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- 1 See A Commonwealth of the People: Time for Urgent Reform, report of the Eminent Persons Group published by the Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 2011.
- 2 See www.commonwealthadvisorybureau.org
- 3 See Stuart Mole, 'Negotiating with apartheid: the mission of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group 1986', Round Table, vol. 101, issue 3, p. 253, June 2012.
- 4 Total pledges to the CFTC in 2011-12 amounted to £29.64 million, down from £31.18 million in 2010-11 and £30.24 million in 2009-10.
- 5 The principles on which the Secretariat subscriptions were based, not always compatible, were: capacity to pay, equitable burden-sharing, and shared ownership of and responsibility for the Secretariat. CFTC, as a voluntary fund, rests on pledges from governments; no government can obtain its assistance without making a contribution.
- 6 The four 'developed' states in traditional Commonwealth terminology are: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK.
- 7 An association of leading emerging economies. The term BRICS is an acronym of the membership, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- 8 The comparison between New Zealand and Singapore is remarkable. New Zealand has a population of 4.4 million and a gross national income (GNI) per head of $29,350; Singapore has a population of 5.1 million and a GNI per head of $42,930 (World Bank data for 2011). The core pledge of Singapore to CFTC is only £20,000 a year, amplified as it also pays half the cost of training Commonwealth nationals in the city state under an agreement with the Secretariat. Singapore's total contribution to CFTC in 2008-9 was £361,465 - so it appears to have dropped by over £200,000 in three years.
- 9 Krishan Srinivasan, 'The development aid controversy', op. cit., p. 269.
- 10 This quotation, much used in US politics, though with 'rapscallions' commonly substituted for 'rascals', is attributed to H.L. Mencken, the American social satirist and essayist.
- 11 See www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml/
- 12 See www.earthsummit2012.org/conference/themes/ sdgoalsintro
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