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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Zinder, Paul (2013)
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: PN1993, PN1992_1992.92, PN2000
Though one of the most popular genres for decades, the western started to lose its relevance in the 1960s and 1970s, and by the early 1980s it had ridden into the sunset on screens both big and small. The genre has enjoyed a resurgence, however, and in the past few decades some remarkable westerns have appeared on television and in movie theaters. From independent films to critically acclaimed Hollywood productions and television series, the western remains an important part of American popular culture. Running the gamut from traditional to revisionist, with settings ranging from the old West to the "new Wests" of the present day and distant future, contemporary westerns continue to explore the history, geography, myths, and legends of the American frontier. In Contemporary Westerns: Film and Television since 1990, Andrew P. Nelson has collected essays that examine the trends and transformations in this underexplored period in Western film and television history. Addressing the new Western, they argue for the continued relevance and vibrancy of the genre as a narrative form. The book is organized into two sections: "Old West, New Stories" examines Westerns with common frontier locales, such as Dances with Wolves, Unforgiven, Deadwood, and True Grit. "New Wests, Old Stories" explores works in which familiar Western narratives, characters, and values are represented in more modern-and in one case futuristic-settings. Included are the films No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood, as well as the shows Firefly and Justified. With a foreword by Edward Buscombe, as well as an introduction that provides a comprehensive overview, this volume offers readers a compelling argument for the healthy survival of the Western. Written for scholars as well as educated viewers, Contemporary Westerns explores the genre's evolving relationship with American culture, history, and politics.
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    • “Blaze of Glory.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by John Avnet. 2011. Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Blind Spot.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Michael Watkins. 2010. Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “Bloody Harlan.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Michael Dinner. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Blowback.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Jon Avnet. 2010. Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “Brother's Keeper.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Tony Goldwyn. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Bullletville.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Adam Arkin. 2010. Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “The Collection.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Rob Holcomb. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • Cornwell, Rupert. “9/11 Lost Decade: The American Dream, and the Missing Years.”
    • Independent.co.uk. 14 Oct. 2011. www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/911-lost-
    • decade-the-american-dream-and-the-missing-years-2352870.html.
    • “Cottonmouth.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Michael Watkins. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • Dean-Ruzicka, Rachel. “Vengeance, Healing and Justice: Post 9/11 Culture Through the
    • Lens of CSI.” Quarterly Review of Film and Video 26, (2009): 118-130.
    • “Debts and Accounts.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by John David Coles. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Fathers and Sons.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Michael Katleman. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “Fire in the Hole.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Michael Dinner. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “Fixer.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Frederick King Keller. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “For Blood or Money.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by John Dahl. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Full Commitment.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Peter Werner. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Directed by Sergio Leone. 1968. Santa Monica, CA: MGM
    • Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
    • Demonology.” Western Journal of Communication 68, (2004): 1-23.
    • Harrison-Kahan, Lori. “Inside Inside Man: Spike Lee and Post-9/11 Entertainment.” Cinema
    • Journal 50, no. 1 (2010): 39-58.
    • “The Hammer.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by John Dahl. 2010. Culver City,
    • CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “Hatless.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Peter Werner. 2010. Culver City,
    • CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD.
    • “The I of the Storm.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Peter Werner. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD. Keller, Alexandra. “Historical Discourse and American Identity in Westerns since the Reagan
    • Era.” 239-260 in Hollywood's West: The American Frontier in Film, Television, and
    • University Press of Kentucky, 2005. Kitses, Jim. Horizons West: Directing the Western from John Ford to Clint Eastwood. London:
    • British Film Institute, 2004. “Long in the Tooth.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Adam Arkin. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD. “The Lord of War and Thunder.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Jon Avnet. 2010. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD. McVeigh, Stephen. The American Western. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Metz, Walter. “'Mother Needs You': Kevin Costner's Open Range and the Melodramatics of the
    • American Western.” 63-76 in A Family Affair: Cinema Calls Home, edited by Murray
    • Pomerance. London and New York: Wallflower Press, 2008. “The Moonshine War.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Adam Arkin. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD. Neale, Steve. Genre and Hollywood. London: Routledge, 2000. O'Connor, John E. and Peter C. Rollins. “Introduction: The West, Westerns, and American
    • Character.” 1 - 34. in Hollywood's West: The American Frontier in Film, Television, and
    • Press of Kentucky, 2005. “Reckoning.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by Adam Arkin. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD.
    • “Riverbrook.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Michael Dinner. 2010. Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD. “Save My Love.” Justified: The Complete Second Season. Directed by John Avnet. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD. Spigel, Lynn. “Entertainment Wars: Television Culture after 9/11.” American Quarterly
    • 56, no. 2 (2004): 235-270. “The Spoil.” Justified: The Complete Second Sea son. Directed by Michael Watkins. 2011. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD. Treat, Shaun. “How America Learned to Stop Worrying and Cynically ENJOY! The Post 9/11
    • Superhero Zeitgeist”. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. 6, no.1 (2009): 103
    • “Veterans.” Justified: The Complete First Season. Directed by Tony Goldwyn. 2010. Culver City,
    • CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011. DVD. Walker, Janet. “Captive Images in the Traumatic Western: The Searchers, Pursued, Once Upon
    • a Time in the West, and Lone Star.” 219 - 251 in Westerns: Films Through History,
    • edited by Janet Walker. New York and London: Routledge, 2001. Westerfelhaus, Robert and Lacroix, Celeste. “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood
    • as a Post-9/11 Ritual of Disquiet.” Southern Communication Journal. 74, no. 1 (2009):
    • 18-39. 1 Steve Neale. Genre and Hollywood (London: Routledge, 2000), 134. 2 Neale, Genre and Hollywood, 140. 3 Stephen McVeigh. The American Western (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press,
    • 2007), 215. 4 Lori Harrison-Kahan, “Inside Inside Man: Spike Lee and Post-9/11 Entertainment,”
    • Cinema Journal 50, no. 1 (2010): 45. 5 John E. O'Connor and Peter C. Rollins, “Introduction: The West, Westerns, and
    • Kentucky, 2005), 31. 6 O'Connor et al., “Introduction: The West, Westerns, and American Character,” 10. 7 Robert Westerfelhaus and Celeste Lacroix, “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's
    • Deadwood as a Post-9/11 Ritual of Disquiet,” Southern Communication Journal 74, no. 1
    • (2009): 21. 8 Justified: The Complete First Season. directed by Tony Goldwyn (2010; Culver City,
    • CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 9 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. directed by Michael Dinner
    • (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 10 Jim Kitses, Horizons West: Directing the Western from John Ford to Clint Eastwood
    • (London: British Film Institute, 2004), 3. 11 Neale, Genre and Hollywood, 140. 12 Intertextual references in Justified appear frequently and take different forms. A partial
    • list includes: a movie poster for the film Tombstone (1993) hangs over Art Mullen's desk in the
    • Marshal's building in Kentucky; the snitch Pinter refers to Raylan as “Wild Bill” (“Fixer” 1.3);
    • Raylan remembers watching the televised 1950s Westerns Rawhide and Have Gun - Will Travel
    • with his Aunt Helen (“The Lord of War and Thunder” 1.5); Boyd labels one of the workers in
    • 1.10); Doyle Bennett, the corrupt sheriff in Harlan County, threatens that he may want to “O.K.
    • Corral it” in “”Full Commitment” (2.11); and Raylan refers to Doyle as “Quick Draw McGraw”
    • in “Reckoning” (2.12). 13 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 14 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 30. 15 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 16 qtd. in Rachel Dean-Ruzicka, “Vengeance, Healing and Justice: Post 9/11 Culture
    • Through the Lens of CSI,” Quarterly Review of Film and Video 26 (2009): 119. 17 “Blowback,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Jon Avnet (2010;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 18 McVeigh, The American Western, 217. 19 qtd. in Dean-Ruzicka, “Vengeance, Healing and Justice: Post 9/11 Culture Through the
    • Lens of CSI,” 119. 20 “The Collection,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Rob Holcomb
    • (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 21 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 31. 22 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 26. 23 “Fixer,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Frederick King Keller
    • (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 24 Harrison-Kahan, “Inside Inside Man: Spike Lee and Post-9/11 Entertainment,” 45. 25 “Fixer,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 26 Ironically, Curtis is killed later in “Fixer” in a “showdown” that occupies a similar
    • attempts to playfully “train” him how to draw like a real cowboy. 27 “Long in the Tooth,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Adam Arkin
    • (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 28 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 24. 29 In this sense, the Rollie character may be peripherally connected to the Robin Hood
    • in illegally moving wealth from rich to poor, as will be discussed. 30 “Long in the Tooth,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 31 “Long in the Tooth,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 32 “Blind Spot,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Michael Watkins
    • (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 33 Justified: The Complete First Season. directed by John Dahl (2010; Culver City, CA:
    • Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 34 Sean Bridgers, the actor who portrays Virgil in “The Hammer”, previously appeared
    • Western made after 9/11, HBO's Deadwood. Bridgers' appearance in Justified, as well as the
    • [“The Collection”], W. Earl Brown [“Blowback”], and Jim Beaver [“Cottonmouth” 2.5]) serve
    • character portrayed by Olyphant in Deadwood. 35 “Hatless,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Peter Werner (2010;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 36 “For Blood or Money,” Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by John Dahl
    • (2011; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 37 “Blaze of Glory,” Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by John Avnet
    • (2011; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 38 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 33. 39 Raylan's emotionalism also inspires illegal activity of the non-violent sort. His passion
    • robbery from decades before (“Save My Love” 2.7), so Raylan's decision to intentionally
    • the theft. 40 “The Collection,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 41 “Blind Spot,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 42 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 43 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 44 Joshua Gunn, “The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political
    • Demonology,” Western Journal of Communication 68 (2004): 12. 45 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 46 An important theme in postwar Westerns is “the place of the returning veteran” (Neale
    • 140). Boyd and the other ex-soldiers in Justified are usually troubled, each personality a critical
    • comment on American military action since 9/11. Virtually every veteran in the series suffers
    • Givens, a serviceman during the Vietnam conflict (“Fathers and Sons” 1.12), is shady and
    • drunk, or alone whenever he's off duty (in “Veterans” and “The I of the Storm” [2.3] ) and Art
    • appropriateness of government training of assassins.” (Dean-Ruzicka 125). And Lucky, a young
    • Arlo (“Fathers and Sons”). 47 “Fire in the Hole,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 48 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 18. 49 “Riverbrook,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Michael Dinner (2010;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD.
    • © Paul Zinder 2012 50 “Blind Spot,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 51 qtd. in Gunn, “The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political
    • Demonology,” 13. 52 “The Hammer,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by John Dahl (2010;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 53 Shaun Treat, “How America Learned to Stop Worrying and Cynically ENJOY! The
    • Post 9/11 Superhero Zeitgeist,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. 6.1 (2009): 106. 54 After Raylan and the Marshals depart the camp empty handed, Boyd and the remainder
    • that “we will find those who did it; we will smoke them out of their holes” (Gunn 14). 55 “Veterans,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 56 “Fathers and Sons,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Michael
    • Katleman (2010; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 57 Gunn, “The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political
    • Demonology,” 11. 58 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 24. 59 “Fathers and Sons,” Justified: The Complete First Season. 60 “Bulletville,” Justified: The Complete First Season, directed by Adam Arkin (2010;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2011), DVD. 61 Westerfelhaus et al., “Waiting for the Barbarians: HBO's Deadwood as a Post-9/11
    • Ritual of Disquiet,” 24. 62 In “Bulletville,” Art, perplexed that Boyd would destroy his own father's drug
    • “maybe he's Batman,” makes sense. Shaun Treat writes that Batman is the perfect post-9/11 hero
    • crusade” (106). 63 Harrison-Kahan, “Inside Inside Man: Spike Lee and Post-9/11 Entertainment,” 44. 64 “Cottonmouth,” Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by Michael Watkins
    • (2011; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 65 Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by John David Coles (2011; Culver
    • City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 66 Walter Metz, “'Mother Needs You': Kevin Costner's Open Range and the
    • Pomerance (London and New York: Wallflower Press, 2008), 69. 67 “Reckoning,” Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by Adam Arkin (2011;
    • Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 68 “Bloody Harlan,” Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by Michael Dinner
    • (2011; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 69 “Reckoning,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 70 Justified: The Complete Second Season, directed by Adam Arkin (2011; Culver City,
    • CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD. 71 “Bloody Harlan,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 72 The only major characters in Justified who have spouses and children are Art and
    • 87“The I of the Storm,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 88 “Brother's Keeper,” Justified: The Complete Second Season 89 “Reckoning,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 90 qtd. in Janet Walker, “Captive Images in the Traumatic Western: The Searchers,
    • ed. Janet Walker (New York and London: Routledge, 2001), 245
    • 91“The Spoil,” Justified: The Complete Second Sea son. 92 Interestingly, Boyd refutes Raylan's comment during the town meeting by insisting
    • Spoil”). No matter the context, these two remain at odds. 93 Harrison-Kahan, “Inside Inside Man: Spike Lee and Post-9/11 Entertainment,” 45. 94 Metz, “'Mother Needs You': Kevin Costner's Open Range and the Melodramatics of
    • the American Western,” 65. 95 The land that proves the turning point in negotiations in the Black Pike deal is labeled
    • Manifest Destiny (“Brother's Keeper”). 96 “Brother's Keeper,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 97 Many residents of Harlan County refuse to accept that Mags made the deal with Black
    • painting graffiti on the front of her general store in acts of protest (“Full Commitment”). 98 Walker, “Captive Images in the Traumatic Western: The Searchers, Pursued, Once
    • Upon a Time in the West, and Lone Star,” 244. 99 Rupert Cornwell, “9/11 Lost Decade: The American Dream, and the Missing Years.”
    • Independent.co.uk 2011, www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/911-lost-decade-the-
    • american-dream-and-the-missing-years-2352870.html (14 Oct. 2011). 100 Boyd saves Raylan's life twice in the first two seasons of the series. The first time, in
    • own agenda that he believes Raylan will respect as repayment for the debt of a saved life. 101 “Bloody Harlan,” Justified: The Complete Second Season. 102 Lynn Spigel, “Entertainment Wars: Television Culture after 9/11,” American
    • Quarterly 56, no. 2 (2004): 256. 103 Alexandra Keller, “Historical Discourse and American Identity in Westerns since the
    • Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2005),
    • 252. 104 Metz, “'Mother Needs You': Kevin Costner's Open Range and the Melodramatics of
    • the American Western,” 63. 105 qtd. in Dean-Ruzicka, “Vengeance, Healing and Justice: Post 9/11 Culture Through
    • the Lens of CSI,” 125.
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