Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: OUP
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: seismotectonics, gravity and tectonics, sub-02, Dynamics, Continental neotectonics, Seismicity and tectonics
This article has been accepted for publication in in Geophysical Journal International ©: (2015) 201(2): 683-710, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv005 , First published online March 9, 2015, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present observations and models of the Sulaiman Range of western Pakistan that shed new light on the evolution and deformation of fold-thrust belts. Earthquake source inversions show that the seismic deformation in the range is concentrated in the thick pile of sediments overlying the underthrusting lithosphere of the Indian subcontinent. The slip vectors of the earthquakes vary in strike around the margin of the range, in tandem with the shape of the topography, suggesting that gravitational driving forces arising from the topography play an important role in governing the deformation of the region. Numerical models suggest that the active deformation, and the extreme plan-view curvature of the range, are governed by the presence of weak sediments in a pre-existing basin on the underthrusting Indian Plate. These sediments affect the stress-state in the over-riding mountain range and allow for the rapid propagation of the nose of the range and the development of extreme curvature and laterally varying surface gradients. This study forms part of the NERC- and ESRC-funded project ‘Earthquakes Without Frontiers’. Our thanks go to Jerome Neufeld for many interesting coffee-time discussions, and James Jackson and Dan McKenzie, for comments on the manuscript. We thank Chris Morley and one anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on the manuscript.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Jackson, J.A. & McKenzie, D., 1984. Active tectonics of the AlpineHimalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan, J. geophys. Res., 77, 185-264.
    • Jackson, J.A. & McKenzie, D., 1988. The relationship between plate motions and seismic moment tensors, and the rates of active deformation in the Mediterranean and Middle East, Geophys. J. Int., 93(1), 45-73.
    • Jackson, J.A., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K. & Emmerson, B., 2008. New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere, J. Geol. Soc., 165(2), 453-465.
    • Jacob, K.H. & Quittmeyer, R.C., 1979. The Makran region of Pakistan and Iran: trench-arc system with active plate subduction, in Geodynamics of Pakistan, pp. 305-318, eds Farah, A. & De Jong, K.A., Geological Survey of Pakistan.
    • Jadoon, I.A.K., 1991. Thin-skinned tectonics on continent/ocean transitional crust, Sulaiman Range, Pakistan, PhD thesis, Oregon State University, OR.
    • Jadoon, I.A.K. & Khurshid, A., 1996. Gravity and tectonic model across the Sulaiman fold belt and the Chaman fault zone in western Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan, Tectonophysics, 254(1-2), 89-109.
    • Jadoon, I.A.K., Lawrence, R.D. & Lillie, R.J., 1993. Evolution of foreland structures: an example from the Sulaiman thrust lobe of Pakistan, southwest of the Himalayas, Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ., 74(1), 589-602.
    • Kasi, A.K., Kassi, A.M., Umar, M. & Manan, R.A., 2012. Revised lithostratigraphy of the Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan, J. Himalayan Earth Sci., 45(1), 53-65.
    • Kassi, A.M., Kelling, G., Kasi, A.K., Umar, M. & Khan, A.S., 2009. Contrasting Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene lithostratigraphic successions across the Bibai Thrust, western Sulaiman Fold-Thrust Belt, Pakistan: their significance in deciphering the early-collisional history of the NW Indian Plate margin, J. Asian Earth Sci., 35(5), 435-444.
    • Kazmi, A.H., 1979. Active fault systems in Pakistan, in Geodynamics of Pakistan, pp. 285-294, eds Farah, A. & De Jong, K.A., Geological Survey of Pakistan.
    • Kazmi, A.H. & Rana, R.A., 1982. Tectonic Map of Pakistan.
    • Khan, M.A. et al., 2008. Preliminary geodetic constraints on plate boundary deformation on the western edge of the Indian plate from TriGGnet (TriUniversity GPS Geodesy Network), J. Himalayan Earth Sci., 41, 71-87.
    • Klootwijk, C.T., 1984. A review of Indian Phanerozoic palaeomagnetism: implications for the India-Asia collision, Tectonophysics, 105, 331-353.
    • Klootwijk, C.T. & Radhakrishnamurty, C., 1981. Phanerozoic palaeomagnetism of the Indian Plate and the India-Asia collision, Geodyn. Ser., 2, 93-105.
    • Klootwijk, C.T., Nazirullah, R., De Jong, K.A. & Ahmed, H., 1981. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan, J. geophys. Res., 86(B1), 1-18.
    • Lamb, S. & Hoke, L., 1997. Origin of the high plateau in the central Andes, Bolivia, South America, Tectonics, 16(4), 623-649.
    • Lawrence, R.D. & Yeats, R.S., 1979. Geological reconnaissance of the Chaman fault in Pakistan, in Geodynamics of Pakistan, pp. 351-358, eds Farah, A. & De Jong, K.A., Geological Survey of Pakistan.
    • Lawrence, R.D., Yeats, R.S., Khan, S.H., Farah, A. & De Jong, K.A., 1981. Thrust and strike slip fault interaction along the Chaman transform zone, Pakistan, Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ., 9(1), 363-370.
    • Macedo, J. & Marshak, S., 1999. Controls on the geometry of fold-thrust belt salients, Geol. soc. Am. Bull., 111(12), 1808-1822.
    • Marshak, S., 2004. Salients, recesses, arcs, oroclines, and syntaxes-a review of ideas concerning the formation of map-view curves in fold-thrust belts, in Thrust Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Systems: AAPG Memoir 82, pp. 131-156, ed. McClay, K.R., AAPG Special Volumes.
    • Masson, F., Che´ry, J., Hatzfeld, D., Martinod, J., Vernant, P., Tavakoli, F. & Ghafory-Ashtiani, M., 2005. Seismic versus aseismic deformation in Iran inferred from earthquakes and geodetic data, Geophys. J. Int., 160, 217-226.
    • McCaffrey, R., Zwick, P. & Abers, G., 1991. SYN4 Program, IASPEI Software Library, 3, 81-166.
    • McKenzie, D., Nimmo, F., Jackson, J.A., Gans, P.B. & Miller, E.L., 2000. Characteristics and consequences of flow in the lower crust, J. geophys. Res., 105(B5), 11 029-11 046.
    • Rutter, E.H., 1983. Pressure solution in nature, theory and experiment, J. Geol. Soc., 140(5), 725-740.
    • Sarwar, G. & De Jong, K.A., 1979. Arcs, oroclines, syntaxes: the curvatures of mountain belts in Pakistan, in Geodynamics of Pakistan, pp. 341-350, eds Farah, A. & De Jong, K.A., Geological Survey of Pakistan.
    • Scholz, C.H., 1982. Scaling laws for large earthquakes: consequences for physical models, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 72(1), 1-14.
    • Sherkati, S., Molinaro, M., Frizon de Lamotte, D. & Letouzey, J., 2005. Detachment folding in the central and eastern Zagros fold-belt (Iran): salt mobility, multiple detachments and late basement control, J. Struct. Geol., 27(9), 1680-1696.
    • Smewing, J.D., Warburton, J., Daley, T., Copestake, P. & Ul-Haq, N., 2002. Sequence stratigraphy of the southern Kirthar fold belt and middle Indus basin, Pakistan, Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ., 195(1), 273-299.
    • Sonder, L.J. & England, P., 1986. Vertical averages of rheology of the continental lithosphere: relation to thin sheet parameters, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 77(1), 81-90.
    • Stein, S., Sella, G.F. & Okal, E.A., 2002. The January 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake and the diffuse western boundary of the Indian Plate, in Plate Boundary Zones, pp. 243-254, eds Stein, S. & Freymueller, J.T., Geodynamics Series 30, American Geophysical Union.
    • Sua´rez, G., Molnar, P. & Burchfiel, B.C., 1983. Seismicity, fault plane solutions, depth of faulting, and active tectonics of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia, J. geophys. Res.: Solid Earth (1978- 2012), 88(B12), 10 403-10 428.
    • Szeliga, W., 2010. Historical and modern seismotectonics of the Indian Plate with an emphasis on its western boundary with the Eurasian plate, PhD thesis, University of Colorado, CO.
    • Szeliga, W., Bilham, R., Schelling, D., Kakar, D.M. & Lodi, S., 2009. Fold and thrust partitioning in a contracting fold belt: insights from the 1931 Mach earthquake in Baluchistan, Tectonics, 28(5), 1-13.
    • Szeliga, W., Bilham, R., Kakar, D.M. & Lodi, S.H., 2012. Interseismic strain accumulation along the western boundary of the Indian subcontinent, J. geophys. Res., 117(B08404), doi:10.1029/2011JB008822.
    • Taymaz, T., Jackson, J.A. & McKenzie, D., 1991. Active tectonics of the north and central Aegean Sea, Geophys. J. Int., 106(2), 433-490.
    • Treloar, P.J. & Izatt, C.N., 1993. Tectonics of the Himalayan collision between the Indian Plate and the Afghan Block: a synthesis, Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ., 74(1), 69-87.
    • Vernant, P. et al., 2004. Present-day crustal deformation and plate kinematics in the Middle East constrained by GPS measurements in Iran and northern Oman, Geophys. J. Int., 157(1), 381-398.
    • Wellman, H.W., 1966. Active wrench faults of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, Geol. Rund., 55(3), 716-735.
    • Whitman, D., Isacks, B.L. & Kay, S.M., 1996. Lithospheric structure and along-strike segmentation of the Central Andean Plateau: seismic Q, magmatism, flexure, topography and tectonics, Tectonophysics, 259(1), 29-40.
    • Yadav, R.B.S., Gahalaut, V.K., Chopra, S. & Shan, B., 2012. Tectonic implications and seismicity triggering during the 2008 Baluchistan, Pakistan earthquake sequence, J. Asian Earth Sci., 45, 167-178.
    • Zwick, P., McCaffrey, R. & Abers, G., 1994. MT5 Program, IASPEI software library.
    • org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1093/gji/ggv005/-/DC1).
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article