LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: F100
The fire retardant effects of natural mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite have been investigated. As well as being entirely natural these mixtures of minerals can be considered “greener” and more environmentally friendly, in their production methods, than alternatives such as aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. It has been shown that the release of water and carbon dioxide from hydromagnesite helps to increase the time to ignition and peak heat release in cone calorimeter testing. Huntite has been shown to decrease the average rate of heat release and increase the strength of the residue. Electron microscopy has shown that the huntite particles maintain their platy morphology during combustion in the cone calorimeter. The morphology of these particles helps to reduce the rate of heat release by slowing the release of flammable decomposition products to the flame. The platy shape of the huntite particles increases the strength of the residue containing higher proportions of this mineral. Huntite is shown to play an active part in improving fire retardancy when used in a mixture with hydromagnesite, giving performance for typical mixtures comparable to those of aluminium hydroxide.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Hollingbery LA, Hull TR. The Thermal Decomposition of Huntite and Hydromagnesite - A Review. Thermochim Acta. 2010;509:1-11
    • 2. Hollingbery LA, Hull TR. The fire retardant behaviour of huntite and hydromagnesite - A review. Polym Degrad Stab 2010;95:2213-2235
    • 3. Hollingbery LA, Hull TR. The Thermal Decomposition of Natural Mixtures of Huntite and Hydromagnesite. Thermochim Acta. 2012;528:45-52
    • 4. Hull TR, Witkowski A, Hollingbery LA. Fire retardant action of mineral fillers. Polym Degrad Stab 2011;96:1462-1469
    • 5. Hind AR, Bhargava SK, Grocott SC. The surface chemistry of Bayer process solids: a review. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Aspects 1999;146:359-374
    • 7. Hancock M, Rothon RN. Principle Types of Particulate Fillers, in Rothon RN, editor. Particulate Filled Polymer Composites. Shrewsbury, Rapra Technology Ltd, 2003, pp 53-100
    • 8. Beck CW. Differential Thermal Analysis Curves of Carbonate Minerals. Am Mineral 1950;35:985-1013
    • 9. Faust GT. Huntite, A New Mineral. Am Mineral 1953;38:4-24
    • 10. Kangal O, Güney A. A new industrial mineral: Huntite and its recovery. Minerals Eng 2006;19:376-378
    • 11. Ozao R, Otsuka R. Thermoanalytical investigation of huntite. Thermochim Acta 1985;86:45-58
    • 12. Bariand P, Cesbron FP, Vachey H, Sadrzadeh M. Hydromagnesite from Soghan, Iran. Mineral Rec 1973;4:18- 20
    • 13. Botha A, Strydom C. DTA and FT-IR analysis of the rehydration of basic magnesium carbonate. J Therm Anal Calorim 2003;71:987-996
    • 14. Frost RL, Hales MC, Locke AJ, Kristof J. Controlled Rate Thermal Analysis of Hydromagnesite. J Therm Anal Calorim 2008;92:893-897
    • 15. Haurie L, Fernandez AI, Velasco JI, Chimenos JM, Lopez-Cuesta JM, Espiell F. Effects of milling on the thermal stability of synthetic hydromagnesite. Mater Res Bull 2007;42:1010-1018
    • 16. Inglethorpe SDJ, Stamatakis MG. Thermal decomposition of natural mixtures of hydromagnesite and huntite from Kozani, Northern Greece. Mineral Wealth 2003:7-18
    • 17. Khan N, Dollimore D, Alexander K, Wilburn FW. The origin of the exothermic peak in the thermal decomposition of basic magnesium carbonate. Thermochim Acta 2001;367-368:321-333
    • 18. Padeste C, Oswald HR, Reller A. The thermal behaviour of pure and nickel-doped hydromagnesite in different atmospheres. Mater Res Bull 1991;26:1263-1268
    • 20. Sawada Y, Uematsu K, Mizutani N, Kato M. Thermal decomposition of hydromagnesite 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O. J Inorg Nucl Chem 1978;40:979-982
    • 21. Sawada Y, Uematsu K, Mizutani N, Kato M. Thermal decomposition of hydromagnesite 4MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·4H2O under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Thermochim Acta 1978;27:45-59
    • 22. Sawada Y, Yamaguchi J, Sakurai O, Uematsu K, Mizutani N, Kato M. Thermal decomposition of basic magnesium carbonates under high-pressure gas atmoshpheres. Thermochim Acta 1979;32:277-291
    • 23. Sawada Y, Yamaguchi J, Sakurai O, Uematsu K, Mizutani N, Kato M. Thermogravimetric study on the decomposition of hydromagnesite 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O. Thermochim Acta 1979;33:127-140
    • 24. Sawada Y, Yamaguchi J, Sakurai O, Uematsu K, Mizutani N, Kato M. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry on an exothermic phenomenon during thermal decomposition of hydromagnesite 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O. Thermochim Acta 1979;34:233-237
    • 25. Anthony JW, Bideaux RA, Bladh KW, Nichols MC. Handbook of Mineralogy. www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/hydromagnesite.pdf, Accessed 14/04/2009
    • 26. Anthony JW, Bideaux RA, Bladh KW, Nichols MC. Handbook of Mineralogy. www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/huntite.pdf, Accessed 14/04/2009
    • 27. Basfar AA, Bae HJ. Influence of Magnesium Hydroxide and Huntite Hydromagnesite on Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Compounds Cross-linked by DiCumyl Peroxide and Ionizing Radiation. J Fire Sci 2010;28:161-180
    • 28. Bolger R. Flame retardant minerals bromine issue smoulders on. Ind Mineral 1996:29-39
    • 29. Briggs C, Rutherford A, SPE. Unique Flame Retardant Filler for Pe and Other Cable Compounds. Proceedings Antec '90, Dallas, 1990:1216-1221
    • 30. Briggs CC. Reduced Hazard Flame Retardant PVC Compounds. Proceedings PVC '93, Brighton, 1993
    • 31. Briggs CC. Ultracarb: The natural flame retardant. Paper presented at the Fillers and Additives in Plastics '91 European Technical Conference, held 9-10 October, 1991, Lund, Sweden. 1991:20
    • 32. Briggs CC, Bhardwaj B, Gilbert M. Flame Retardant PVC Cable Compounds using Huntite-Hydromagnesite. Proceedings Filplas '92, Manchester. 1992
    • 33. Briggs CC, Day RC, Gilbert M, Hollingbery LA. Optimising Fire Properties for Plasticised PVC Compounds. Proceedings PVC '96, Brighton. 1996:269-280
    • 34. Briggs CC, Hollingbery LA, Day RC, Gilbert M. Optimising fire properties of plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) compounds. Plast rubber compos process appl 1997;26:66-77
    • 35. Clemens ML, Doyle MD, Lees GC, Briggs CC, Day RC. Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant for Polypropylene. Proceedings: Flame Retardants '94, Manchester. 1994:193-202
    • 38. Haurie L, Fernández AI, Velasco JI, Chimenos JM, Ticó-Grau JR, Espiell F. Synthetic Hydromagnesite as Flame Retardant. A Study of the Stearic Coating Process. Macromol Symp 2005;221:165-174
    • 39. Kandola BK, Pornwannachai W. Enhancement of Passive Fire Protection Ability of Inorganic Fire Retardants in Vinyl Ester Resin Using Glass Frit Synergists. J Fire Sci 2010;28:357-381
    • 40. Kirschbaum GS. Huntite/hydromagnesite - Mineral Flame Retardants as Alternative and Complement to Metal Hydroxides. Proceedings: Flame Retardants '98, London. 1998:151-161
    • 41. Kirschbaum G. Minerals on Fire: Flame Retardants Look to Mineral Solutions. Ind Mineral 2001:61-67
    • 42. Laoutid F, Gaudon P, Taulemesse J-, Lopez Cuesta JM, Velasco JI, Piechaczyk A. Study of hydromagnesite and magnesium hydroxide based fire retardant systems for ethylene-vinyl acetate containing organo-modified montmorillonite. Polym Degrad Stab 2006;91:3074-3082
    • 43. Morgan AB, Cogen JM, Opperman RS, Harris JD. The effectiveness of magnesium carbonate-based flame retardants for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-ethyl acrylate). Fire Mater 2007;31:387- 410
    • 44. Rigolo M, Woodhams RT. Basic magnesium carbonate flame retardants for polypropylene. Polym Eng Sci 1992;32:327-334
    • 45. Toure B, Cuesta JL, Gaudon P, Benhassaine A, Crespy A. Fire resistance and mechanical properties of a huntite/hydromagnesite/antimony trioxide/decabromodiphenyl oxide filled PP-PE copolymer. Polym Degrad Stab 1996;53:371-379
    • 46. Touré B, Lopez-Cuesta J, Benhassaine A, Crespy A. The Combined Action of Huntite and Hydromagnesite for Reducing Flammability of an Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer. Int J Polym Anal Charact 1996;2:193-202
    • 47. Bensalem A, Chang W, Fournier A, Kallianos G, Paine J, Podraza K, Schleich D, Seeman J. Smoking Article Wrapper Having Filler of Hydromagnesite / Magnesium Hydroxide and Smoking Article made with said Wrapper. US Patent 5,979,461. 1999
    • 48. Bensalem A, Chang W, Fournier JA, Kallianos AG, Paine J, Podraza K, Schleich D, Seeman J. Hydromagnesite / Magnesium Hydroxide Fillers for Smoking Article Wrappers and Methods for making Same. US Patent 5,927,288. 1999
    • 49. Liodakis S, Agiovlasitis IP, Antonopoulos I, Stamatakis MG. Fire retarding performance of hydromagnesite on forest species from a wildland/urban interface area in Athens. For Ecol Manage 2006;234:S126-S126
    • 50. Liodakis S, Antonopoulos I. Evaluating the fire retardation efficiency of diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate and magnesium carbonate minerals on Pistacia lentiscus L. Environment Identities and Mediterranean Area, 2006 ISEIMA '06 First international Symposium on. 2006:35-39
    • 51. Liodakis S, Antonopoulos I, Agiovlasitis IP, Kakardakis T. Testing the fire retardancy of Greek minerals hydromagnesite and huntite on WUI forest species Phillyrea latifolia L. Thermochim Acta. 2008;469:43-51
    • 52. Liodakis S, Antonopoulos I, Kakardakis T. Evaluating the use of minerals as forest fire retardants. Fire Saf J 2010;45:98-105
    • 53. Liodakis S, Antonopoulos I, Tsapara V. Forest fire retardancy evaluation of carbonate minerals using DTG and LOI. J Therm Anal Calorim 2009;96:203-209
    • 54. McGarry K, Zilberman J, Hull TR, Woolley WD. Decomposition and combustion of EVA and LDPE alone and when fire retarded with ATH. Polym Int 2000;49:1193-1198
    • 55. Gallagher PK, Johnson Jr. DW. The effects of sample size and heating rate on the kinetics of the thermal decomposition of CaCO3. Thermochim Acta 1973;6:67-83
    • 56. Schartel B, Hull TR. Development of fire-retarded materials - Interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire Mater 2007;31:327-354
    • 57. Hull TR, Quinn RE, Areri IG, Purser DA. Combustion toxicity of fire retarded EVA. Polym Degrad Stab 2002;77:235-242
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article