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Beaumont, Alexander; Grace, Fergal; Richards, Joanna; Hough, John; Oxborough, David; Sculthorpe, Nicholas (2016)
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Journal: Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RC1200, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation, Systematic Review, QP
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect for controlled studies of aged-matched male participants aged 18-45 years that used two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking with a defined athlete sporting discipline and a control group not engaged in training programs. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Our review included 13 studies with 945 participants (controls n = 355; athletes n = 590). Meta-analyses showed no athlete-control differences in LV strain or twist mechanics. However, moderator analyses showed greater LV twist in high-static low-dynamic athletes (d = -0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.32 to -0.20; p < 0.01) than in controls. Peak untwisting velocity (PUV) was greater in high-static low-dynamic athletes (d = -0.43, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.03; p < 0.05) but less than controls in high-static high-dynamic athletes (d = 0.79, 95% CI 0.002-1.58; p = 0.05). Elite endurance athletes had significantly less twist and apical rotation than controls (d = 0.68, 95% CI 0.19-1.16, p < 0.01; d = 0.64, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p = 0.001, respectively) but no differences in basal rotation. Meta-regressions showed LV mass index was positively associated with global longitudinal (b = 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.02; p < 0.05), whereas systolic blood pressure was negatively associated with PUV (b = -0.06, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.001; p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic 2D speckle tracking can identify subtle physiological differences in adaptations to cardiac strain and twist mechanics between athletes and healthy controls. Differences in speckle tracking echocardiography-derived parameters can be identified using suitable sporting categorizations.

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