LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
May, J. E.; Xu, J.; Morse, R.; Avent, N.; Donaldson, C. (2009)
Publisher: Royal Society of Medicine
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must\ud undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety.\ud Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal\ud models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a\ud continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for\ud this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of\ud concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects\ud in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic\ud metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the\ud agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source\ud of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of\ud sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro\ud models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and\ud liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and\ud new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new\ud model developed within the authors’ laboratory utilising\ud HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to\ud examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other\ud cell types.
  • No references.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok