Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Birtel, Michele D.; Crisp, Richard J. (2015)
Publisher: Frontiers
Types: Article
Subjects: anxiety, intergroup relations, Psychology, BF, Review, prejudice, BF1-990, psychotherapy, mental imagery
We propose that key concepts from clinical psychotherapy can inform science-based initiatives aimed at building tolerance and community cohesion. Commonalities in social and clinical psychology are identified regarding 1) distorted thinking (intergroup bias and cognitive bias), 2) stress and coping (at intergroup level and intrapersonal level), and 3) anxiety (intergroup anxiety and pathological anxiety). On this basis we introduce a new cognitive-behavioral model of social change (CBM-SC). Mental imagery is the conceptual point of synthesis, and anxiety is at the core, through which new treatment-based approaches to reducing prejudice can be developed. More generally, we argue that this integration is illustrative of broader potential for cross-disciplinary integration in the social and clinical sciences, and has the potential to open up new possibilities and opportunities for both disciplines.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Aboud, F. E., and Levy, S. R. (2000). “Interventions to reduce prejudice and discrimination in children and adolescents,” in Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination. The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology, ed. S. Oskamp (Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School), 269-293.
    • Abrams, D. E., and Hogg, M. A. (1990). Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag Publishing.
    • Aina, Y., and Susman, J. L. (2006). Understanding comorbidity with depression and anxiety disorders. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 106, 9-14.
    • Ajzen, I., and Madden, T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 22, 453-474. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(86)90045-4
    • Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    • Appl, D. J. (1996). Recognising diversity in the early childhood classroom: getting started. Teach. Except. Child. 28, 22-25.
    • Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    • Beck, A. T. (1999). Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
    • Beck, A. T. (2008). The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. Am. J. Psychol. 165, 969-977. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08050721
    • Bigler, R. S. (1999). The use of multicultural curricula and materials to counter racism in children. J. Soc. Issues 55, 687-705. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537. 00142
    • Bigler, R. S., and Hughes, J. M. (2010). Reasons for skepticism about the efficacy of simulated social contact interventions. Am. Psychol. 65, 132-133. doi: 10.1037/a0018097
    • Birtel, M. D., and Crisp, R. J. (2012a). Imagining intergroup contact is more cognitively difficult for people higher in intergroup anxiety but this does not detract from its effectiveness. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 15, 744-761. doi: 10.1177/1368430212443867
    • Birtel, M. D., and Crisp, R. J. (2012b). “Treating” prejudice: an exposure-therapy approach to reducing negative reactions toward stigmatized groups. Psychol. Sci. 23, 1379-1386. doi: 10.1177/0956797612443838
    • Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., et al. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment tool for depressed adults. A randomized controlled trial. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 3, 91-111. doi: 10.1177/2167702614560746
    • Blair, I. V., Ma, J. E., and Lenton, A. P. (2001). Imagining stereotypes away: the moderation of implicit stereotypes through mental imagery. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81, 828-841. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.5.828
    • Blascovich, J., Mendes, W. B., Hunter, S. B., Lickel, B., and Kowai-Bell, N. (2001). Perceiver threat in social interactions with stigmatized others. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 80, 253-267. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.2.253
    • Brown, R. (2011). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons.
    • Choy, Y., Fyer, A. J., and Lipsitz, J. D. (2007). Treatment of specific phobia in adults. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 27, 266-286. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.10.002
    • Clark, D. A., Steer, R. A., and Beck, A. T. (1994). Common and specific dimensions of self-reported anxiety and depression: implications for the cognitive and tripartite models. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103, 645-654. doi: 10.1037/0021- 843X.103.4.645
    • Clark, L. A., and Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100, 316-336. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.316
    • Cox, W. T., Abramson, L. Y., Devine, P. G., and Hollon, S. D. (2012). Stereotypes, prejudice, and depression: the integrated perspective. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 7, 427-449. doi: 10.1177/1745691612455204
    • Craske, M. G., Kircanski, K., Zelikowsky, M., Mystkowski, J., Chowdhury, N., and Baker, A. (2008). Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behav. Res. Ther. 46, 5-27. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2007.10.003
    • Crisp, R. J., Birtel, M. D., and Meleady, R. (2011). Mental simulations of social thought and action: trivial tasks or tools for transforming social policy? Curr. Dir. Psychol. 20, 261-264. doi: 10.1177/0963721411413762
    • Crisp, R. J., and Turner, R. N. (2009). Can imagined interactions produce positive perceptions? Reducing prejudice through simulated social contact. Am. Psychol. 64, 231-240. doi: 10.1037/a0014718
    • Crisp, R. J., and Turner, R. N. (2010). Have confidence in contact. Am. Psychol. 65, 133-135. doi: 10.1037/a0018437
    • Crisp, R. J., and Turner, R. N. (2012). The imagined contact hypothesis. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46, 125-182. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394281-4. 00003-9
    • Cuddy, A. J., Norton, M. I., and Fiske, S. T. (2005). This old stereotype: the pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. J. Soc. Issues 61, 267-285. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00405.x
    • Dei, G. J. S. (1996). Anti-Racism Education: Theory and Practice. Halifax: Fernwood.
    • Department of Health. (2011). No Health Without Mental Health: A CrossGovernment Mental Health Outcomes Strategy for People of All Ages. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file /213761/dh_124058.pdf [accessed May 23, 2013].
    • Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: their automatic and controlled components. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 56, 5-18. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514. 56.1.5
    • Dovidio, J. F., Eller, A., and Hewstone, M. (2011). Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of indirect contact. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 14, 147-160. doi: 10.1177/1368430210390555
    • Ellis, A. (1957). Rational psychotherapy and individual psychology. Individ. Psychol. 13, 38-44.
    • Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Stuart.
    • Farley, J. E. (2005). Majority-Minority Relations. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
    • Foa, E. B., and Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychol. Bull. 99, 20-35. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909. 99.1.20
    • Foa, E. B., and McNally, R. J. (1996). “Mechanisms of change in exposure therapy,” in Current Controversies in the Anxiety Disorders, ed. M. Rapee (New York: The Guilford Press), 329-343.
    • Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., and Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitivebehavioral procedures and counseling. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 59, 715-723. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.715
    • Garcia, S. M., Weaver, K., Moskowitz, G. B., and Darley, J. M. (2002). Crowded minds: the implicit bystander effect. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83, 843-853. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.4.843
    • Gonsalkorale, K., Carlisle, K., and Von Hippel, W. (2007). Intergroup threat increases implicit stereotyping. Rev. Int. Psicol. Ter. Psicol. 7, 189-200.
    • Gudykunst, W. B., and Shapiro, R. B. (1996). Communication in everyday interpersonal and intergroup encounters. Int. J. Intercult. Rel. 20, 19-45. doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(96)00037-5
    • Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., and Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53, 575-604. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135109
    • Himle, J. A. (2007). “Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders,” in Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Clinical Social Work Practice, ed. A. Freeman (New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.), 375-399.
    • Hirsch, C. R., Clark, D. M., Mathews, A., and Williams, R. (2003). Self-images play a causal role in social phobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 41, 909-921. doi: 10.1016/S0005- 7967(02)00103-1
    • Hirsch, C. R., and Holmes, E. A. (2007). Mental imagery in anxiety disorders. Psychiatry 6, 161-165. doi: 10.1016/j.mppsy.2007.01.005
    • Hirsch, C. R., Mathews, A., Clark, D. M., Williams, R., and Morrison, J. A. (2006). The causal role of negative imagery in social anxiety: a test in confident public speakers. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 37, 159-170. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2005.03.003
    • Hirsch, C., Meynen, T., and Clark, D. (2004). Negative self-imagery in social anxiety contaminates social interactions. Memory 12, 496-506. doi: 10.1080/09658210444000106
    • Hirschfeld, R. M. (2001). The comorbidity of major depression and anxiety disorders: recognition and management in primary care. Prim. Care Companion J. Clin. Psychiatry 3, 244-254. doi: 10.4088/PCC.v03n0609
    • Holmes, E. A., Geddes, J. R., Colom, F., and Goodwin, G. M. (2008a). Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder. Behav. Res. Ther. 46, 1251-1258. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.09.005
    • Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Mackintosh, B., and Dalgleish, T. (2008b). The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues. Emotion 8, 395-409. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.395
    • Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., and Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a 'cognitive vaccine' for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 118, 76-88. doi: 10.1037/a0012590
    • Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A. (2005). Mental imagery and emotion: a special relationship? Emotion 5, 489-497. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.4.489
    • Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 30, 349-362. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.001
    • Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Dalgleish, T., and Mackintosh, B. (2006). Positive interpretation training: effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood. Behav. Ther. 37, 237-247. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006. 02.002
    • Hope, D. A., Rapee, R. M., Heimberg, R. G., and Dombeck, M. J. (1990). Representations of the self in social phobia: vulnerability to social threat. Cogn. Ther. Res. 14, 177-189. doi: 10.1007/BF01176208
    • Jussim, L., Cain, T. R., Crawford, J. T., Harber, K., and Cohen, F. (2009). “The unbearable accuracy of stereotypes,” in Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination, ed. T. D. Nelson (New York: Psychology Press), 199-227.
    • Kang, Y., Gray, J. R., and Dovidio, J. F. (2014). The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 143, 1306-1313. doi: 10.1037/a0034150
    • Kosslyn, S. M. (1994). Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., and Thompson, W. L. (2001). Neural foundations of imagery. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2, 635-642. doi: 10.1038/35090055
    • Lang, P. J. (1977). Imagery in therapy: an information processing analysis of fear. Behav. Ther. 8, 862-886. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(77)80157-3
    • Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology 16, 495-512. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1979.tb01511.x
    • Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C. J., Davison, P., and Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. Eur. J. Pers. 26, 145-157. doi: 10.1002/per.855
    • Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.
    • Lee, Y. T., and Jussim, L. (2010). Back in the real world. Am. Psychol. 65, 130-131. doi: 10.1037/a0018195
    • Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., and Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup emotions: explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79, 602-616. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.4.602
    • Major, B., Mendes, W. B., and Dovidio, J. F. (2013). Intergroup relations and health disparities: a social psychological perspective. Health Psychol. 32, 514-524. doi: 10.1037/a0030358
    • Miles, E., and Crisp, R. J. (2014). A meta-analytic test of the imagined contact hypothesis. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 17, 3-26. doi: 10.1177/1368430213510573
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2013). Anxiety Disorders. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index. shtml [accessed May 23, 2013].
    • Page-Gould, E., Mendoza-Denton, R., and Tropp, L. R. (2008). With a little help from my cross-group friend: reducing anxiety in intergroup contexts through cross-group friendship. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95, 1080-1094. doi: 10.1037/0022- 3514.95.5.1080
    • Paolini, S., Harwood, J., and Rubin, M. (2010). Negative intergroup contact makes group memberships salient: explaining why intergroup conflict endures. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 36, 1723-1738. doi: 10.1177/0146167210388667
    • Parks, S., Birtel, M. D., and Crisp, R. J. (2014). Evidence that a brief meditation exercise can reduce prejudice toward homeless people. Soc. Psychol. 45, 458-465. doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000212
    • Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49, 65-85. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65
    • Pettigrew, T. F. (2008). Future directions for intergroup contact theory and research. Int. J. Intercut. Rel. 32, 187-199. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.12.002
    • Pettigrew, T. F., and Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 90, 751-783. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751
    • Pettigrew, T. F., and Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 38, 922-934. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.504
    • Plant, E. A., and Devine, P. G. (2003). The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 29, 790-801. doi: 10.1177/0146167203029006011
    • Rapee, R. M., and Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 35, 741-756. doi: 10.1016/S0005- 7967(97)00022-3
    • Richeson, J. A., and Shelton, J. N. (2003). When prejudice does not pay: effects of interracial contact on executive function. Psychol. Sci. 14, 287-290. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.03437
    • Richeson, J. A., and Shelton, J. N. (2007). Negotiating interracial interactions: costs, consequences, and possibilities. Curr. Dir. Psychol. 16, 316-320. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00528.x
    • Richeson, J. A., and Trawalter, S. (2005). Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 88, 934-947. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.934
    • Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W., and Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 10, 336-353. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_4
    • Rothbaum, B. O., Meadows, E. A., Resick, P., and Foy, D. W. (2000). “Cognitive-behavioral therapy,” in Effective Treatments for PTSD, eds E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, and M. J. Friedman (New York: Guilford Press), 320-325.
    • Rothbaum, B. O., and Schwartz, A. C. (2002). Exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Am. J. Psychother. 56, 59-75.
    • Saguy, T., Tausch, N., Dovidio, J. F., and Pratto, F. (2009). The irony of harmony: intergroup contact can produce false expectations for equality. Psychol. Sci. 20, 114-121. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02261.x
    • Shelton, J. N. (2003). Interpersonal concerns in social encounters between majority and minority group members. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 6, 171-185. doi: 10.1177/1368430203006002003
    • Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J. A., Salvatore, J., and Trawalter, S. (2005). Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions. Psychol. Sci. 16, 397-402. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01547.x
    • Stephan, W. G., and Stephan, C. W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. J. Soc. Issues 41, 157-175. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01134.x
    • Stephan, W. G., and Stephan, C. W. (2000). “An integrated threat theory of prejudice,” in Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination, eds S. Oskamp and S. Oskamp (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers), 23-45.
    • Tajfel, H., and Turner, J. (1979). “An integrative theory of intergroup conflict,” in The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, eds W. G. Austin and S. Worchel (Monterey, CA: Brooks and Cole), 33-47.
    • Tarrier, N., Pilgrim, H., Sommerfield, C., Faragher, B., Reynolds, M., Graham, E., et al. (1999). A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 67, 13-18. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.1.13
    • Taylor, S. E., and Schneider, S. K. (1989). Coping and the simulation of events. Soc. Cogn. 7, 174-194. doi: 10.1521/soco.1989.7.2.174
    • Trawalter, S., Richeson, J. A., and Shelton, J. N. (2009). Predicting behavior during interracial interactions: A stress and coping approach. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 13, 243-268. doi: 10.1177/1088868309345850
    • Tryon, W. W. (2005). Possible mechanisms for why desensitization and exposure therapy work. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 25, 67-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.08.005
    • Turner, R. N., Crisp, R. J., and Lambert, E. (2007). Imagining intergroup contact can improve intergroup attitudes. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 10, 427-441. doi: 10.1177/1368430207081533
    • Vezzali, L., Capozza, D., Stathi, S., and Giovannini, D. (2012). Increasing outgroup trust, reducing infrahumanization, and enhancing future contact intentions via imagined intergroup contact. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48, 437-440. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.09.008
    • Voci, A., and Hewstone, M. (2003). Intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants in Italy: the mediational role of anxiety and the moderational role of group salience. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 6, 37-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.08.005
    • Vorauer, J. D., and Sasaki, S. J. (2009). Helpful only in the abstract? Ironic effects of empathy in intergroup interaction. Psychol. Sci. 20, 191-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1467- 9280.2009.02265.x
    • Watson, G. (1947). Action for Unity. Oxford: Harper.
    • West, K., Holmes, E., and Hewstone, M. (2011). Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Group Process. Intergr. Relat. 14, 407-428. doi: 10.1177/1368430210387805
    • Wilder, D. A. (1993). “The role of anxiety in facilitating stereotypic judgments of outgroup behavior,” in Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception, eds D. M. Mackie and D. L. Hamilton (San Diego, CA: Academic Press), 87-109.
    • Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    • Zanna, M. P., and Rempel, J. K. (1988). “Attitudes: a new look at an old concept,” in The Social Psychology of Knowledge, eds D. Bar-Tal and A. W. Kruglanski (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 315-334.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.