Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
In this study, a computational model which simulates the growth of crystalline deposits from dripping salt solution is developed and validated. This problem is of interest to the nuclear industry where the morphology of deposited material impacts on its associated criticality risk. An existing model for simulating geological-stalagmite formations is adapted to the case of dripping salt-solutions which form thin films of fluid that precipitate out over time, forming accumulations. The implementation of a CFD Volume-of-Fluid multiphase model is developed such that the fluid-flow is coupled to the crystallisation kinetics and a moving-boundary model is used for describing the size and shape of growing crystalline deposits. The fluid-flow and forming accumulation are fully coupled, with the model able to account for solute diffusion and solvent evaporation. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for surrogate salt-solutions. Numerical results are presented to assess the sensitivity to process and environmental parameters.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Al-Rashed M, Wjcik J, Plewik R, Synowiec P, Ku A. Multiphase CFD modeling: fluid dynamics aspects in scale-up of a fluidized-bed crystallizer. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2013;63:7-15.
    • Avc A, Can M, Etemolu AB. A theoretical approach to the drying process of thin film layers. Appl Therm Eng 2001;21(4):465-79.
    • Baker A, Bradley C. Modern stalagmite ı18: instrumental calibration and forward modelling. Global Planet Change 2010;71(3-4):201-6.
    • Bird R, Stewart W, Lightfoot E. Transport Phenomena. Wiley International Edition Wiley; 1960.
    • Bohacek J. Surface tension model for high viscosity ratios implemented in VOF model. In: ILASS, 23rd annual conference on liquid atomization and spray systems; 2010.
    • Burrows C, Phillips C, Milliken A. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield - lessons learned from 10 years of hot operations and their applicability to the DOE environmental management program. In: Wm'06 conference; 2006.
    • Chen C, Tsai Y, Lan C. Adaptive phase field simulation of dendritic crystal growth in a forced flow: 2D vs 3D morphologies. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2009;52(5-6):1158-66.
    • Cheng J, Yang C, Mao Z-S. CFD-PBE simulation of premixed continuous precipitation incorporating nucleation, growth and aggregation in a stirred tank with multiclass method. Chem Eng Sci 2012;68(1):469-80.
    • Cui X, Li X, Sui H, Li H. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of direct contact heat and mass transfer of a multicomponent two-phase film flow in an inclined channel at sub-atmospheric pressure. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2012;55(21- 22):5808-18.
    • Falola A, Borissova A. Crystsim: a software environment for modelling industrial batch cooling crystallization. Comput Chem Eng 2012;38:35-43.
    • Graber TA, Taboada ME, Alvarez MN, Schmidt EH. Determination of mass transfer coefficients for crystal growth of nitrate salts. Cryst Res Technol 1999;34(10):1269-77.
    • Hardt S, Wondra F. Evaporation model for interfacial flows based on a continuumfield representation of the source terms. J Comput Phys 2008;227(11):5871- 95.
    • Haroun Y, Legendre D, Raynal L. Volume of fluid method for interfacial reactive mass transfer: application to stable liquid film. Chem Eng Sci 2010;65(10):2896-909.
    • Health and Safety Executive. Report of the investigation into the leak of dissolver product liquor at the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP), Sellafield, notified to HSE on 20 April 2005; 2007.
    • Heath A, Livk I. Coupled population balance and CFD model for a continuous gibbsite crystalliser. In: Fifth international conference on CFD in the process industries. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO; 2006.
    • Hirt C, Nichols B. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J Comput Phys 1981;39(1):201-25.
    • Hu B, Kieweg SL. The effect of surface tension on the gravity-driven thin film flow of Newtonian and power-law fluids. Comput Fluids 2012;64:83-90.
    • Issa RI. Solution of the implicitly discretised fluid flow equations by operatorsplitting. J Comput Phys 1986;62:40-65.
    • Jun S, Puri VM. 3D milk-fouling model of plate heat exchangers using computational fluid dynamics. Int J Dairy Technol 2005;58(4):214-24.
    • Kaufmann G. Stalagmite growth and palaeo-climate: the numerical perspective. Earth Planet Sci Lett 2003;214:251-66.
    • Kaufmann G, Dreybrodt W. Stalagmite growth and palaeo-climate: an inverse approach. Earth Planet Sci Lett 2004;224:529-45.
    • Li X, Glimm J, Jiao X, Peyser C, Zhao Y. Study of crystal growth and solute precipitation through front tracking method. Acta Math Sci 2010;30(2):377-90.
    • Mayer M, Bucko J, Benzinger W, Dittmeyer R, Augustin W, Scholl S. Crystallization fouling in experimental micro heat exchangers: optical and thermal investigations. Exp Heat Trans 2013;26(5):487-502.
    • Mullin J. Crystallization. Chemical, petrochemical & process. Elsevier Science; 2001.
    • Muzaferija S, Peric M, Sames P, Schellin T. A two-fluid Navier-Stokes solver to simulate water entry. In: Twenty-second symposium on naval hydrodynamics; 1999. p. 277-89.
    • Oosterhof H. The growth of sodium nitrate from mixtures of water and isopropoxyethanol. J Cryst Growth 1999;198:754-9.
    • Phillips C. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield: four years of successful treatment of irradiated nuclear fuel. In: Wm99 conference; 1999.
    • Radu A, Bergwerff L, van Loosdrecht M, Picioreanu C. A two-dimensional mechanistic model for scaling in spiral wound membrane systems. Chem Eng J 2014;241:77-91.
    • Ranjan R, Murthy JY, Garimella SV. A microscale model for thin-film evaporation in capillary wick structures. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2011;54(1-3):169-79.
    • Robey HF. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer in the large scale, rapid growth of KDP crystals-2: computation of the mass transfer. J Cryst Growth 2003;259:388-403.
    • Robey HF, Maynes D. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer in the large scale, rapid growth of KDP crystals. Part 1: Computation of the transient, three-dimensional flow field. J Cryst Growth 2001;222:263-78.
    • Romanov D, Kaufmann G, Dreybrodt W. Modeling stalagmite growth by first principles of chemistry and physics of calcite precipitation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2008;72(2):423-37.
    • Sazhin SS. Advanced models of fuel droplet heating and evaporation. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2006;32(2):162-214.
    • Short MB, Baygents JC, Beck JW, Stone DA, Toomey RS, Goldstein RE. Stalactite growth as a free-boundary problem: a geometric law and its platonic ideal. Phys Rev Lett 2005a;94:018501.
    • Short MB, Baygents JC, Goldstein RE. Stalactite growth as a free-boundary problem. Phys Fluids 2005b;17(8):083101.
    • Sultan E, Boundaoud A, Amar MB. Evaporation of a thin film: diffusion of the vapour and Marangoni instabilities. J Fluid Mech 2005;543:183-202.
    • Walker PG, Sheikholeslami R. Development and validation of an unsteady state numerical model of fouling within a crystalline systern. Dev Chem Eng Mineral Process 2006;14(1-2):287-302.
    • Weber R, Mancini M, Schaffel-Mancini N, Kupka T. On predicting the ash behaviour using computational fluid dynamics. Fuel Process Technol 2013;105:113-28.
    • Xu T, Pruess K. Solubility and crystal growth of sodium nitrate from mixed alcohol water solvents, Technical report. Curtin University of Technology; 2009.
    • Xu Z, Meakin P. Phase-field modeling of solute precipitation and dissolution. J Chem Phys 2008;129(1):014705.
    • Yeh HS, Wills GB. Diffusion coefficient of sodium nitrate in aqueous solution at 25.deg. as a function of concentration from 0.1 to 1.0 m. J Chem Eng Data 1970;15(1):187-9.
    • Ying W, Qunhui L, Yangyan Z, Biao Y, Hanzhong T. A CFD-based analysis on trends of heat exchanger fouling. In: Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), Asia-Pacific; 2012. p. 1-4.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article