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Mackenzie, D; Elliott, JR; Altunel, E; Walker, RT; Kurban, YC; Schwenninger, JL; Parsons, B (2016)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ~600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥ 0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of postseismic displacement.We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona mission imagery (1960s-1970s) for geomorphic mapping in areas where recent urbanization has concealed the geomorphic markers.
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    • The sample was bleached with clusters of 870 nm infrared LEDs providing circa 131 mW cm−2 at 50 ◦C for 100 s to confirm the absence of any infrared sensitive signal (Banerjee & Murray 2001), before blue light stimulation with clusters of blue LEDs (42 Nichia 470 20 nm, ∼34 W cm−2) at a raised temperature of 125◦. The natural and regenerative luminescence dose samples were preheated at 260 ◦C for 10 s, while the fixed test dose samples (to calibrate for sensitivity change) were preheated to 240 ◦C for 10 s prior to optical stimulation. Ultraviolet (∼370 nm) OSL emission was measured using an Electron Tubes Ltd 9235QA photomultiplier tube fitted with a blue-green sensitive bialkali photocathode and either two Corning U-340 glass filters or a 7.5 mm Hoya U-340 glass filter. After measuring the natural luminescence, a calibrated 90Sr/90Y beta source housed in the reader was used to construct the regenerative dose response curve. The luminescences were measured at 6-8 different doses, including a zero dose point and a duplicate measurement of the lowest regenerative dose to check recovery.
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