcome by the use of chemical antifoaming agents, however their influence upon the growth of organisms and protein yield is poorly understood. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different antifoams on recombinant protein production. Antifoam A, Antifoam C, J673A, P2000 and SB2121 were tested at different concentrations for their effect on the growth characteristics of Pichia pastoris producing GFP, EPO and A2aR and the yield of protein in shake flasks over 48 h. All antifoams tested increased the total GFP in the shake flasks compared to controls, at higher concentrations than would normally be used for defoaming purposes. The highest yield was achieved by adding 1 % P2000 which nearly doubled the total yield followed by 1 % SB2121, 1 % J673A, 0.6 % Antifoam A and lastly 0.8 % Antifoam C. The antifoams had a detrimental effect upon the production of EPO and A2aR in shake flasks, suggesting that their effects may be protein specific. The mechanisms of action of the antifoams was investigated and suggested that although the volumetric mass oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) was influenced by the agents, their effect upon the concentration of dissolved oxygen did not contribute to the changes in growth or recombinant protein yield. Findings in small scale also suggested that antifoams of different compositions such as silicone polymers and alcoxylated fatty acid esters may influence growth characteristics of host organisms and the ability of the cells to secrete recombinant protein, indirectly affecting the protein yield. Upon scale-up, the concentration effects of the antifoams upon GFP yield in bioreactors was reversed, with lower concentrations producing a higher yield. These data suggest that antifoam can affect cells in a multifactorial manner and highlights the importance of screening for optimum antifoam types and concentrations for each bioprocesses.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Holmes WJ, Darby RA, Wilks MD, Smith R, Bill RM: Developing a scalable model of recombinant protein yield from Pichia pastoris: the influence of culture conditions, biomass and induction regime. Microb Cell Fact 2009, 8:35.
    • 2. Holmes W, Smith R, Bill R: Evaluation of antifoams in the expression of a recombinant Fc fusion protein in shake flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microb Cell Fact 2006, 5:30.
    • 3. Varley J, Brown A, Boyd R, Dodd P, Gallagher S: Dynamic multipoint measurement of foam behaviour for a continuous fermentation over a range of key process variables. Biochem Eng J 2004, 20:61-72.
    • 4. Höfer R: Struktol foams and foam control. Struktol; 2008.
    • 5. Joshi K, Jeelani S, Blickenstorfer C, Naegeli I, Windhab E: Influence of fatty alcohol antifoam suspensions on foam stability. Colloids Surfaces A 2005, 263:239-249.
    • 6. Ju LK, Sundararajan A: The effects of cells on oxygen transfer in bioreactors. Bioprocess Eng 1995, 13:271-278.
    • 7. Denkov ND, Krastanka M, Christova C, Hadjiiski A, Cooper P: Mechanisms of action of mixed solid-liquid antifoams: 3. Exhaustion and reactivation. Langmuir 2000, 21:8163-8619.
    • 8. Al-Masry W: Effects of antifoam and scale-up on operation of bioreactors. Chem Eng Process 1999, 38:197-201.
    • 9. Calik P, Ileri N, Erdinc BI, Aydogan N, Argun M: Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant. Langmuir 2005, 21(19):8613-8619.
    • 10. Etoc A, Delvigne F, Lecomte JP, Thonart P: Foam Control in fermentation bioprocess: from simple aeration tests to bioreactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2006, 129-132:392-404.
    • 11. Koch V, Rüffer H, Schügerl K, Innertsberger E, Menzel H, Weis J: Effect of antifoam agents on the medium and microbial cell properties and process performance in small and large reactors. Process Biochem 1995, 30:435-446.
    • 12. Sorensen HP: Towards universal systems for recombinant gene expression. Microb Cell Fact 2010, 9:27.
    • 13. Charoenrat T, Ketudat-Cairns M, Stendahl-Andersen H, Jahic M, Enfors S: Oxygen-limited fed-batch process: an alternative control for Pichia pastoris recombinant protein processes. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2005, 27:309-406.
    • 14. Jahic M, Wallberg F, Bollok M, Garcia P, Enfors S: Temperature limited fedbatch technique for control of proteolysis in Pichia pastoris bioreactor cultures. Microb Cell Fact 2003, 2.
    • 15. Jungo C, Marison I, Stockar Uv: Regulation of alcohol oxidase of a recombinant Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in transient continuous cultures. J Biotechnol 2007, 130:236-246.
    • 16. Panjideh H, Coelho V, Dernedde J, Fuchs H, Keilholz U, Thiel E, Deckert M: Production of bifunctional single-chain antibody-based fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris supernatants. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2008, 31:559-568.
    • 17. Sigma product information: Antifoam data sheet. [http://www. sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Sigma/Product_Information_Sheet/ a7207pis.Par.0001.File.tmp/a7207pis.pdf].
    • 18. Hewitt CJ, Nebe-Von-Caron G: The application of multi-parameter flow cytometry to monitor individual microbial cell physiological state. Advances Biochem Eng/Biotechnol 2004, 89:197-223.
    • 19. Bartsch O: Über Schaumsysteme. . Fortschrittsberichte über Kolloide und Polymere 1924, 20:1-49.
    • 20. Rosen J, Solash J: Factors affecting initial foam height in the Ross-Miles foam test. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1968, 46(399-402).
    • 21. Hansen MC, Palmer RJ, Udsen C, White DC, Molin S: Assessment of GFP fluorescence in cells of Streptococcus gordonii under conditions of low pH and low oxygen concentration. Microbiol 2001, 147:1383-1391.
    • 22. Jha BK, Christiano SP, Shah DO: Silicone antifoam performance: correlation with spreading and surfactant monolayer packing. Langmuir 2000, 16.
    • 23. Rols JL, Goma G: Enhanced oxygen transfer rates in fermentation using soybean oil-in-water dispersions. Biotechnol Lett 1991, 13:7-12.
    • 24. Kawase Y, Moo-Young M: The effect of antifoam agents on mass transfer in bioreactors. Bioprocess Eng 1990, 5:169-173.
    • 25. Morao A, Maia C, Fonseca M, Vasconcelos J, Alves S: Effect of antifoam addition in gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred fermenters. Bioprocess Eng 1999, 20:165-172.
    • 26. Yagi H, Yoshida F: Oxygen absorption in fermenters - effects of surfactants, antifoaming agents and sterilized cells. J Fermentation Technol 1974, 52:905-916.
    • 27. Arjunwadkar SJ, Sarvanan K, Kulkarni PR, Pandit AB: Gas-liquid mass transfer in dual impeller bioreactor. Biochem Eng J 1998, 1:99-106.
    • 28. Liu HS, Chiung WC, Wang YC: Effect of lard oil and caster oil on oxygen transfer in an agitated fermentor. Biotechnol Techniques 1994, 8:17-20.
    • 29. Koide K, Yamazoe S, Harada S: Effects of surface-active substances on gas hold up and gas-liquid mass transfer in bubble column. J Chem Eng Japan 1985, 18:287-292.
    • 30. Pawiroharsono S, Naji B, Bonaly R, Tonetti F, Chasseboeuf C, Richter P: Permeability and membrane sterol distribution in Saccharomyces uvarum and Kluyveromyces bulgaricus grown in presence of polyoxyalkylene lycol-oleic acid condensates. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1987, 27:181-185.
    • 31. Invitrogen: EasySelect Pichia Expression Kit .
    • 32. Denkov ND, Tcholakova S, Marinova KG, Hadjiiski A: Role of oil spreading for the efficiency of mixed oil-solid antifoams. Langmuir 2002, 18:5810-5817.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok