Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Escorcia Carranza, Ivonne; Grant, James P.; Gough, John; Cumming, David (2017)
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Languages: English
Types: Article
We present the design and fabrication of terahertz (THz) metamaterial (MM) absorbers and their monolithic integration into a commercial CMOS technology along with its respective readout electronics to produce a low-cost, uncooled and high resolution THz camera. We first describe the work done on single band and broadband MM absorbers on custom substrates then progress with a description of the integration of such resonators into a six metal layer 180 nm CMOS process and its coupling with two types of microbolometer sensors: vanadium oxide (VOx) and silicon (Si) pn diode. Additionally, we demonstrate the integration of the THz sensors with readout electronics to form a monolithic THz focal plane array (FPA). Reflection images of a metallic object hidden in a manila envelope are recorded using both the VOx and Si pn diode detectors, demonstrating the suitability of the technology for stand-off detection of concealed objects. Lastly, we present the current work towards scaling this technology into a 64 x 64 FPA.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging: Horizons and hurdles,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 3667-3677, 2002.
    • [2] K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 2549-2554, Oct. 2003.
    • [3] J. F. Federici et al., “THz imaging and sensing for security applicationsexplosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. S266-S280, Jul. 2005.
    • [4] R. M. Woodward et al., “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 47, pp. 3853-3863, 2002.
    • [5] A. Hall and J. M. Girkin, “A review of potential new diagnostic modalities for caries lesions,” J. Dental Res., vol. 83, suppl. no. 1, pp. C89-C94, 2004.
    • [6] D. M. Mittleman et al., “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B, Laser Opt., vol. 68, pp. 1085-1094, 1999.
    • [7] S. Krimi et al., “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 109, no. 2, 2016, Art. no. 021105.
    • [8] K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 258-263, 2007.
    • [9] R. Han et al., “Active terahertz imaging using schottky diodes in CMOS: Array and 860-ghz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2296-2308, Oct. 2013.
    • [10] R. Al Hadi et al., “A 1k-pixel video camera for 0.7-1.1 terahertz imaging applications in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2999-3012, Dec. 2012.
    • [11] D. S. Tezcan, S. Eminoglu, O. S. Akar, and T. Akin, “An uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane array in standard CMOS,” Proc. SPIE, Photodetectors, Mater. Devices VI, vol. 4288, no. 312, pp. 112-121, 2001.
    • [12] F. Niklaus, C. Vieider, and H. Jakobsen, “MEMS-based uncooled infrared bolometer arrays-A review,” Proc. SPIE, MEMS/MOEMS Technol. Appl. III, vol. 6836, Nov. 2007, Art. no. 68360D.
    • [13] Uncooled THz Imager, NEC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1-2, 2014.
    • [14] C. Chevalier et al., “Introducing a 384 × 288 pixel terahertz camera core,” Proc. SPIE, THz, RF, Millimeter, Submillimeter-Wave Technol. Appl. VI, vol. 8624, Mar. 2013, Art. no. 86240F.
    • [15] F. Simoens and J. Meilhan, “Terahertz real-time imaging uncooled array based on antenna- and cavity-coupled bolometers,” Philos. Trans. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., vol. 372, no. 2012, pp. 1-12, 2014.
    • [16] V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ϵ and μ,” Sov. Phys. Uspekhi, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 509-514, 1968.
    • [17] R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5514, pp. 77-79, 2001.
    • [18] A. Sihvola, “Metamaterials in electromagnetics,” Metamaterials, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2-11, Mar. 2007.
    • [19] C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater., vol. 24, pp. OP98-OP181, Jun. 2012.
    • [20] J. Grant et al., “Polarization insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1524-1526, Apr. 2011.
    • [21] Y. Ma et al., “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 945-947, Mar. 2011.
    • [22] J. Grant, Y. Ma, S. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 3476-3478, Sep. 2011.
    • [23] J. Grant et al., “A monolithic resonant terahertz sensor element comprising a metamaterial absorber and micro-bolometer,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1043-1048, Nov. 2013.
    • [24] I. Escorcia, J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Uncooled CMOS terahertz imager using a metamaterial absorber and pn diode,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 14, pp. 3261-3264, 2016.
    • [25] I. E. Carranza, J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Metamaterialbased terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans.THz Sci. Technol., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 892-901, Nov. 2015.
    • [26] J. Grant, I. J. H. Mccrindle, C. Li, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Multispectral metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1227-1230, 2014.
    • [27] I. J. H. McCrindle, J. Grant, T. D. Drysdale, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Multi-spectral materials: Hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters and a terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 149-153, 2014.
    • [28] J. Grant, I. J. H. McCrindle, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 3451-3463, Feb. 2016.
    • [29] 2016. (Online). Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.354 Ivonne Escorcia Carranza (M '08) received the B.E. degree from John Brown University, Siloam Springs, AR, USA, in 2007, the M.S.E.E. degree from the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA, in 2010, and the Ph.D. degree in electronics and electrical engineering from the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., in 2015. She is currently a Research Assistant in the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, working with the Microsystem Technology group. She is the Lead Researcher in the design and characterization of CMOS THz detectors. Her research interests include mixed-signal IC design, CMOS sensors and THz imaging. She is a member of the Eta Kappa Nu.
    • James P. Grant received the B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K, in 2002 and 2006, respectively. He is currently a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, where his research interests include nanofabrication, metamaterial devices; plasmonics, terahertz systems, sensors and imaging and CMOS electronics.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

Cite this article