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Tsujita, Yuko (2014)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: DS401, HT0713, LC0213, HT0101
Poverty reduction and Education for All (EFA) are important policy issues in many developing countries as they are both Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As the existing literature suggests, education positively influences poverty reduction, while poverty, or low income, adversely affects the quality and quantity of education. Accordingly, if education fails to facilitate poverty reduction, the following generation’s schooling is likely to be adversely affected, thus perpetuating a vicious education–poverty circle.\ud \ud It was against such a background, and employing a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis, that this study investigated the relationship between education and multidimensional poverty at an individual as well as household level, and the influence of deprivation on children’s education, in the context of the slum in Delhi, India.\ud \ud The thesis reveals that education – particularly primary and middle schooling – enhances the earnings of male slum dwellers in particular, the overwhelming majority of whom suffer from informality and instability of employment. It also emerges that education plays an important role in the ability to participate with confidence in the public sphere. At the household level, education proves to have a positive association with monetary poverty, but a higher level of education per se does not necessarily facilitate escape from non-monetary poverty.\ud \ud In such a nexus of poverty and education, the thesis found that household wealth in association with social group and migration status tends to be positively correlated with child schooling, education expenditure, and basic learning. There may be a chance of escaping poverty through education, but such a likelihood is limited for those households that are underprivileged in terms of caste and religion owing to slow progress in basic learning, as well as migrant households due to lack of access to schooling. The thesis concludes by proposing some education policies drawn from the major findings of the study that may be implemented in the Indian slum context.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Table 7-3 Reasons for dropout (multiple answers)............................................................ 192
    • Table 7-4 Reasons for never attending (multiple answer)................................................. 196
    • Table 7-5 Summary of descriptive statistics...................................................................... 200
    • Table 7-6 OLS estimates of MPCE ................................................................................... 201
    • Table 7-7 Probit estimates of initial enrolment ................................................................. 202
    • Table 7-8 Probit estimates of current attendance............................................................... 203
    • Table 7-9 Education expenditure incurred by sample slum children aged 5 to 14 (INR) . 212
    • Table 7-10 Education expenditure incurred by sample slum children aged 5 to 14 currently
    • attending school (INR) .............................................................................................. 212
    • Table 7-11 Average annual expenditure per child by item in 2007/08 (INR).................... 215
    • Table 7-12 Regression results for household education expenditure ................................ 219
    • Table 7-13 Regression results for individual education expenditure................................. 222
    • Table 7-14 Basic learning: variable definitions................................................................. 223
    • Table 7-15 Probit analysis of ability to write one's name.................................................. 227 8 Mother's relative 9. Spouse 10. Spouse's relative 11. Other relative 12. Friend 13. Neighbour 14. Present employer 15. Colleague 16. Fellow villager 17. Fellow caste member 18. Slum leaders 19. Other [specify] 3. Paid maternity leave 6. Bonus in cash 4. Uniform/clothes 7. Overtime payment 5. Bonus in kind 8. Pension scheme 9. Redundancy entitlement 10. Housing 11. Travel allowance 12. One meal a day 13. Two meals a day 14. Other, specify 9. Does this household have a toilet at home? 1. Yes 2. No → Go to Q14 10. What type of toilet does this household have? [see toilet code]
    • 1. Private flash toilet 2. Shared flush toilet 3. Private pit latrine 4. Shared pit latrine 11. When was it constructed? [year] 12. How much did it cost? Rs. 13 Who helped construct it? [allow multiple] 1. Government 2. NGO 3. Slum leader 14. How much did this household spend on public toilet charges in the last 30 days? Rs. 15. Do you use traditional stove (chulha) for cooking? Yes=1 No=2 16. What fuel does this household mainly use for cooking? [allow multiple]
    • 1. Charcoal 2. Coal/coke/lignite 3. Kerosene 4. LPG (cylinder gas)
    • 6. Electricity 7. Wood (firewood, chips) 8. Liquid petrol 9. Bio gas
    • 17. How much has this household spent on the following in the last 30 days? [0 if nothing was spent on any item]
    • 1. Charcoal: Rs. 2. Coal/coke/lignite: Rs. 3. Kerosene Rs.
    • 5. Cow dung cakes: Rs. 6. Electricity Rs. 7. Wood (firewood, chips) Rs.
    • 9. Bio gas Rs. 10. Candles Rs. 11. Matches Rs.
    • 13. Total fuel [data entry person to calculate]: Rs. 18. Does this household have a telephone (fixed line) at home? Yes=1 → Go to Q20 No=2 → Go to Q19 19. If No, where is the nearest telephone this household normally uses? m away from home 20. How much was the last telephone bill? for month(s) 21. Does any member of this household have mobile phone? Yes=1 No=2 → Go to next section 22. If yes, how much was the last bill or how much did this/these household member(s) pay for the last top-up?
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