Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hutton, Samuel; Ettinger, Ulrich (2006)
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: behavioral disciplines and activities, psychological phenomena and processes
The antisaccade task is a measure of volitional control of behavior sensitive to fronto-striatal dysfunction. Here we outline important issues concerning antisaccade methodology, consider recent evidence of the cognitive processes and neural mechanisms involved in task performance, and review how the task has been applied to study psychopathology. We conclude that the task yields reliable and sensitive measures of the processes involved in resolving the conflict between volitional and reflexive behavioral responses, a key cognitive deficit relevant to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. Additionally, antisaccade deficits may reflect genetic liability for schizophrenia. Finally, the ease and accuracy with which the task can be administered, combined with its sensitivity to fronto-striatal dysfunction and the availability of suitable control conditions, may make it a useful benchmark tool for studies of potential cognitive enhancers.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Blekher, T. M., Yee, R. D., Kirkwood, S. C., Hake, A. M., Stout, J. C., Weaver, M. R., & Foroud, T. M. (2004). Oculomotor control in asymptomatic and recently diagnosed individuals with the genetic marker for Huntington's disease. Vision Research, 44, 2729-2736.
    • Brenner, C. A., McDowell, J. E., Cadenhead, K. S., & Clementz, B. A. (2001). Saccadic inhibition among schizotypal personality disorder subjects. Psychophysiology, 38, 399-403.
    • Broerse, A., Crawford, T. J., & den Boer, J. A. (2001). Parsing cognition in schizophrenia using saccadic eye movements: a selective overview. Neuropsychologia, 39, 742-756.
    • Brownstein, J., Krastoshevsky, O., McCollum, C., Kundamal, S., Matthysse, S., Holzman, P. S., Mendell, N. R., & Levy, D. L. (2003). Antisaccade performance is abnormal in schizophrenia patients but not in their biological relatives. Schizophrenia Research, 63, 13-25.
    • Burke, J. G. & Reveley, M. A. (2002). Improved antisaccade performance with risperidone in schizophrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 72, 449-454.
    • Cadenhead, K. S., Light, G. A., Geyer, M. A., McDowell, J. E., & Braff, D. L. (2002). Neurobiological measures of schizotypal personality disorder: defining an inhibitory endophenotype? American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 869-871.
    • Chaudhry, I. B., Soni, S. D., Hellewell, J. S., & Deakin, J. F. (2002). Effects of the 5HT antagonist cyproheptadine on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 53, 17-24.
    • Clementz, B. A. (1998). Psychophysiological measures of (dis)inhibition as liability indicators for schizophrenia. Psychophysiology, 35, 648-668.
    • Clementz, B. A., McDowell, J. E., & Zisook, S. (1994). Saccadic system functioning among schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 277-287.
    • Condy, C., Wattiez, N., Rivaud-Pechoux, S., & Gaymard, B. (2005). Ketamine-induced distractibility: An oculomotor study in monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 366-372.
    • Connolly, J. D., Goodale, M. A., Goltz, H. C., & Munoz, D. P. (2005). fMRI activation in the human frontal eye field is correlated with saccadic reaction time. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94, 605-611.
    • Connolly, J. D., Goodale, M. A., Menon, R. S., & Munoz, D. P. (2002). Human fMRI evidence for the neural correlates of preparatory set. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1345-1352.
    • Cornelissen, F. W., Kimmig, H., Schira, M., Rutschmann, R. M., Maguire, R. P., Broerse, A., den Boer, J. A., & Greenlee, M. W. (2002). Event-related fMRI responses in the human frontal eye fields in a randomized pro- and antisaccade task. Experimental Brain Research, 145, 270-274.
    • Crawford, T. J., Haeger, B., Kennard, C., Reveley, M. A., & Henderson, L. (1995). Saccadic abnormalities in psychotic patients. I. Neuroleptic-free psychotic patients. Psychological Medicine, 25, 461-471.
    • Crawford, T. J., Higham, S., Renvoize, T., Patel, J., Dale, M., Suriya, A., & Tetley, S. (2005). Inhibitory control of saccadic eye movements and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1052-1060.
    • Crawford, T. J., Puri, B. K., Nijran, K. S., Jones, B., Kennard, C., & Lewis, S. W. (1996). Abnormal saccadic distractibility in patients with schizophrenia: a 99mTc-HMPAO SPET study. Psychological Medicine, 26, 265-277.
    • Crawford, T. J., Sharma, T., Puri, B. K., Murray, R. M., Berridge, D. M., & Lewis, S. W. (1998). Saccadic eye movements in families multiply affected with schizophrenia: the Maudsley Family Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1703-1710.
    • Curtis, C. E., Calkins, M. E., Grove, W. M., Feil, K. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2001). Saccadic disinhibition in patients with acute and remitted schizophrenia and their first-degree biological relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 100-106.
    • Curtis, C. E. & D'Esposito, M. (2003). Success and failure suppressing reflexive behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 409-418.
    • Dépatie, L., O'Driscoll, G. A., Holahan, A. L., Atkinson, V., Thavundayil, J. X., Kin, N. N., & Lal, S. (2002). Nicotine and behavioral markers of risk for schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 27, 1056-1070.
    • Edelman, J. A., Valenzuela, N., & Barton, J. J. (2006). Antisaccade velocity, but not latency, results from a lack of saccade visual guidance. Vision Research, 46, 1411-1421.
    • Ettinger, U., Antonova, E., Crawford, T. J., Mitterschiffthaler, M. T., Goswani, S., Sharma, T., & Kumari, V. (2005a). Structural neural correlates of prosaccade and antisaccade eye movements in healthy humans. Neuroimage, 24, 487-494.
    • Ettinger, U., Kumari, V., Chitnis, X. A., Corr, P. J., Crawford, T. J., Fannon, D. G., O'Ceallaigh, S., Sumich, A. L., Doku, V. C., & Sharma, T. (2004a). Volumetric neural correlates of antisaccade eye movements in first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 1918-1921.
    • Ettinger, U., Kumari, V., Crawford, T. J., Corr, P. J., Das, M., Zachariah, E., Hughes, C., Sumich, A. L., Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Sharma, T. (2004b). Smooth pursuit and antisaccade eye movements in siblings discordant for schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 177-184.
    • Ettinger, U., Kumari, V., Crawford, T. J., Davis, R. E., Sharma, T., & Corr, P. J. (2003a). Reliability of smooth pursuit, fixation, and saccadic eye movements. Psychophysiology, 40, 620-628.
    • Ettinger, U., Kumari, V., Zachariah, E., Galea, A., Crawford, T. J., Corr, P. J., Taylor, D., Das, M., & Sharma, T. (2003b). Effects of procyclidine on eye movements in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28, 2199-2208.
    • Ettinger, U., Picchioni, M., Hall, M. H., Schulze, K., Toulopoulou, T., Landau, S., Crawford, T. J., & Murray, R. M. (2006). Antisaccade eye movements in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia: the Maudsley twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 543-545.
    • Evdokimidis, I., Constantinidis, T. S., Liakopoulos, D., & Papageorgiou, C. (1996). The increased reaction time of antisaccades. What makes the difference? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 22, 61-65.
    • Evdokimidis, I., Liakopoulos, D., Constantinidis, T. S., & Papageorgiou, C. (1996). Cortical potentials with antisaccades. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 98, 377-384.
    • Everling, S. & Fischer, B. (1998). The antisaccade: a review of basic research and clinical studies. Neuropsychologia, 36, 885-899.
    • Everling, S., Spantekow, A., Krappmann, P., & Flohr, H. (1998). Event-related potentials associated with correct and incorrect responses in a cued antisaccade task. Experimental Brain Research, 118, 27-34.
    • Farber, R. H., Swerdlow, N. R., & Clementz, B. A. (1999). Saccadic performance characteristics and the behavioural neurology of Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 66, 305- 312.
    • Fischer, B., Biscaldi, M., & Gezeck, S. (1997). On the development of voluntary and reflexive components in human saccade generation. Brain Research, 754, 285-297.
    • Fischer, B. & Weber, H. (1997). Effects of stimulus conditions on the performance of antisaccades in man. Experimental Brain Research, 116, 191-200.
    • Fukushima, J., Fukushima, K., Chiba, T., Tanaka, S., Yamashita, I., & Kato, M. (1988). Disturbances of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 670-677.
    • Gardner, M., Gonzalez-Neira, A., Lao, O., Calafell, F., Bertranpetit, J., & Comas, D. (2006). Extreme population differences across Neuregulin 1 gene, with implications for association studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 66-75.
    • Gaymard, B., Rivaud, S., Cassarini, J. F., Dubard, T., Rancurel, G., Agid, Y., & Pierrot-Deseilligny, C. (1998). Effects of anterior cingulate cortex lesions on ocular saccades in humans. Experimental Brain Research, 120, 173-183.
    • Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C., Randolph, C., Goldberg, T. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1997). Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 159-165.
    • Gooding, D. C. (1999). Antisaccade task performance in questionnaire-identified schizotypes. Schizophrenia Research, 35, 157-166.
    • Gooding, D. C., Mohapatra, L., & Shea, H. B. (2004). Temporal stability of saccadic task performance in schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Psychological Medicine, 34, 921-932.
    • Gooding, D. C., Shea, H. B., & Matts, C. W. (2005). Saccadic performance in questionnaire-identified schizotypes over time. Psychiatry Research, 133, 173-186.
    • Gooding, D. C. & Tallent, K. A. (2001). The association between antisaccade task and working memory task performance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 8-16.
    • Gottesman, I. I. & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636-645.
    • Green, J. F., King, D. J., & Trimble, K. M. (2000). Antisaccade and smooth pursuit eye movements in healthy subjects receiving sertraline and lorazepam. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 14, 30-36.
    • Harris, M. S., Reilly, J. L., Keshavan, M. S., & Sweeney, J. A. (2006). Longitudinal studies of antisaccades in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 36, 485-494.
    • Hartnegg, K. & Fischer, B. (2002). A turn-key transportable eye-tracking instrument for clinical assessment. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 34, 625-629.
    • Ho, B. C., Andreasen, N. C., Nopoulos, P., Arndt, S., Magnotta, V., & Flaum, M. (2003). Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 585-594.
    • Holahan, A. L. V. & O'Driscoll, G. A. (2005). Antisaccade and smooth pursuit performance in positiveand negative-symptom schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 76, 43-54.
    • Hutton, S. B., Crawford, T. J., Puri, B. K., Duncan, L. J., Chapman, M., Kennard, C., Barnes, T. R., & Joyce, E. M. (1998). Smooth pursuit and saccadic abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 28, 685-692.
    • Larrison, A. L., Ferrante, C. F., Briand, K. A., & Sereno, A. B. (2000). Schizotypal traits, attention and eye movements. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 24, 357-372.
    • Lasker, A. G. & Zee, D. S. (1997). Ocular motor abnormalities in Huntington's disease. Vision Research, 37, 3639-3645.
    • Levin, E. D. (1992). Nicotinic systems and cognitive function. Psychopharmacology, 108, 417-431.
    • Levy, D. L., O'Driscoll, G., Matthysse, S., Cook, S. R., Holzman, P. S., & Mendell, N. R. (2004). Antisaccade performance in biological relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 71, 113-125.
    • Louchart-de la Chapelle, S., Nkam, I., Houy, E., Belmont, A., Menard, J. F., Roussignol, A. C., Siwek, O., Mezerai, M., Guillermou, M., Fouldrin, G., Levillain, D., Dollfus, S., Campion, D., & Thibaut, F. (2005). A concordance study of three electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 466-474.
    • Luna, B. & Sweeney, J. A. (2001). Studies of brain and cognitive maturation through childhood and adolescence: a strategy for testing neurodevelopmental hypotheses. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 443-455.
    • Machado, L. & Rafal, R. D. (2003). Control of fixation and saccades during an anti-saccade task: an investigation in humans with chronic lesions of oculomotor cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 156, 55-63.
    • Malone, S. M. & Iacono, W. G. (2002). Error rate on the antisaccade task: heritability and developmental change in performance among preadolescent and late-adolescent female twin youth. Psychophysiology, 39, 664-673.
    • Massen, C. (2004). Parallel programming of exogenous and endogenous components in the antisaccade task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 57, 475-498.
    • McDonald, C., Bullmore, E. T., Sham, P. C., Chitnis, X., Wickham, H., Bramon, E., & Murray, R. M. (2004). Association of genetic risks for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with specific and generic brain structural endophenotypes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 974-984.
    • McDowell, J. E., Brown, G. G., Paulus, M., Martinez, A., Stewart, S. E., Dubowitz, D. J., & Braff, D. L. (2002). Neural correlates of refixation saccades and antisaccades in normal and schizophrenia subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 216-223.
    • Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (1999). Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism. Neurology, 52, 917-922.
    • Mitchell, J. P., Macrae, C. N., & Gilchrist, I. D. (2002). Working memory and the suppression of reflexive saccades. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 95-103.
    • Mokler, A. & Fischer, B. (1999). The recognition and correction of involuntary prosaccades in an antisaccade task. Experimental Brain Research, 125, 511-516.
    • Möller, H. J. (2003). Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: distinct illnesses or a continuum? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64 Supplement 6, 23-27.
    • Mosimann, U. P., Felblinger, J., Colloby, S. J., & Müri, R. M. (2004). Verbal instructions and top-down saccade control. Experimental Brain Research, 159, 263-267.
    • Mosimann, U. P., Müri, R. M., Burn, D. J., Felblinger, J., O'Brien, J. T., & McKeith, I. G. (2005). Saccadic eye movement changes in Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Brain, 128, 1267-1276.
    • Mostofsky, S. H., Lasker, A. G., Singer, H. S., Denckla, M. B., & Zee, D. S. (2001). Oculomotor abnormalities in boys with tourette syndrome with and without ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1464-1472.
    • Munoz, D. P. & Everling, S. (2004). Look away: the anti-saccade task and the voluntary control of eye movement. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 218-228.
    • Müri, R. M., Heid, O., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., Felblinger, J., Schroth, G., & Hess, C. W. (1998). Functional organisation of saccades and antisaccades in the frontal lobe in humans: a study with echo planar functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 65, 374-377.
    • Nieman, D. H., Bour, L. J., Linszen, D. H., Goede, J., Koelman, J. H., Gersons, B. P., & Ongerboer, d., V (2000). Neuropsychological and clinical correlates of antisaccade task performance in schizophrenia. Neurology, 54, 866-871.
    • Nieuwenhuis, S., Broerse, A., Nielen, M. M., & de Jong, R. (2004). A goal activation approach to the study of executive function: an application to antisaccade tasks. Brain and Cognition, 56, 198-214.
    • Nieuwenhuis, S., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Blom, J., Band, G. P., & Kok, A. (2001). Error-related brain potentials are differentially related to awareness of response errors: evidence from an antisaccade task. Psychophysiology, 38, 752-760.
    • Ploner, C. J., Gaymard, B. M., Rivaud-Pechoux, S., & Pierrot-Deseilligny, C. (2005). The prefrontal substrate of reflexive saccade inhibition in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1159-1165.
    • Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J., Cain, M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Rauch, S. L., & Manoach, D. S. (2005). Rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex make dissociable contributions during antisaccade error commission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 15700-15705.
    • Powell, J., Dawkins, L., & Davis, R. E. (2002). Smoking, reward responsiveness, and response inhibition: tests of an incentive motivational model. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 151-163.
    • Radant, A. D., Bowdle, T. A., Cowley, D. S., Kharasch, E. D., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (1998). Does ketamine-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism cause schizophrenia-like oculomotor abnormalities? Neuropsychopharmacology, 19, 434-444.
    • Raemaekers, M., Jansma, J. M., Cahn, W., Van Der Geest, J. N., Der Linden, J. A., Kahn, R. S., & Ramsey, N. F. (2002). Neuronal substrate of the saccadic inhibition deficit in schizophrenia investigated with 3- dimensional event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 313-320.
    • Raemaekers, M., Ramsey, N. F., Vink, M., van den Heuvel, M. P., & Kahn, R. S. (2005). Brain Activation During Antisaccades in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenic Patients. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 530-535.
    • Smyrnis, N., Evdokimidis, I., Stefanis, N. C., Avramopoulos, D., Constantinidis, T. S., Stavropoulos, A., & Stefanis, C. N. (2003). Antisaccade performance of 1,273 men: effects of schizotypy, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 403-414.
    • Smyrnis, N., Evdokimidis, I., Stefanis, N. C., Constantinidis, T. S., Avramopoulos, D., Theleritis, C., Paximadis, C., Efstratiadis, C., Kastrinakis, G., & Stefanis, C. N. (2002). The antisaccade task in a sample of 2,006 young males. II. Effects of task parameters. Experimental Brain Research, 147, 53-63.
    • Stefanis, N. C., van Os, J., Avramopoulos, D., Smyrnis, N., Evdokimidis, I., Hantoumi, I., & Stefanis, C. N. (2004). Variation in catechol-o-methyltransferase val158 met genotype associated with schizotypy but not cognition: a population study in 543 young men. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 510-515.
    • Sweeney, J. A., Mintun, M. A., Kwee, S., Wiseman, M. B., Brown, D. L., Rosenberg, D. R., & Carl, J. R. (1996). Positron emission tomography study of voluntary saccadic eye movements and spatial working memory. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75, 454-468.
    • Sweeney, J. A., Strojwas, M. H., Mann, J. J., & Thase, M. E. (1998). Prefrontal and cerebellar abnormalities in major depression: evidence from oculomotor studies. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 584-594.
    • Tien, A. Y., Ross, D. E., Pearlson, G., & Strauss, M. E. (1996). Eye movements and psychopathology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 331-338.
    • Unsworth, N., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2004). Working memory capacity and the antisaccade task: individual differences in voluntary saccade control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 1302-1321.
    • Vidailhet, M., Rivaud, S., Gouider-Khouja, N., Pillon, B., Bonnet, A. M., Gaymard, B., Agid, Y., & Pierrot-Deseilligny, C. (1994). Eye movements in parkinsonian syndromes. Annals of Neurology 35, 420-426.
    • Walker, R., Husain, M., Hodgson, T. L., Harrison, J., & Kennard, C. (1998). Saccadic eye movement and working memory deficits following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 36, 1141-1159.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok