Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Alazawi, Z
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: built_and_human_env
The importance of emergency response systems have grown tremendously in the recent times due to the many manmade and natural disasters in recent years such as September 2001, July 2005 London bombings and the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster. Disasters cost huge human, social and financial losses. For example, in Typhoon Haiyan, as of November 2013, the official death toll from Philippines‟s devastating storm has passed 10,000 people. In addition, based on early estimates, the reconstruction costs could come to as much as $20bn (£12.3bn). Conventional methods for disaster management have shown little prospects of realizing the true potential of current and emerging technologies.\ud This PhD research aims to propose and evaluate a disaster management system based on the emerging ICT technologies with a focus on transportation in urban environments. This work is presented on an Intelligent Disaster Management System based on Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) and Cloud Computing. Our research objective is to increase the safety and system efficiency, to reduce the accidents, congestion, and manage the emergencies and disasters. The effectiveness of the intelligent system has been demonstrated through modelling the impact of disaster on real city transport environments and compares it with the case where the intelligent proposed system was in place, and ability of generalizing the concept was increased through applying the proposed system on different cities. By applying our system, substantial benefits have been achieved in terms of improved and balanced traffic flow and smooth evacuation rates.\ud Furthermore, a micro-simulation software model has been developed which employs the vehicular disaster management system in order to investigate the transportation evacuation strategies potential in reducing the human and economic losses.\ud The particular contribution of my thesis is in the modelling and simulation of the traffic for disaster and evacuation scenarios. To this end, this project uses a range and mix of modelling and simulation technologies including macroscopic and microscopic simulation models; OmniTRANS and S-Paramics transport planning software.\ud xix\ud During the course of this PhD, disaster scenarios of varying scales involving 2-3 different cities of various sizes and characteristics have been modelled and analysed, thereby presenting a system which deliver advanced services in managing disasters which results in lower losses.\ud Also, the Average Vehicle Occupancy impact on the evacuation process time has been investigated. Literally, it represents the higher number of car occupancy which means less number of trips required to the evacuation process. The results have shown that AVO contributes effectively in evacuation plans that are in place.\ud Additionally, two different evacuation strategies have been applied and evaluated simultaneously and isolated. Subsequently, either continues the processes or perhaps there is a need to change the strategy where applicable and appropriate. In other words, after propagating the evacuation strategy, the traffic situation has been assessed and observed the effectiveness of the disaster management system on the network by comparing the performance of the proposed system against the traditional system. To sum up, the comparison between both scenarios shows the ability to secure more of vehicles, up to double the number, and hence improve the network performance in terms of safety. Moreover, there is an improvement in flow rate of many critical links. Many blocked links are turned into some reds and blues which means an improvement seemed to occur to the whole network.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Figure ‎3.5 Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks [130] ........................................................................ 48 1. Alazawi, Z., Abdljabar, M. B., Altowaijri, S., and R. Mehmood, "Intelligent Disaster Management System Based on Cloud-Enabled Vehicular Networks," Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST), Petersburg, Russia. IEEE, pp. 361-368, 2011.
    • 2. Alazawi, Z., Abdljabar, M. B., Altowaijri, S., Vegni, A. M., and R. Mehmood, "ICDMS: An Intelligent Cloud Based Disaster Management System for Vehicular Networks," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains, Lithuania, Germany. SpringerLecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7266, pp. 40-56, 2012.
    • 3. Alazawi, Z., Alani, O., Abdljabar, M. B., and R. Mehmood, "An Intelligent Disaster Management System Based Evacuation Strategies," Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Manchester, United Kingdom. IEEE, pp. 673-678, 2014.
    • 4. Alazawi, Z., Alani, O., Abdljabar, M. B., and R. Mehmood, "Transportation Evacuation Strategies Based on VANET Disaster Management System," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Building Resilience, Manchester, United Kingdom. Elsevier's Economics and Finance Procedia, vol. 18, pp. 352-360, 2014.
    • 5. Alazawi, Z., Alani, O., Abdljabar, M. B., Altowaijri,‎ S.‎ and‎ R.‎ Mehmood,‎ “A‎ Smart‎ Disaster‎Management‎System‎for‎Future‎Cities,”‎Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies for Smart Cities, Philadelphia, USA. ACM Press, pp. 1-10, 2014.
    • 6. Alazawi, Z., Alani, O., Abdljabar, M. B., and R. Mehmood, "Average Vehicle Occupancy Contribution Evaluation in Vehicular Disaster Management System," Proceddings of the 15th Annual Postgraduate Symposium on the Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting (PGNET). Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2014.
    • 7. Alazawi, Z., Alani, O., Abdljabar, M. B., and R. Mehmood, "State-of-the-Art Technologies based Disaster Management System," Submitted to International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment (IJDRBE).
    • 8. Alazawi, Z. and Mehmood, R., "Intelligent Transportation Systems: Design & Evaluation," Poster and Abstract, Published and Presented in the 1st Iraqi Conference on Engineering Science. London, United Kingdom, 2011.
    • 9. Alazawi, Z. and Mehmood, R., " i Transport, Design & Evaluation," Poster and
    • 12. Alazawi, Z., "An Intelligent Disaster Management System with Vehicular Networks," Presented in the Proceedings of the Postgraduate Annual Research Conference (SPARC2013), University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2013.
    • 13. Alazawi, Z., " i Disaster Management System For Evacuation Techniques," Presented in Proceedings of the 3rd CSE Doctoral School Postgraduate Research, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2013.
    • 14. Alazawi, Z. Alani, O. and Yousif, S., "An Intelligent Disaster Management System with Cloud Computing and Vehicular Networks," Poster and Abstract. Presented in the Dean's Annual Research Showcase, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2013.
    • 15. Alazawi, Z. Alani, O. and Yousif, S., "Transportation Evacuation Strategies based on Vehicular Disaster Management System," Poster and Abstract. Presented in the Dean's Annual Research Showcase, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2014.
    • [46] H.‎ Noureddine,‎ D.‎ Castelain,‎ and‎ R.‎ Pyndiah,‎ “Train‎ Tracking‎ and‎ Shadowing‎ Estimation‎ Based‎ on‎ Received‎ Signal‎ Strength,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 23-33.
    • [47] F. Ponte Müller, J. M. Reveriego Sierra, B. Kloiber, M. Röckl, and T. Strang, “Interoperability‎ Testing‎ Suite‎ for‎ C2X‎ Communication‎ Components,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 203-215.
    • [48] M.‎ Aguado,‎ J.‎ Astorga,‎ J.‎ Matias,‎ and‎ M.‎ Huarte,‎ “The‎ MIH‎ (Media‎ Independent‎ Handover) Contribution to Mobility Management in a Heterogeneous Railway Communication‎ Context:‎ A‎ IEEE802.11/802.16‎ Case‎ Study,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 69-82.
    • [49] “Vehicle‎ Tracking‎ \ GPS Tracking \,”‎ 2011.‎ http://www.uktelematicsonline.co.uk/. [Accessed: 24-Mar-2011]. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 143-154.
    • [52] S.‎A.‎Mohammad,‎A.‎Rasheed,‎and‎A.‎Qayyum,‎“VANET‎Architectures‎and‎Protocol‎ Stacks:‎ A‎ Survey,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 95-105.
    • [53] M.‎ Smith,‎ “Intelligent‎ Control‎ of‎ Urban‎ Road‎ Networks:‎ Algorithms,‎ Systems‎ and‎ Communications,”‎ in‎ Communications Infrastructure. Systems and Applications in Europe, vol. 16, R. Mehmood, E. Cerqueira, R. Piesiewicz, and I. Chlamtac, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 116-127.
    • [54] R.‎ K.‎ Schmidt,‎ B.‎ Kloiber,‎ F.‎ Schüttler,‎ and‎ T.‎ Strang,‎ “Degradation‎ of‎ Communication Range in VANETs Caused by Interference 2.0 - Real-World‎Experiment,”‎in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 176-188.
    • [55] M.‎ Elkotob‎ and‎ E.‎ Osipov,‎ “iRide:‎ A‎ Cooperative‎ Sensor‎ and‎ IP‎ Multimedia‎ Subsystem‎ Based‎ Architecture‎ and‎ Application‎ for‎ ITS‎ Road‎ Safety,”‎ in‎ Communications Infrastructure. Systems and Applications in Europe, vol. 16, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 153-162.
    • [56] “ITS‎ Technologies‎ - Devices,”‎ 2011.‎ [Online].‎ http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsmart/tlite.htm. [Accessed: 03-May-2011].
    • [58] D.‎ Lill,‎ M.‎ Schappacher,‎ S.‎ Islam,‎ and‎ A.‎ Sikora,‎ “Wireless‎ Protocol‎ Design‎ for‎ a‎ Cooperative‎ Pedestrian‎ Protection‎ System,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, vol. 6596, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 119-130.
    • [59] R.‎ Sharma‎ and‎ P.‎ Kanungo,‎ “An‎ Intelligent‎ Cloud‎ Computing‎ Architecture‎ Supporting e-Governance,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC), 2011, pp. 1-5.
    • [60] B. J. S. Chee and J. Curtis Franklin, Cloud Computing: Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center. CRC Press, Inc., 2010.
    • [64] J.‎ Zibulewsky,‎ “Defining‎ disaster:‎ the‎ emergency‎ department‎ perspective,”‎ Proc. Bayl. Univ. Med. Cent., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 144-149, 2001.
    • [65] “The‎ Definition‎ of‎ Disaster,”‎ Dictionary.com. [Online]. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/disaster. [Accessed: 21-Nov-2012].
    • [66] University‎ of‎ Wisconsin‎ Disaster‎ Management‎ Centre,‎ “An‎ Overview‎ of‎ Disaster‎ Management.”‎UNDRO,‎1992.
    • [67] A.‎ Minhans,‎ “Formulation‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Management‎ Strategies‎ in‎ Cases‎ of‎ Disasters,”‎ Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY, SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1636196, 2010.
    • [68] B.‎ Mei,‎ “Development‎ of‎ Trip‎ Generation‎ Models‎ of‎ Hurricane‎ Evacuation,”‎ Master‎ thesis, China, 2002.
    • [69] N.‎ T.‎ Yap,‎ “Disaster‎ Management,‎ Developing Country Communities & Climate Change:‎The‎Role‎of‎ICTs.”‎2011.
    • [70] R.‎ W.‎ Perry,‎ “Incident‎ Management‎ Systems‎ in‎ Disaster‎ Management,”‎ Disaster Prev. Manag., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 405-412, 2003.
    • [71] F.‎ Souza‎ and‎ I.‎ Kushchu,‎ “Mobile‎ Disaster‎ Management System Applications - Current Overview and Future Potential -.”
    • [72] T.‎ Litman,‎ “Lessons‎ From‎ Katrina‎ and‎ Rita:‎ What‎ Major‎ Disasters‎ Can‎ Teach‎ Transportation‎Planners,”‎Transp. Eng., vol. 132, pp. 11-1, 2006.
    • [74] D. Guha-Sapir,‎ F.‎ Vos,‎ R.‎ Below,‎ and‎ S.‎ Ponserre,‎ “Annual‎ Disaster‎ Statistical‎ Review:‎The‎Number‎and‎Trends.”‎Brussels:‎CRED,‎2013.
    • [80] A.‎ J.‎ DeBlasio,‎ T.‎ J.‎ Regan,‎ M.‎ Zirker,‎ K.‎ Fichter,‎ K.‎ Lovejoy,‎ and‎ D.‎ Morin,‎ “The‎ Effect of Catastrophic‎ Events‎ on‎ Transportation‎ Systems‎ Operations‎ and‎ Maintenance,”‎ DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-04-03, 2004.
    • [81] C.‎ Davison,‎ D.‎ Massaguer,‎ L.‎ Paradis,‎ M.‎ R.‎ Rahimi,‎ and‎ B.‎ Xing,‎ “Practical‎ Experiences in Enabling and Ensuring Quality Sensing in Emergency Response Applications,”‎pp.‎388-393, 2010.
    • [82] McGhee,‎ Catherine‎ C.,‎ and‎ Matthew‎ C.‎ Grimes,‎ “An‎ Operational‎ Analysis‎ of‎ the‎ Hampton‎Roads‎Hurricane‎Evacuation‎Traffic‎Control‎Plan,”‎presented‎at‎the‎Proceedings‎of‎ the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2007.
    • [83] “Emergency‎ Response‎ Transport‎ Management:‎ Managing‎ Transportation‎ Systems‎ During‎ Disasters,”‎ TDM Encyclopedia, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm124.htm. [Accessed: 13-Jul-2011]. R.‎ Johnson,‎ “GIS‎ Technology‎ for‎ Disasters‎ and‎ Emergency‎ Management,”‎ 2000,‎ p.‎
    • [85] C.‎W.‎W.‎Ng‎and‎D.‎K.‎W.‎Chiu,‎“e-Government Integration with Web Services and Alerts:‎ A‎ Case‎ Study‎ on‎ an‎ Emergency‎ Route‎ Advisory‎ System‎ in‎ Hong‎ Kong,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2006, vol. 4, p. 70b- 70b.
    • [86] N. Owens, A. April, S. Paul, M. Carol, P. Sullivan, N. Diane, B. Rebecca, and T. Todd,‎ “Traffic‎ Incident‎ Management‎ Handbook,”‎ 8301‎ Greensboro‎ Drive‎ McLean,‎ VA‎ 22102, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Technical Report FHWAHOP-10-013, 2010.
    • [87] K.‎ C.‎ Vasconez‎ and‎ M.‎ Kehrli,‎ “Highway‎ Evacuations‎ in‎ Selected‎ Metropolitan‎ Regions:‎Assessment‎of‎Impediments,”‎2010.
    • [88] D. A. McEntire, Comparative Emergency Management: Understanding Disaster Policies, Organizations, and Initiatives from Around the World. FEMA, 2009.
    • [89] P.‎ Langdon‎ and‎ I.‎ Hosking,‎ “Inclusive‎ Wireless‎ Technology‎ for‎ Emergency‎ Communications‎in‎the‎UK,”‎Int. J. Emerg. Manag., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 47, 2010.
    • [90] S.‎Aravindan,‎P.‎Ganesh,‎K.‎D.‎Rajan,‎and‎M.‎Manivel,‎“Hydrogeochemical‎Mapping‎ in‎ Upper‎ Gadilam‎ River‎ Basin‎ Using‎ GIS‎ Technique,‎ Tamil‎ Nadu,‎ India,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ Proceedings of the 29th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS), 2008.
    • [91] Emergency‎Management,”‎Int. J. Res. IT Manag., vol. 2, p. 8, 2012.
    • [94] Z.‎ P,‎ W.‎ I,‎ I.‎ B,‎ K.‎ U.‎ Leuven,‎ M.‎ E,‎ and‎ H.‎ D,‎ “An‎ Overview‎ of‎ Incident‎ Management‎Projects‎in‎the‎Netherlands,”‎1998.
    • [95] C. Yue-ming,‎ G.‎ Hui,‎ and‎ S.‎ Gang,‎ “Emergency‎ Management‎ System‎ for‎ Major‎ Traffic Accidents Based on New Model‎ and‎ Algorithms,”‎ in‎ International Forum on Computer Science-Technology and Applications (IFCSTA), 2009, vol. 2, pp. 367-371.
    • [96] S. C. Tignor, L. L. Brown, J. L. Butner, R. Cunard, S. C. Davis, E. L. Fischer, M. R. Kehrli, P. F. Rusch, W. S. Wainwright,‎ and‎ H.‎ G.‎ Hawkins,‎ “Innovative‎ Traffic‎ Control :‎ Technology‎and‎Practice‎in‎Europe,”‎FHWA-PL-99-021, 1999.
    • [97] Bergmann‎ Associates‎ and‎ Monroe‎ County‎ Department‎ of‎ Transportation,‎ “Monroe‎ County New York: I.T.S. Camera Deployment & Systems Integration Evaluation,”‎2006.
    • [98] S.‎L.‎Kolb,‎J.‎L.‎Hibbard,‎and‎K.‎R.‎Alff,‎“Georgia‟s‎Call‎Box‎Project:‎Evaluation‎and‎ Future‎ Deployment‎ Recommendations,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ Proceedings‎ on‎ the‎ ITS‎ Americas‎ Connecting Meeting, Miami, USA, 2001.
    • [99] R. P. Maccubbin, B. L. Staples, F. Kabir, C. F. Lowrance, M. R. Mercer, B. H. Philips,‎ and‎S.‎R.‎Gordon,‎“Intelligent‎ Transportation‎Systems‎ Benefits,‎ Costs,‎Deployment,‎ and Lessons‎Learned :‎2008‎update,”‎FHWA-JPO-08-032, 2008.
    • [100] A.‎G.‎Bruzzone,‎E.‎Briano,‎and‎M.‎ Massei,‎ “Simulating‎Transportation‎Over‎a‎Wide‎ Area‎ During‎ a‎ Regional‎ Crisis,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of the 38th Conference on Summer Computer Simulation, Calgary, Canada, 2006.
    • [101] F.‎ Longo,‎ “Emergency‎ Simulation:‎ State‎ of‎ the‎ Art‎ and‎ Future‎ Research‎ Guidlines,”‎ Society for Modeling and Simulation International (SCS), vol. 1, no. 2, p. 8, 2010.
    • [102] S.‎Kanala,‎R.‎Lephiew,‎S.‎Ramaswamy,‎and‎R.‎Seker,‎“An‎Ontology-driven Incident Management‎ System‎ for‎ Scenario‎ Analysis‎ of‎ Disasters,”‎ in‎ Summer Computer Simulation Conference, SCSC, USA, 2008, pp. 201-204.
    • [103] M. R. Carter, M. P. Howard, N. Owens, D. Register, J. Kennedy, K. Pecheux, and A. Newton,‎ “Effects‎ of‎ Catastropic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations,”‎Washington,‎DC,‎USA,‎FHWA-JPO-05-042, 2002.
    • [104] C. Zimmerman, P. Bolton, M. Raman, T. Kell, S. Unholz, and C. Bausher, “Communicating‎with‎ the‎Public‎Using‎ATIS‎ During‎ Disasters_‎ A‎Guide‎for‎Practitioners,”‎ [105] C.‎ Cluett,‎ F.‎ Kitchener,‎ D.‎ Shank,‎ L.‎ Osborne,‎ and‎ S.‎ Conger,‎ “Integration‎ of‎ Emergency‎ and‎ Weather‎ Elements‎ into‎ Transportation‎ Management‎ Centers,”‎ Washington,‎ DC, USA, FHWA-HOP-06-090, 2006.
    • [106] I. Lequerica, M.‎ G.‎ Longaron,‎ and‎ P.‎ M.‎ Ruiz,‎ “Drive‎ and‎ Share:‎ Efficient‎ Provisioning‎of‎Social‎Networks‎in‎Vehicular‎Scenarios,”‎Commun. Mag. IEEE, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 90 -97, 2010.
    • [107] O.‎ Baujard,‎ “Development‎ of‎ Equipment‎ and‎ Telecommunications‎ Networks‎ in‎ Europe,”‎in‎Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Telecommunications Energy (IN℡EC), 1993, vol. 1, pp. 485 - 487.
    • [108] S.‎ Lan,‎ “Disaster‎ Management‎ Plan,”‎ in‎ Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Workshop, 2002, 2002, pp. 219 - 226.
    • [109] T.‎ J.‎ Pultz‎ and‎ R.‎ A.‎ Scofield,‎ “Applications‎ of‎ Remotely‎ Sensed‎ Data‎ in‎ Flood‎ Prediction and Monitoring: Report of the CEOS Disaster Management Support Group flood team,”‎in‎Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2002, vol. 2, pp. 768 - 770.
    • [110] M. D. of E. Management, M. E. M. Agency, M. E. M. Agency, F. E. M. Agency, and Natural Resources‎ Conservation‎ Service,‎ “Natural‎ Hazards‎ Mitigation‎ Planning:‎ A‎ Community‎Guide.”‎2003.
    • [111] M.‎E.‎Baird,‎ “Freight‎Transportation‎and‎ Emergency‎ Management:‎Profiles‎of‎Three‎ Stakeholder‎Groups,”‎presented‎at‎the‎Centre‎of‎ International‎Freight‎Transportation Studies (CIFTS), 2010, p. 99.
    • [112] T.‎ L.‎ Moe‎ and‎ P.‎ Pathranarakul,‎ “An‎ integrated‎ Approach‎ to‎ Natural‎ Disaster‎ Management:‎ Public‎ Project‎ Management‎ and‎ its‎ Critical‎ Success‎ Factors,”‎ Disaster Prev. Manag., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 396-413, 2006.
    • [113] A.‎Meissner,‎T.‎Luckenbach,‎T.‎Risse,‎T.‎Kirste,‎and‎H.‎Kirchner,‎“Design‎Challenges‎ for‎ an‎ Integrated‎ Disaster‎ Management‎ Communication‎ and‎ Information‎ System,”‎ in‎ Information System (DIREN), 2002.
    • [114] W.‎ B.‎ Rudman,‎ R.‎ A.‎ Clarke,‎ and‎ J.‎ F.‎ Metzl,‎ “Emergency Responders: Drastically Underfunded,‎Dangerously‎Unprepared,”‎Council on Foreign Relations.
    • [115] G.‎Hossan,‎M.‎Ghowdhury,‎and‎I.‎Kushchu,‎“Prospects‎of‎Using‎m-Technologies for Disaster‎ Information‎ Management‎ in‎ Bangladesh‎ and‎ other‎ LDCs,”‎ presented at the EURO mGOV, Brighton, UK, 2005, p. 11.
    • [116] J.‎ Munodawafa,‎ “Role‎ of‎ Telecommunications‎ and‎ ICTs‎ in‎ Disaster‎ Management,”‎ presented at the ManagementManagementITU Southern and East Africa Workshop on the use of Telecommunications/ICT for Disaster Management: Savings Lives, Lusaka, Zambia, 2008.
    • [117] Wharman,‎“Social‎Media‎in‎Disasters‎and‎Emergencies,”‎USA,‎Aug-2010.
    • [119] A.‎M.‎Townsend,‎M.‎L.‎Moss,‎and‎R.‎F.‎Wagner,‎“Telecommunications‎Infrastructure‎ in‎Disaster:‎Preparing‎Cities‎for‎Crisis‎Communications,”‎2005.
    • [120] “Today‎ in‎ Earthquake‎ History: Sichuan‎ 2008,”‎ Seismo Blog. [Online]. Available: http://seismo.berkeley.edu/blog/seismoblog.php/2009/05/12/today-in-earthquake-historysichuan-2008. [Accessed: 03-Jun-2012].
    • [121] S.‎Mobarek,‎“Use‎of‎Mobile‎Infrastructure‎in‎Disaster‎Recovery,”‎2007,‎p.‎10.
    • [122] R.‎ E.‎ Krock,‎ “Lack‎ of‎ Emergency‎ Recovery‎ Planning‎ is‎ a‎ Disaster‎ Waiting‎ to‎ Happen,”‎Commun. Mag. IEEE, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 48 -51, 2011.
    • [123] J.‎R.‎Otukei,‎“GIS‎for‎Disaster‎and‎Harzard‎Management.”‎GIS‎for‎urban‎and‎regional‎ development, 2008.
    • [124] L.‎ Hogie,‎ “Mobile‎ Ad‎ Hoc‎ Networks:‎ Modelling,‎ Simulation‎ and‎ Broadcast-based Applications,”‎PhD‎Thesis,‎University‎of‎Le‎Havre,‎France,‎2007.
    • [125] A.‎ Fujihara‎ and‎ H.‎ Miwa,‎ “Effect‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Volume‎ in‎ Real-Time Disaster Evacuation Guidance Using Opportunistic‎ Communications,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems (INCoS), 2012, pp. 457-462.
    • [126] M.‎ A.‎ Serhani‎ and‎ Y.‎ Gadallah,‎ “A‎ Service‎ Discovery‎ Protocol‎ for‎ Emergency‎ Response Operations‎ Using‎ Mobile‎ Ad‎ Hoc‎ Networks,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ Proceedings‎ of‎ the‎ 6th International Conference on Advanced Telecommunications (AICT), 2010, pp. 280-285.
    • [127] M.‎J.‎Piran,‎G.‎R.‎Murthy,‎and‎G.‎P.‎Babu,‎“Vehicular‎Ad‎Hoc‎and‎Sensor‎Networks;‎ Principles and‎Challenges,”‎arXiv:1108.2776, Aug. 2011.
    • [128] DARTS‎ Lab,‎ “Vehicular‎ http://darts.cse.nd.edu/projects/vanets/.
    • [133] S.‎R.‎A.‎Rizvi,‎S.‎Olariu,‎M.‎E.‎Rizvi,‎and‎M.‎C.‎Weigle,‎“A‎Traffic‎Chaos‎Reduction‎ Approach for Emergency Scenarios,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ The‎ International‎ Conference‎ on‎ Performance, Computing, and Communications (IPCCC), 2007, pp. 576-578.
    • [134] S.‎R.‎Rizvi,‎M.‎C.‎Weigle,‎and‎M.‎E.‎Rizvi,‎“In‎VANETs‎for‎Rirst‎Responders,”‎2008.
    • [135] J.-S. Park, U. Lee, S. Y. Oh, M. Gerla,‎ and‎ D.‎ S.‎ Lun,‎ “Emergency‎ Related‎ Video‎ Streaming‎in‎VANET‎Uing‎Network‎Coding,”‎Los‎Angeles,‎CA,‎USA,‎2006,‎pp.‎102-103.
    • [136] Y.-T. Tseng, R.-H. Jan, C. Chen, C.-F. Wang, and H.-H.‎ Li,‎ “A‎ Vehicle-DensityBased Forwarding Scheme for Emergency Message‎Broadcasts‎in‎VANETs,”‎in‎Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2010, pp. 703-708.
    • [137] A.‎Buchenscheit,‎F.‎Schaub,‎F.‎Kargl,‎and‎M.‎Weber,‎“A‎VANET-Based Emergency Vehicle‎Warning‎System,”‎presented at the Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2009, pp. 1-8.
    • [138] M.‎Satyanarayanan,‎“Mobile‎Computing:‎the‎Next‎Decade,”‎in‎Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing; Services: Social Networks and Beyond, New York, NY, USA, 2010, pp. 5:1-5:6.
    • [139] M.‎L.‎Habib,‎“Mobile‎Computing.”
    • [140] J.‎T.‎B.‎Fajardo‎and‎C.‎M.‎Oppus,‎“A‎Mobile‎Disaster‎Management‎System‎Using‎the‎ Android‎Technology,”‎WTOC, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 343-353, 2010.
    • [141] R.‎ Samarajiva‎ and‎ N.‎ Waidyanatha,‎ “Two‎ complementary‎ mobile technologies for disaster‎warning,”‎info, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 58-65, 2009.
    • [142] E.‎ Fekpe‎ and‎ S.‎ Collins,‎ “Evaluation‎ of‎ Intelligent‎ Transportation‎ Infrastructure‎ Program‎(ITIP)‎in‎Pittsburgh‎and‎Philadelphia,‎Pennsylvania,”‎2003.
    • [143] H. Purohit, A. Hampton,‎ V.‎ Shalin,‎ A.‎ Sheth,‎ and‎ J.‎ Flach,‎ “Framework‎ for‎ the‎ Analysis‎of‎Coordination‎in‎Crisis‎Response,”‎Feb-2012.
    • [144] T.‎ Falco,‎ “Taking‎ Social‎ Media‎ Public:‎ Social‎ Media‎ for‎ Successful‎ Citizen‎ Relationship‎Management.”‎IBM‎Global‎Services,‎2011.
    • [145] B.‎R.‎Lindsay,‎“Social‎Media‎and‎Disasters:‎Current‎Uses,‎Future‎Options,‎and‎Policy‎ Considerations.”‎Congressional‎Research‎Service,‎Sep-2011.
    • [146] S. Smaldone, L. Han, P. Shankar, and L. Iftode, RoadSpeak: Enabling Voice Chat on Roadways Using Vehicular Social Networks. 2008. [151] Y.‎ Gu,‎ “Integrating‎ a‎ Regional‎ Planning‎ Model‎ (TRANSIMS)‎ With‎ an‎ Operational‎ Model‎(CORSIM),”‎Master‎thesis,‎Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2004.
    • [153] N. Levine and M. Wachs,‎ “Factors‎ Affecting‎ Vehicle‎ Occupancy‎ Measurement,”‎ Transp. Res. Part Policy Pract., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 215-229, 1998.
    • [154] European‎ Environment‎ Agency‎ (EEA),‎ “Occupancy‎ Rates‎ of‎ Passenger‎ Vehicles,”‎ 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/occupancyrates-of-passenger-vehicles/occupancy-rates-of-passenger-vehicles-1. [Accessed: 11-Dec2014].
    • [155] V.‎V.‎Dixit‎and‎E.‎Radwan,‎“Optimal‎Scheduling‎of‎Evacuation‎Orders‎for‎Cities,”‎in‎ Proceedings of the 8th Annual Meeting on Transportation Research Board, Edinburgh, UK, 2009.
    • [156] K.‎S.‎Perumalla‎and‎M.‎Beckerman,‎“An‎Analysis‎Approach‎to‎Large-Scale Vehicular Network‎ Simulations,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ The‎ Summer‎ Computer‎ Simulation‎ Conference,‎ California, USA, 2007.
    • [157] B. Wolshon, Transportation's Role in Transportation Research Board, 2009.
    • [158] H.‎ T.‎ L.‎ Pham,‎ J.‎ L.‎ Pittman,‎ and‎ M.‎ C.‎ Court,‎ “A‎ Review‎ of‎ Simulation‎ Modeling‎ Methodologies for Large-Scale‎ Evacuations,”‎ presented‎ at‎ the‎ The Summer Computer Simulation Conference, Edinburgh, UK, 2008.
    • [159] N. J. Garber and L. A. Hoel, Traffic and Highway Engineering, 3rd Edition. 2002.
    • [160] I. S. P. Hoogendoorn, Traffic Flow Theory and Simulation, Lecture notes course vk4821. Delft: Delft University of Technology, 2007.
    • [161] J. Barceló, P. Vortisch, M. Fellendorf, H. Hanabusa, R. Horiguchi, M. Kuwahara, P.
    • [163] S. McMillan, G. Koorey, and A. Nicholson,‎“Incident‎Management‎Modelling‎Using‎ Microsimulation‎with‎Adaptive‎Signal‎Control,”‎2009.
    • [164] M.‎T.‎Alterawi,‎“Development‎of‎a‎Micro-simulation Model to Evaluate Shuttle-lane Roadwork‎Operations,”‎PhD‎Thesis,‎University‎of‎Salford,‎UK,‎2014.
    • [165] J. Wardrop,‎ “Some‎ Theoretical‎ Aspects‎ of‎ Road‎ Traffic‎ Research,”‎ Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Part II, vol. 1, no. 36, pp. 352-362, 1952.
    • [166] L.‎A.‎Pipes,‎“An‎Operational‎ Analysis‎of‎Traffic‎ Dynamics,”‎ J. Appl. Phys., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 274-281, 1953.
    • [167] G. F. Newell,‎ “Mathematical‎ Models‎ for‎ Freely-Flowing‎ Highway‎ Traffic,”‎ Oper. Res., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 176-186, 1955.
    • [168] F. V. Webster, Traffic Signal Settings. H. M. Stationery Off., 1958.
    • [169] R.‎ Chandler,‎ R.‎ Herman,‎ and‎ E.‎ Montroll,‎ “Traffic‎ Dynamics:‎ Studies in Car Following,”‎Oper. Res., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165-184, 1958.
    • [170] M.‎ J.‎ Lighthill‎ and‎ G.‎ B.‎ Whitham,‎ “On‎ Kinematic‎ Waves.‎ II.‎ A‎ Theory‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Flow‎on‎Long‎Crowded‎Roads,”‎Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. Math. Phys. Sci., vol. 229, no. 1178, pp. 317-345, 1955.
    • [171] N. H. Gartner, C. Messer, A. K. Rathi, F. L. Hall, R. J. Koppa, R. W. Rothery, P. G. Michalopoulos, R. Kuhan, J. C. Williams, S. Ardekani, E. Hauer, B. Jamei, R. J. Troutbeck, W. Brilon, N. Rouphial, A. Tarko, J. Li, E. Lieberman, and A. K. Rathi, Traffic Flow Theory. USA: Transportation Research Board, 1975.
    • [172] J. T. S. Al-Obaedi,‎ “Development‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Micro-Simulation Model for Motorway Merges‎with‎Ramp‎Metering,”‎Ph.D.,‎University‎of‎Salford,‎2011.
    • [173] P.‎ Ryder,‎ “The‎ Use‎ and‎ Application of Microsimulation Traffic Models, Interim Advice‎Note‎(IAN‎36/01).”‎Highwats‎Agency,‎2001.
    • [174] A.‎Arulselvan,‎“Network‎Model‎for‎Disaster‎Management,”‎PhD‎Thesis,‎University‎of‎ Florida, USA, 2009.
    • [175] M.‎ B.‎ Abdjabbar,‎ “Traffic‎ Assignment‎ of‎ Transportation‎ Network‎ of‎ ‎ City,”‎ PhD‎ Thesis, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq, 2005.
    • [176] Transport‎for‎London,‎“Micro-Simulation‎Modelling‎Guidance‎Note‎for‎TfL.”‎2003.
    • [177] SIAS,‎“S-Paramics‎Principle.”‎2009.
    • [178] Purnawan,‎ “Development‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Micro-Simulation for On-Street Parking Facilities,”‎PhD‎Thesis,‎Salford‎University,‎Manchester,‎UK,‎2005.
    • [179] T.‎ J.‎ Cova‎ and‎ J.‎ P.‎ Johnson,‎ “Microsimulation‎ of‎ Neighborhood‎ Evacuations‎ in‎ the‎ Urban - Wildland‎Interface,”‎Environ. Plan. A, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2211 - 2229, 2002.
    • [180] S. Algers, E. Bernauer, M. Boero, L. Breheret, C. D. Taranto, M. Dougherty, K. Fox, and J.-F.‎Gabard,‎“Review‎of‎Micro-Simulation‎Models.”‎Smartest,‎1997.
    • [181] SIAS, S-Paramics Microsimulation Manual. UK, 2007.
    • [182] H. A. E. Al-Jameel,‎ “Developing‎ a‎ Simulation‎ Model‎ to‎ Evaluate‎ the‎ Capacity‎ of‎ Waeving‎Sections,”‎Ph.D.,‎Salford‎University,‎Manchester,‎UK,‎2011.
    • [183] P.‎Hidas,‎“Modelling‎Vehicle‎Interactions‎in‎Microscopic‎Simulation‎of‎Merging‎and‎ Weaving,”‎Transp. Res. Part C Emerg. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 37-62, 2005.
    • [184] Z.‎ Xiongfei,‎ S.‎ Qixin,‎ H.‎ Rachel,‎ and‎ R.‎ Bin,‎ “Network‎ Emergency‎ Evacuation‎ Modeling:‎ A‎ Literature‎ Review,”‎ in‎ Optoelectronics and Image Processing, International Conference on, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 30-34.
    • [185] T.‎ J.‎ Cova‎ and‎ J.‎ P.‎ Johnson,‎ “Microsimulation‎ of‎ Neighborhood‎ Evacuations‎ in‎ the‎ Urban - Wildland‎Interface,”‎Environ. Plan. A, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2211 - 2229, 2002.
    • [186] R.‎ L.‎ Church‎ and‎ R.‎ Sexton,‎ “Modelling‎ Small‎ Area‎ Evacuation: Can Existing Transportation‎ Infrastructure‎ Impede‎ Public‎ Safety?,”‎ University‎ of‎ California,‎ Santa‎ Barbara, USA, Final Report, 2002.
    • [187] G.‎ Cameron,‎ B.‎ J.‎ N.‎ Wylie,‎ and‎ D.‎ McArthur,‎ “Paramics:‎ Moving‎ Vehicles‎ on‎ the‎ Connection‎Machine,”‎in‎ Proceedings of the International Conference on Super Computing, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 1994, pp. 291-300.
    • [188] C.‎ Xie,‎ “Evacuation‎ Network‎ Optimization:‎ Models,‎ Solution‎ Methods‎ and‎ Applications,”‎PhD‎Thesis,‎Cornell‎University,‎2008.
    • [189] Thinking Machines Corporation, C* Programming Guide. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993.
    • [190] S.‎ Gwynne,‎ E.‎ R.‎ Galea,‎ M.‎ Owen,‎ P.‎ J.‎ Lawrence,‎ and‎ L.‎ Filippidis,‎ “A‎ Review‎ of‎ the Methodologies Used in the Computer Simulation of Evacuation from the Built Environment,”‎Build. Environ., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 741-749, 1999.
    • [191] G.‎Santos‎and‎B.‎E.‎Aguirre,‎“A‎Critical‎Review‎of‎Emergency‎Evacuation‎Simulation‎ Models,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of Building Occupant Movement during Fire, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2004, p. 25.
    • [192] Federal‎ Emergency‎ Management‎ Agency‎ (FEMA),‎ “Application‎ of‎ the‎ I-DYNEV [193] Y.‎Sheffi,‎H.‎Mahmassani,‎and‎W.‎B.‎Powell,‎“A‎Transportation‎Network‎Evacuation‎ Model,”‎Transp. Res. Part Gen., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 209-218, 1982.
    • [194] B.‎ Mei,‎ “Development‎ of‎Trip‎ Generation‎ Models‎ of‎ Hurricane‎ Evacuation,”‎ Master‎ thesis, Louisiana State University, 2002.
    • [195] A.‎ G.‎ Hobeika‎ and‎ C.‎ Kim,‎ “Comparison‎ of‎ Traffic‎ Assignments‎ in‎ Evacuation‎ Modeling,”‎IEEE Trans. Eng. Manag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 192-198, 1998.
    • [196] B. N. Janson, F. Southworth, M. M. Venigalla, and D. of Energy, DYMOD: Towards Real Time, Dynamic Traffic Routing During Mass Evacuations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1992.
    • [197] J. R. Stone, United States, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hurricane Emergency Planning Estimating Evacuation Times for on-Metropolitan Coastal Communities. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service, 1983.
    • [198] S. Bretschneider and A.‎ Kimms,‎ “A‎ Basic‎ Mathematical‎ Model‎ for‎ Evacuation‎ Problems‎in‎Urban‎Areas,”‎Transp. Res. Part Policy Pract., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 523-539, 2011.
    • [199] M.‎ M.‎ P.,‎ Urbanik,‎ T.,‎ and‎ D.‎ E‎ A.,‎ “CLEAR‎ (calculated‎ logical‎ evacuation‎ and‎ response): A generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates,”‎ Prepared‎ for‎ the‎ Nuclear‎ Regulatory‎ Commission‎ by‎ Pacific‎ Northwest‎ Laboratory. NUREGICR-2504, Washington, USA, 1981.
    • [200] E. Stern and Z. Sinuany-Stern,‎ “A‎ Behavioral-based Simulation Model for Urban Evacuation,”‎Reg. Sci. Assoc., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 87-103, 1989.
    • [201] A.‎F.‎Han,‎“TEVACS:‎Decision‎Support‎System‎for‎Evacuation‎Planning‎in‎Taiwan,”‎ J. Transp. Eng., vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 821-830, 1990.
    • [202] V. V. Dixit, S. Ramasamy,‎ and‎ E.‎ Radwan,‎ “Assessment‎ of‎ I-4 Contraflow Plans: Microscopic‎ Versus‎ Mesoscopic‎ Simulation,”‎ Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, vol. 2041, no. -1, pp. 89-97, 2008.
    • [203] Y. Liu, G.-L.‎ Chang,‎ Y.‎ Liu,‎ and‎ X.‎ Lai,‎ “Corridor-Based Emergency Evacuation System‎ for‎ Washington,‎ D.C.:‎ System‎ Development‎ and‎ Case‎ Study,”‎ Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, vol. 2041, no. -1, pp. 58-67, 2008.
    • [204] G.‎Theodoulou‎and‎B.‎Wolshon,‎“Alternative‎Methods‎to‎Increase‎the‎Effectiveness‎of‎ Freeway Contraflow Evacuation,”‎Transp. Res. Rec., vol. 1865, pp. 48-56, 2004.
    • [205] N. Zou, S.-T. Yeh, G.-L.‎ Chang,‎ A.‎ Marquess,‎ and‎ M.‎ Zezeski,‎ “Simulation-Based Emergency‎Evacuation‎ System‎for‎Ocean‎City,‎ Maryland,‎During‎Hurricanes,”‎ Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, vol. 1922, no. -1, pp. 138-148, 2005.
    • [207] M. Ping, M. Feiyan,‎ and‎ Y.‎ Ming,‎ “A‎ Knowledge-based Validation Method of Complex‎ Simulation‎ Models,”‎ in‎ Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, Washington, USA, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 03-06.
    • [208] “Master‎Plan‎of‎ the City of Al-Ramadi,‎ First‎ Stage:‎ Field‎ Survey,”‎ Hydrosult‎ Center‎ for Engineering Planning (HCEP), Engineering Consultancy Bureau, Montreal, Canada, 2005. [210] “Master‎Plan‎of‎the‎City‎of‎Al-Huseneya, First Stage Analysis of Existing Situation, Regional‎ Context‎ and‎ Major‎ Development‎ Issues,”‎ Hydrosult‎ Center‎ for‎ Engineering‎ Planning (HCEP), Engineering Consultancy Bureau, Montreal, Canada, 2011.
    • [222] X.‎ Chen‎ and‎ F.‎ B.‎ Zhan,‎ “Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Urban Evacuation:‎ Relative‎ Effectiveness‎ of‎ Simultaneous‎ and‎ Staged‎ Evacuation‎ Strategies,”‎ J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 25-33, 2006.
    • [223] T.‎ S.‎ Glickman,‎ “A‎Methodology‎ for‎ Estimating Time-of-Day Variations in the Size of‎ A‎ Population‎ Exposed‎ to‎ Risk,”‎ Risk Anal. Off. Publ. Soc. Risk Anal., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 317-324, 1986.
    • [224] Z.‎Alazawi,‎M.‎B.‎Abdljabar,‎S.‎Altowaijri,‎A.‎M.‎Vegni,‎and‎R.‎Mehmood,‎“ICDMS:‎ An Intelligent Cloud‎ Based‎ Disaster‎ Management‎ System‎ for‎ Vehicular‎ Networks,”‎ in‎ Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 40-56. 0
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article