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Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: BS
The present study assesses how Lamentations 1-3 synthetically presents its\ud theology. It accomplishes this task by assessing the poetry through the aesthetic analysis\ud of Italian semiotician Umberto Eco to discover how, in terms of genre, structure, and\ud poetics, theology is presented for the model reader of Lamentations 1-3. Chapter I\ud introduces the problem of theology in Lamentations and the difficulties and possibility of\ud focussing the present research upon Lamentations 1-3. Within this discussion, these\ud chapters are set in their historical context. Chapter I concludes by suggesting that\ud interpretation of theology remains a complex task and employs the metaphors of horizons\ud "behind," "within" and "in front of' the text as theoretical tools by which different\ud approaches could be categorised.\ud Chapter 2 surveys past research using the metaphors of "behind," "Within," and\ud "in front of' the text as a heuristic framework. Each horizon is assessed in tum: historical\ud paradigms of Gottwald, Albrektson, Westermann, and Brandscheidt (world "behind" the\ud text); literary paradigm of Renkema (world "within" the text); and the feminist\ud approaches of Seidman, Guest, and O'Connor (world "in fromt of' the text). Finally,\ud Chapter 2 adopts an "integrated" approach, typified by Dobbs-Allsopp, that takes\ud seriously all three horizons in interpreting Lamentations 1-3.\ud Chapter 3 provides an entree into the theory of Umberto Eco. His theory is useful\ud because it coheres with the integrated approach adopted in the study, it provides a helpful\ud means to assess aesthetic texts, such as Lamentations, and it enables distinctions between\ud kinds of texts-how texts are designed differently to elicit different responses from model\ud readers (open and closed). In light of the theological ambiguity in Lamentations, the\ud open/closed distinction is shown to be useful. Finally, Eco employs the concept of the\ud cultural encyclopaedia, a theoretical device that describes the cumulative amount of\ud cultural data available to the producer of a text at the time of its production.\ud Chapter 4 frames the borders of encyclopaedic content for research into\ud Lamentations 1-3. It presents the possible genres, structures, and poetics suggested for\ud Lamentations research in the past. The analysis shows that Lamentations cannot be\ud reduced to one genre but rather exploits different genres to advance its theology. As to structure, analysis reveals that the acrostic is the most evident structuring device in the\ud book. And finally, a number of poetic devices activated in the encyclopaedic world of\ud Lamentations 1-3 are explored, including repetition, wordplay and enjambment,\ud imagery, speaking voices, and allusion. This discussion frames the exegesis of\ud Lamentations 1-3, accomplished in Chapters 5-7.\ud Chapters 5-7 assess Lamentations 1-3 using Eco's aesthetic theory. Each chapter\ud presents an introduction to the structure, genre, speaking voices, and strophic divisions of\ud Lamentations 1-3, follows with detailed exegesis of the chapters, and then concludes\ud with a catalogue of the ways in which structure, genre, and poetics impinge upon\ud theological portrayal in the poetry. Analysis shows Lamentations 1-3 tends towards\ud "open" rather than "closed" textual strategies for their model readers. Recognition and\ud cataloguing of the persistent poetic use of repetition proves to be an area that the present\ud study adds to scholarly discussion, as well as how repetition impinges upon theological\ud presentation in the book. There are two primary functions of repetition: intensification\ud (upon suffering, sin, judgment) or combination (to recast previously held understandings\ud or to provide interpretative depth). Repetition provides a variety of interpretative horizons\ud for the reader in regards to the book's theology.\ud Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of results, an initial discussion of\ud Lamentations 4 and 5, and the possible purpose of poetry and theology in Lamentations\ud 1-3. The study concludes that the theology varies, but this is part of the function of the\ud poetry. The poetry is designed to bring the reader on an interpretative journey through its\ud contents rather than to teach a particular perspective. Despite the various ways in which\ud the relationships can be configured, the poetry persistently drives the reader to address\ud YHWH in prayer: each of the poems includes, and concludes with, prayer to the deity\ud concerning various sources of pain. That the poetry highlights prayer to YHWH-even\ud when he is the cause of pain-reveals this interpretative journey has a destination. The\ud poetry of Lamentations 1-3 is designed to enable the reader to address God in light of\ud the perspectives adopted and sufferings endured through the reading process.
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    • 3As well as Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Deuteronomistic History. lain Provan, however, does not believe that the book can only be read in reference to (or datable to) a period close to the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BCE ["Reading Texts against an Historical Background-Lamentations I," SJOT 1(1990): 130-43; Lamentations (NCBC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),7-19]. 4Adele Berlin, Lamentations (OTL; Louisville: WJK, 2002), 17-22. 5The present study uses the anglicised version of the Tetragrammaton "YHWH" for the Hebrew equivalent ;,,;,'- 6The formula is a vocative form of YHWH combined with either the dual imperative ;,t)':lm ;'K', "look and consider," or --.J;'K' with the vocative ;";'1' (Lam 1.9c, llc, 20a; 2.20a; 3.59; 5.lb). See Heath Thomas, "Aesthetic Theory ofUmberto Eco and Lamentations Interpretation" (paper presented at the SBL International Meeting.
    • Edinburgh, Scotland, 3 July 2006); "The Liturgical Function of the Book of Lamentations," (paper presented at the IOSOT XIX World Congress, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 19 July 2007). 7John M. Bracke, Jeremiah 30-52 and Lamentations (Louisville: WJK, 2000); Tod Linafelt, Surviving Lamentations: Catastrophe, Lament, and Protest in the Afterlife of a Biblical Book (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000); Ulrich Berges, Klagelieder (HThKAT; Freiburg: Herder, 2002); Berlin, Lamentations; Daniel Berrigan, 12Jill Middlemas, "Did Second Isaiah Write Lamentations III?" VT 56 (2006): 514-18. Though she dates the poem earlier, her argument is similar to Brandscheidt. In her view, Lamentations 3 was inserted into a specifically Judahite composition (Lamentations 1-2 and 4-5) that corrected its theology. 13Middlemas, The Troubles of Templeless Judah, 184. 14Knut Heim, "The Personification of Jerusalem and the Drama of Her Bereavement in the Book of Lamentations," in Zion. the City of Our God (eds. Richard S.
    • Hess and Gordon J. Wenham; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 163. IS Joze Krasovec, "The Source of Hope in the Book of Lamentations," VT 42 (1992): 232-33. So also Bo Johnson, "Form and Message in Lamentations," ZA W 97 (1985): 67-8.
    • 16Walter C. Kaiser, Grief and Pain in the Plan of God: Christian Assurance and the Message of Lamentations (Fearn: Christian Focus, 2004), 20-21. 17U1rich Berges, "'lch bin der Mann, der Elend sah' (Klgl 3, I): Zionstheologie als Weg aus der Krise," BibZeits 44 (2000): 1-20. Although YHWH has punished his people and land (Zion personified) his relationship with both through the covenant provides a ground for the future.
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